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Afghanistan

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Recherche mise à jour le: 11 décembre 2012

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Crimes et personnes passibles de la peine de mort

Crimes passibles de la peine de mort

Meurtre avec circonstances aggravantes.
Murder is prosecuted as carrying a qisas (retributive) penalty under the Hanafi school, if Shariah evidentiary standards are met. If those standards are not met, murder is prosecuted as a tazir offense. [1] For the Hanafi school, the offender is subject to death as qisas if “the killer intended to kill and employed some means likely to have that result.” [2] The Penal Code enumerates aggravating factors; when one of these factors is present, “[a] murder shall be sentenced to death.” [3] For some aggravated murders (a murder targeted at one individual but resulting in multiple killings, or a murder followed by dismemberment of the victim), the punishment is death or life imprisonment. [4]

Meurtre.
Murder is prosecuted as carrying a qisas (retributive) penalty under the Hanafi school, if Shariah evidentiary standards are met. If those standards are not met, murder is prosecuted as a tazir offense. [5] For the Hanafi school, the offender is subject to death as qisas if “the killer intended to kill and employed some means likely to have that result.” [6] Under the statute, premeditated murder is punished by death, although it is unclear whether this is simple premeditation or something more. Murder with no aggravating circumstances is punishable by death or life imprisonment. [7]

Autre crime ayant entraîné la mort.
The death penalty as qisas (retribution) does not apply for unintentional killings, [8] but could apply if the offense is considered hudud (against the rights of God) in some circumstances. Chapter 15 of the Penal Code, on robbery, provides for tazir penalties in cases where hudud penalties cannot be applied. [9] It is a hadd offense to “wage war against God and His Prophet, and strive to cause corruption on the earth…” [10] Historically, this offense was usually understood as “troubling the security of the roads to acquire property by menace.” For the Hanafi school of Sunni Islam, a killing during highway robbery was punished by death as hadd for all brigands involved in the robbery. The necessity of proving intent or cause (respecting the killing) was removed or diminished. [11] This offense may be one that can be committed only during a group robbery. [12] If the offense is prosecuted as tazir, the treatment might be similar. “Murder committed in an act of robbery is not conditioned by intention,” [13] and “[a] person committing murder in an act of robbery shall be sentenced to death.” [14] The Penal Code does not describe whether the offense must be committed as part of a group of robbers, or whether offenders who do not cause the death are punishable by death.

Causing the death of accused individual as a result of torture by official of public services is punished as intentional murder. [15] Kidnapping or abandoning a child under the age of 7 or a person incapable of looking after himself, resulting in death, is punishable as deliberate murder. [16]

Arson against a variety of structures or crowded areas, resulting in death, is punished by death. [17]

Adultery (zina) is punishable by death as hadd in some circumstances where evidentiary requirements are met. [18] This includes married rapists under the Hanafi school. [19] The Penal Code describes tazir penalties, which can be applied if the hadd charge is dropped or if evidence is insufficient to support the hadd charge. The tazir penalty for pederasty, aggravated rape or statutory rape, resulting in death, is death or continued imprisonment. [20]

Acte terroriste ayant entraîné la mort.
A person who intentionally destroys buildings [21] or poisons or infects water resources “shall be sentenced to death.” “A person who deliberately endangers the safety of public land, water and air transportation,” [22] causing death, shall be sentenced to death or continued imprisonment in light of the circumstances. [23] A person “shall be sentenced to death” if he commits arson against a variety of structures or crowded areas, if death results (although death need not result). [24]

Acte terroriste n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
The 1976 Penal Code states, “One who by using force tries to overthrow the Republican Regime of Afghanistan shall be sentenced to death.” [25] The organizer of an armed group that “… by use of force tries to occupy government buildings, institutions or other buildings which are built for the use of public” shall be sentenced to death. [26] A person who takes up the leadership of a group of criminals or takes up such leadership with the intention to loot or to resist against soldiers of the state or security forces shall be sentenced to death. [27] A person who commits arson that results in permanent disability to another person, that is directed against a variety of structures or crowded areas, that is carried out by way of explosives, that involved the incapacitation of fire-fighting equiptments and facilities, or that would “prepare the grounds for commitment of felony or misdemeanor or to destroy its traces” shall be sentenced to death. [28]

Incendie criminel n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
A person who commits arson against a variety of public utilities or resources, military assets, state buildings, or residential buildings or crowded areas “shall be sentenced to death” if the arson is committed “to prepare the grounds for commitment of felony or misdemeanor or to destroy its traces, or if the person stops fire-fighting equipments and facilities from functioning or if the fire results in permanent disability of persons, or if the fire is caused by the use of explosives.” [29]

Trahison.
The 1976 Penal Code states, “A person who aggresses against the life of the President or deprives him of his liberty shall be sentenced to death.” [30] A variety of warlike offenses against the state are punished by death: threatening the authority or territorial integrity of the state, [31] warring against the state or aiding her enemies, [32] or precipitating war upon the state. [33] This is a somewhat expansive category, because propaganda, [34] disrupting the morale of troops or the people, [35] or (intentional) failure to fulfill obligations affecting the defense [36] is considered death-eligible treason. Forcefully disrupting communications during a time of emergency is also punishable by death. [37] Forcefully disrupting communications during a time of emergency is punishable by death. [38]

Espionnage.
If a person spies for a foreign state or is employed by it during hostilities, the punishment is death. [39] If, during time of war, a person spies in the interests of a foreign state, intending to inflict harm on “military, political or diplomatic centers of Afghanistan,” or deliberately hides, destroys, takes or forges documents related to the security of the state, the punishment is death. [40] If a person, during war, delivers a defense secret to a foreign state or attempts to acquire information for such purposes, the punishment is death. [41]

Adultère.
Zina offenses carry hudud penalties enabled by Article 1 of the Penal Code, if evidentiary requirements are met. [42] Adultery is “[s]exual intercourse between a man and a woman without legal right or without the semblance of a legal right.” A married person who commits adultery is eligible for the death penalty as hadd (while the unmarried person is eligible for severe lashing as hadd). [43] However, stringent evidentiary requirements must be met, with the result that scholars report that no convictions for sexual offenses have ever been made without the confession of the accused (for purposes of the hadd penalty). [44] If evidentiary requirements are not met, adultery has tazir penalties under the 1976 Penal Code, [45] which does not prescribe the death penalty. We do not know whether in practice courts restrict the application of the hadd penalty for adultery, although Taliban-controlled courts and other tribal systems of justice have applied the hadd without any apparent regard to traditional evidentiary requirements. [46]

Relations homosexuelles entre adultes consentants.
Zina offenses carry hudud penalties enabled by Article 1 of the Penal Code, if evidentiary requirements are met. [47] The treatment of homosexual sodomy varies between the schools, and Abu Hanafi argued that a tazir penalty (not a hadd penalty) should apply. [48] If Afghanistan’s courts follow Hanafi’s opinion, they cannot apply a penalty for homosexuality that is not specified in the Penal Code, because homosexual conduct carries tazir penalties. At least some judges (both of the state and of the Taliban) in Afghanistan might treat homosexual conduct as carrying hadd penalties, or re-characterize the offense to award a severe penalty, or be, as a practical matter, unconcerned with the legality of punishments they award. [49]

Apostasie.
Irtidad or apostasy offenses carry a hadd penalty that might be, but is not necessarily, enabled by Article 1 of the Penal Code. [50] The treatment of apostasy under the Hanafi school (and other schools) is somewhat unclear, but the Hanafi school did treat apostasy as carrying the death penalty as hadd for male (but not for female) apostates. [51] However, while the Penal Code of 1976 specifically mentions other offenses potentially carrying hadd penalties, it does not enumerate apostasy as one of the offenses potentially carrying a hadd penalty. This weakens any claim that apostasy can legally be punished in Afghanistan. Still, there are occasional high-profile cases in which apostates are threatened with death sentences.

In 2005, conservative courts awarded imprisonment against a journalist accused of apostasy and (reportedly) convicted of blasphemy (a sabb offense) in what may have been a compromise. [52] In 2006, conservative elements in the judiciary pressed forward a death sentence for apostasy, amid concerns that punishment for apostasy was not even constitutional in Afghanistan. [53] Ultimately, courts avoided the death sentence (as anticipated) by explaining that only an insane person would become an apostate from Islam, and an insane person is incapable of apostasy. (The accused promptly fled to Britian.) In 2010, a Christian pastor was imprisoned and threatened with a death sentence for apostasy (after a church service involving baptisms was televised by the media), but was ultimately released after converting to Islam, or at least claiming to. [54] An individual is given a chance to retract his apostasy to avoid execution, [55] although this does not truly remove the penalty for the condition of existing as an “apostate.”

In early 2011 an Afghan man, Said Musa, 45, whose conversion to Christianity and baptism were caught on tape and later broadcast on television, was charged with apostasy and threatened with the death penalty. With the assistance of NGOs and international media attention, he was released and fled the country. [56] Another Afghan man’s case made headlines shortly after in 2011. The second man, 23-year-old Shoaib Assadullah, was also charged with apostasy and threatened with the death penalty following his conversion to Christianity. [57] He was later released and allowed to flee Afghanistan.

Even under the prior rule of the Taliban, there were reportedly no known executions for apostasy. An Islamic studies professor characterized the death penalty for apostasy as primarily an opportunity for radicals to establish themselves as “authentic” Muslims in a bid for power and credibility. [58] One scholar explains that the death penalty for apostasy has become disused, [59] although reasonable people could disagree with that position, since the threat of the death penalty is obviously abused for political purposes [60] and to oppress minority viewpoints or religions. [61] Individuals who are not awarded a judicial death sentence for this offense may choose a quick exit from the country once released from prison. [62]

Autre(s) crime(s) n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
A person who gives false witness, resulting in conviction, is to be sentenced to the same punishment for which the convicted person was sentenced. The law does not indicate whether the execution of the perjurer is restricted to cases where the execution of an innocent person is actually carried out. [63]

Commentaires.
We did not find the military laws. Some offenses in Chapter 1 of the 1976 Penal Code related to the external security of the state could be military offenses, and certain military offenses such as insubordination were not death-eligible.

Articles 148-149 of the Penal Code allow courts to enhance a sentence of continued imprisonment to the death penalty if it finds one of five statutory aggravating factors. [64] We did not enumerate offenses punishable by continued imprisonment as death-eligible, largely because it was unclear that the statutory aggravating factors would apply for those offenses, or because the aggravating factor was already included as an element of the offense. Given the past and present situation in Afghanistan, it is unlikely that anyone can offer a reliable opinion on how these articles would be interpreted.

A review of sentences passed at the Supreme Court’s website (http://www.supremecourt.gov.af/) shows that courts may usually restrain use of the death penalty to offenses resulting in death. However, it should be taken into consideration that only a select number of court decisions from 2009 are published and thus may not be an accurate portrayal of the court’s record of decision-making in regards to the death penalty.

There is some uncertainty over the legal and practical scope of the death penalty in Afghanistan, particularly when hudud penalties may be in question. [65] The U.S. Department of State reported that in 2007 and again in 2011 Afghanistan courts could apply the death penalty for apostasy or blasphemy, after giving the accused a 3-day period in which to recant, [66] and the 1976 Penal Code provides that Hanafi jurisprudence governs Qisas and hudud crimes. [67] The State Department’s report may be inaccurate—in practice, blasphemy is not necessarily punished by death. [68]

In any case, the new Constitution provides: “If there is no provision in the Constitution or other laws about a case, the courts shall, in pursuance of Hanafi jurisprudence, and, within the limits set by this Constitution, rule in a way that attains justice in the best manner.” [69] Additionally, the Constitution provides: “The state shall observe the United Nations Charter, inter-state agreements, as well as international treaties to which Afghanistan has joined, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.” [70] Finally, the Constitution provides: “No law shall contravene the tenets and provisions of the holy religion of Islam in Afghanistan.” [71]

At least one individual has suggested that this creates a conflict in the application of the criminal law, both prohibiting and requiring the application of certain penalties under Hanafi jurisprudence. [72] A more rigorous legal assessment is that general principles of Islamic law and international law function to limit legislation that might infringe on fundamental human rights and liberties. Hanafi jurisprudence on the criminal law (or in any other area—the criminal law is but a small fraction of law) can operate in the presence of a lacuna (gap in the law), or where it is specifically enabled by the law and consistent with the Constitution. But a fair reading of the Constitution does not establish the application of some specific version of Hanafi criminal law as a constitutional imperative.

The 1976 Penal Code enables the application of Hanafi jurisprudence for offenses carrying hudud and qisas penalties. Regarding the death penalty, Hanafi jurisprudence is explicitly enabled only in the cases of murder, hirabah and adultery. As discussed under each specific crime, it is unlikely that, in practice, Article 1 can be used to legally apply the death penalty for offenses other than murder or hirabah resulting in death. Our reading of the Constitution is consistent with this.

We believe that news reports and the opinions of experts that homosexual acts, apostasy and blasphemy may be death-eligible in Afghanistan [73] must be viewed in the light that the Constitution (or the law) may prohibit the application of the death penalty for such “offenses.” As discussed, individuals have not been executed for apostasy (and M. Cherif Bassiouni, a former U.N. exert on human rights in Afghanistan, argues that execution for apostasy is inconsistent with the Constitution). [74] There have been reliable reports that at least one couple has been stoned to death for eloping, and that another (divorced) woman was beaten and shot to death as a penalty for adultery. It appears that these executions were carried out pursuant to the dictates of courts in areas controlled by the Taliban. [75] The execution of a mother and daughter as punishment for adultery [76] and the execution of a 22-year-old woman without a trial more recently in 2012 also were attributed to the Taliban. [77] In our view, they should therefore be characterized as extra-judicial executions, and do not represent the application of the law by legitimate courts in Afghanistan. In any case, a review of Shariah law shows that the application of the death penalty as hadd for these offenses was probably illegal under Shariah law.

Amnesty International indicates that the death penalty for rape and kidnapping could apply more broadly than for the aggravating circumstances provided for under law; [78] this might be an area in which Afghanistan’s courts are not adjudicating consistently with the law or Constitution.

We do not know whether, in practice, Afghanistan’s courts apply the death penalty for some offenses in contravention of the Afghanistan Constitution. Definition of the legal scope of the death penalty is difficult in an environment described in 2005 as one where “judges and others willing to uphold the rule of law are often asked to act against factional commanders and other empowered groups without being provided with adequate security.” [79] Also, what judges perceive as the “rule of law” may differ. Over the past few years, the government and judiciary positions have been somewhat opposed, with a number of conservative jurists opposing the reformist government. [80]

The position of Afghanistan’s government is that it does not permit the application of punishments that are inconsistent with its Constitution, but this issue has been contentious among some clerics, who have essentially called not for the Shariah but rather for brutality in administration of the criminal law, and who have suggested that a failure to adopt their version of Shariah punishments is “hindering the peace process.” [81]

Références

[1] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, arts. 1, 394.
[2] Mohamed S. El-Awa, Punishment in Islamic Law: A Comparative Study, p. 75, American Trust Publications, 1982. Note that for the Hanafi school, the death penalty could be awarded as ta’zir for a murder committed without use of means particularly likely to result in death. Id. at p. 109.
[3] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, art. 395.
[4] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, art. 396.
[5] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, arts. 1, 394.
[6] Mohamed S. El-Awa, Punishment in Islamic Law: A Comparative Study, p. 75, American Trust Publications, 1982. Note that for the Hanafi school, the death penalty could be awarded as ta’zir for a murder committed without use of means particularly likely to result in death. Id. at p. 109.
[7] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, arts. 395(1), 396(3).
[8] M. Cherif Bassiouni, ed., The Islamic Criminal Justice System, p. 203-204, Oceana Publications, Inc., 1982.
[9] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, arts. 1, 447.
[10] Khaled Abou El Fadl, Rebellion and Violence in Islamic Law, p 47, Cambridge University Press, 2001.
[11] Tahir Mahmood, et. al., Criminal Law in Islam and the Muslim World: A Comparative Perspective, p. 75, 77-79, Institute of Objective Studies, 1st. ed., 1996.
[12] Tahir Mahmood, et. al., Criminal Law in Islam and the Muslim World: A Comparative Perspective, p. 77, Institute of Objective Studies, 1st. ed., 1996.
[13] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, art. 448.
[14] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, art. 449.
[15] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, art. 275(2).
[16] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, arts. 418, 419.
[17] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, art. 360.
[18] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, arts. 1, 426.
[19] Mohamed S. El-Awa, Punishment in Islamic Law: A Comparative Study, p. 14, American Trust Publications, 1982; Tahir Mahmood, et. al., Criminal Law in Islam and the Muslim World: A Comparative Perspective, p. 68, Institute of Objective Studies, 1st. ed., 1996. But see Dr. Nagaty Sanad, The Theory of Crime and Criminal Responsibility in Islamic Law: Shari’a, p. 64, Office of International Criminal Justice, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1991.
[20] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, art. 427-428.
[21] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, art. 217(3).
[22] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, art. 325.
[23] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, art. 326.
[24] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, art. 360.
[25] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, art. 204.
[26] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, art. 216.
[27] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, art. 213(1),(2).
[28] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, art. 360.
[29] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, art. 360.
[30] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, art. 206.
[31] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, arts. 173-174
[32] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, art. 175-182, 184, 188, 192.
[33] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, art. 196.
[34] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, art. 184.
[35] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, art. 182.
[36] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, art. 188.
[37] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, art. 331.
[38] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, art. 331.
[39] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, arts. 176.
[40] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, arts. 194.
[41] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, arts. 178(1), 179(1).
[42] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, arts. 1, 426.
[43] Mohamed S. El-Awa, Punishment in Islamic Law: A Comparative Study, p. 14, American Trust Publications, 1982; Tahir Mahmood, et. al., Criminal Law in Islam and the Muslim World: A Comparative Perspective, p. 68, Institute of Objective Studies, 1st. ed., 1996. But see Dr. Nagaty Sanad, The Theory of Crime and Criminal Responsibility in Islamic Law: Shari’a, p. 64, Office of International Criminal Justice, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1991.
[44] The requirements of evidence for application of hudud penalties are particularly extreme for offenses such as adultery, excluding any evidence except eyewitness testimony or the confession of the accused in most Sunni schools. Freely given confession, rather than eyewitness, has been the practical mode of proof for the offense of zina, and an offender may withdraw confession at any time when facing a hadd penalty (although this might not affect liability for compensation). Gerald E. Lampe, ed., Justice and Human Rights in Islamic Law, p. 82-83, Intl. Law Inst., 1997; S. Mahmassani, Falsafat Al-Tashri Fi Al-Islam, p. 177, 184-185, translated by Farhat J. Ziadeh, E.J. Brill, 1961; Abdel et. al. at p. 38, 47; Sanad at p. 99, 104-105; M. Cherif Bassiouni, ed., The Islamic Criminal Justice System, p. 26, 109-122, Oceana Publications, Inc., 1982; Tahir Mahmood, et. al., Criminal Law in Islam and the Muslim World: A Comparative Perspective, p. 63-64, 246-286, Institute of Objective Studies, 1st. ed., 1996; Muhammad Abdel Haleem, Adel Omar Sherif & Kate Daniels, eds., Criminal Justice in Islam: Judicial Procedure in the Shari’a, p. 24-26, 38, 45-47, I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd., 2003.
[45] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, arts. 1, 426.
[46] Matthias Gebauer, Execution Reveals Weakness of Afghan Authorities, Spiegel Online, http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/taliban-execution-highlights-helpless-afghan-authorities-a-844461.html, July 16, 2012. Nick Paton Walsh, Execution Video Shows Afghan Tribal Justice Still Enforced, CNN, http://www.cnn.com/2011/10/08/world/asia/afghanistan-tribal-justice/index.html, Oct. 11, 2011. Rod Nordland, In Bold Display, Taliban Orders Stoning Deaths, The New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/17/world/asia/17stoning.html, Aug. 16, 2010. It should be noted that under the Hanafi school, a mistake as to the validity of a marriage might not, in some cases, have been a defense against the charge of adultery. However, it is unclear that the Taliban-controlled tribunal did anything more than declare a marriage invalid and then execute the newlywed “offenders” in the one case, or whether these militant courts observed any evidentiary requirements in any case.
[47] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, arts. 1, 426.
[48] Tahir Mahmood, et. al., Criminal Law in Islam and the Muslim World: A Comparative Perspective, p. 67-68, Institute of Objective Studies, 1st. ed., 1996; Mohamed S. El-Awa, Punishment in Islamic Law: A Comparative Study, p. 109, American Trust Publications, 1982. Scholars adhering to the accepted definition of adultery as “[s]exual intercourse between a man and a woman without legal right or without the semblance of a legal right,” El-Awa at p. 14, state that any sexual contact other than penetration of the male organ into the female organ is not adultery and should not be punished as hadd. Dr. Nagaty Sanad, The Theory of Crime and Criminal Responsibility in Islamic Law: Shari’a, p. 38-44, Office of International Criminal Justice, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1991. This may be related to dispute over whether a later-revealed piece of legislation (Surah XXIV, abrogating earlier rules) fully addressed the issue of homosexual acts. El-Awa at p. 14-15.
[49] Washington Blade, Harsh Penalties Remain for Gays in Afghanistan, http://www.glapn.org/sodomylaws/world/afghanistan/afnews010.htm, April 19, 2002. Maura Reynolds, Kandahar’s Lightly Veiled Homosexual Habits, L.A. Times, http://articles.latimes.com/2002/apr/03/news/mn-35991, April, 3, 2002.
[50] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, arts. 1, 426.
[51] The Maliki and Shafi’I schools applied the death penalty as hadd, while the Hanafi school of Sunni Islam and the Shi’a Imamiyah applied the death penalty as hadd for men, while imprisoning apostate women. The Hanbali school did not acknowledge the death penalty as a hadd penalty, but applied it as ta’zir. Mohamed S. El-Awa, Punishment in Islamic Law: A Comparative Study, p. 49-64, American Trust Publications, 1982; Tahir Mahmood, et. al., Criminal Law in Islam and the Muslim World: A Comparative Perspective, p. 80-81, Institute of Objective Studies, 1st. ed., 1996; Dr. Abdur-Rahmaanibn 'AaydAal-'Aayd, Rights of Individuals Regarding Crimes that Require Hudood Punishments, p. 84-85, Al-Adl Journal Vol. 40, http://www.moj.gov.sa/adl/ENG/Default.aspx, accessed Aug. 20, 2010.
[52] Abdul Waheed Wafa & Carlotta Gall, Afghan Court Gives Editor 2-Year Term for Blasphemy, http://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/24/international/asia/24afghan.html, Oct. 24, 2005.
[53] Amin Tarzi, Afghanistan: Apostasy case reveals constitutional contradictions, EurasiaNet, http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/46f2581a17.html, Apr. 22, 2006.
[54] AsiaNews.it, Christian in Prison for Apostasy Secretly Released in Kabul, http://www.asianews.it/news-en/Christian-in-prison-for-apostasy-secretly-released-in-Kabul-20877.html, Feb. 25, 2011.
[55] The Maliki and Shafi’I schools applied the death penalty as hadd, while the Hanafi school of Sunni Islam and the Shi’a Imamiyah applied the death penalty as hadd for men, while imprisoning apostate women. The Hanbali school did not acknowledge the death penalty as a hadd penalty, but applied it as ta’zir. Mohamed S. El-Awa, Punishment in Islamic Law: A Comparative Study, p. 49-64, American Trust Publications, 1982; Tahir Mahmood, et. al., Criminal Law in Islam and the Muslim World: A Comparative Perspective, p. 80-81, Institute of Objective Studies, 1st. ed., 1996; Dr. Abdur-Rahmaanibn 'AaydAal-'Aayd, Rights of Individuals Regarding Crimes that Require Hudood Punishments, p. 84-85, Al-Adl Journal Vol. 40.http://www.islampolicy.com/2010/12/rights-of-individuals-regarding-crimes.html, last accessed Oct. 31, 2012.
[56] Ethan Cole, Global Evangelical Body: Execution Trial of Afghan Convert Illegal,Christian Post, http://www.christianpost.com/news/global-evangelical-body-execution-trial-of-afghan-convert-illegal-48960/, Feb. 13, 2011. Kristin Butler, Said Musa Released from Afghan Prison, Crosswalk.com, Christian News Articles,http://www.religiontoday.com/articles/said-musa-released-from-afghan-prison.html, Feb. 25, 2011.
[57] Wesley Ernst, Second Afghan Convert Faces Death Penalty under Apostasy Law, Christian Post, http://www.christianpost.com/news/second-afghan-convert-faces-death-penalty-under-apostasy-law-49632/, March 29, 2011.
[58] Andrea Elliot, In Kabul, a Test for Shariah, http://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/26/weekinreview/26elliott.html, Mar. 26, 2006
[59] Robert Postawko, Towards an Islamic Critique of Capital Punishment, p. 290-293, UCLA Journal of Islamic and Near Eastern Law, Vol. 1, p. 269, 2002.
[60] Andrea Elliot, In Kabul, a Test for Shariah, http://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/26/weekinreview/26elliott.html, Mar. 26, 2006
[61] AsiaNews.it, Christian in Prison for Apostasy Secretly Released in Kabul, http://www.asianews.it/news-en/Christian-in-prison-for-apostasy-secretly-released-in-Kabul-20877.html, Feb. 25, 2011.
[62] AsiaNews.it, Christian in Prison for Apostasy Secretly Released in Kabul, http://www.asianews.it/news-en/Christian-in-prison-for-apostasy-secretly-released-in-Kabul-20877.html, Feb. 25, 2011.
[63] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, art. 383(2).
[64] Afghanistan Penal Code 1976, art. 148, 149.
[65] Cherif Bassiouni, Crimes and the Criminal Process, p. 277, Arab Law Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1997; Cherif Bassiouni, Leaving Islam is Not a Capital Crime, Chicago Tribune, Apr. 2, 2006.
[66] U.S. Dept. of State, 2007 International Religious Freedom Report: Afghanistan, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2007/90225.htm, last accessed Jan. 20, 2011. U.S. Dept. of State, 2011 International Religious Freedom Report: Afghanistan, http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf/religiousfreedom/index.htm?dlid=192917, last accessed Oct. 31, 2012.
[67] Afghanistan Penal Code, art. 1, Oct. 7, 1976.
[68] Abdul Waheed Wafa & Carlotta Gall, Afghan Court Gives Editor 2-Year Term for Blasphemy, http://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/24/international/asia/24afghan.html, Oct. 24, 2005.
[69] The Constitution of Afghanistan, art. 130, Jan. 3, 2004.
[70] The Constitution of Afghanistan, art. 7, Jan. 3, 2004.
[71] The Constitution of Afghanistan, art. 3, Jan. 3, 2004.
[72] Amin Tarzi, Afghanistan: Apostasy case reveals constitutional contradictions, EurasiaNet, http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/46f2581a17.html, Apr. 22, 2006.
[73] Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, Report: Third World Congress Against the Death Penalty, p. 31-32, 75-76, Feb. 1-3, 2007.Afghan on trial for Christianity, BBC News, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4823874.stm, Mar. 20, 2006. Afghan on trial for Christianity, BBC News, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4823874.stm, Mar. 20, 2006.
[74] Cherif Bassiouni, Leaving Islam is Not a Capital Crime, Chicago Tribune, Apr. 2, 2006.
[75] Rod Nordland, In Bold Display, Taliban Orders Stoning Deaths, The New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/17/world/asia/17stoning.html, Aug. 16, 2010.
[76] BBC, Afghanistan Mother and Daughter Stoned and Shot Dead, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-15688354, Nov. 11, 2011.
[77] Matthias Gebauer, Execution Reveals Weakness of Afghan Authorities, Spiegel Online, http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/taliban-execution-highlights-helpless-afghan-authorities-a-844461.html, July 16, 2012. Ron Synovitz, Afghans Say Extrajudicial Execution was Un-Islamic, http://www.rferl.org/content/afghans-say-extrajudicial-execution-was-unislamic/24640831.html, July 10, 2012.
[78] Amnesty Intl., Afghanistan: Amnesty International Submission to the UN Universal Periodic Review, The death penalty and unfair trials, ASA 11/014/2008, Nov. 3, 2008.
[79] Cherif Bassiouni, Report of The Independent Expert on the Situation of Human Rights in Afghanistan, para. 27, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/2005/122, Mar. 11, 2005.
[80] EurasiaNet, Afghanistan: Apostasy case reveals constitutional contradictions, http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/46f2581a17.html, Apr. 22, 2006.
[81] Rod Nordland, In Bold Display, Taliban Orders Stoning Deaths, The New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/17/world/asia/17stoning.html, Aug. 16, 2010.

Engagements internationaux

La peine de mort en droit

La peine de mort en pratique

Observations et décisions des organes internationaux de protection des droits de l’homme concernant l’application de la peine de mort dans ce pays

Autres sources d’informations et contact

Arabie saoudite

See full questionnaire

Recherche mise à jour le: 4 avril 2011

Générales

Détails du pays

Crimes et personnes passibles de la peine de mort

Crimes passibles de la peine de mort

Meurtre avec circonstances aggravantes.
Aggravated murder may be punishable by death as both hadd and qisas. [1] This offense may include (but not be limited to) offenses such as murder during robbery or murder involving seclusion, treachery, or other methods rendering the victim helpless (or that have the effect of spreading terror)—in this case, the murder may be punished by death as hadd. This may not be the Hanbali position, but one Al-Adl (a journal published by the Saudi Ministry of Justice) article adopted this position. [2]

Meurtre.
Murder is punishable by death as qisas. [3] “Islamic law presumes that any sane person who intentionally kills a person with a weapon, is a sinner deserving perdition according to the Qur’an and that the murderer is subject to retaliation.” [4] Murder is punishable by death as qisas (retaliation) or diya (compensation instead of execution), but there is some disagreement over which circumstances allow qisas. According to the Hanbali schools of Sunni Islam, the offender is subject to death as qisas if “the killer intended to kill and employed some means likely to have that result.” [5] It is also possible that courts might apply the principle that intentional killing or intentional infliction of serious and permanent bodily harm allows application of the talion principle [6] and therefore the death penalty if the offense results in death.

Autre crime ayant entraîné la mort.
Killing without intent may be punishable by death as hadd, but probably not as qisas. [7] This offense may include (but might not be limited to) robbery resulting in death. For most schools, including the Hanbali school, all participants in a group robbery resulting in death were punishable by death, regardless of cause or intent. [8]

Acte terroriste ayant entraîné la mort.
By Fatwa issued on August 30, 1988, acts of terrorism (as “corruption on earth”) carry the mandatory death penalty; the ambit of this Fatwa is unclear. [9] The description of this offense as “corruption on earth” suggests that the penalty may be hadd. “Contemporary scholars of Islamic Shari’a adopt the view that terrorism is included under the crime of hiraba, or waging war against God and his Apostle and making or spreading corruption on earth,” [10] although analysis on this matter has not been comprehensive, [11] and the position seems more developed by the Maliki school of Sunni Islam and the Shi’a schools than by the Hanbali school. [12]

Acte terroriste n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
By Fatwa issued on August 30, 1988, acts of terrorism (as “corruption on earth”) may carry the mandatory death penalty; the Fatwa does not specify that such acts must result in death, and its ambit is unclear. [13] The description of this offense as “corruption on earth” could suggest that the penalty is hadd, although it would not be traditional in the Hanbali school (or most schools of Sunni Islam) to apply the death penalty as hadd for non-lethal corruption on earth. [14]

Viol n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Rape is punishable by death as hadd or ta’zir, depending on the circumstances. [15] For a fuller explanation, see our comments—because the evidentiary requirements for this hadd are demanding, it is more likely that the death penalty is applied as ta’zir for aggravated rape. For instance, rape is reported to result in the death penalty, [16] and further investigation shows that the offender was a serial rapist who secluded and robbed his victims. [17]

Vol n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Robbery is punishable by death as hadd, but in most schools (including the Hanbali school) only when resulting in death. [18] Otherwise, the death penalty might apply as ta’zir under circumstances such as recidivism or where the offense is aggravated. [19] For instance, a group armed robbery in which a woman was bound, gagged and held at knifepoint in her home [20] and an offense involving rape and armed robbery [21] led to executions, reportedly, at least in part on the grounds of armed robbery. For a fuller explanation, see our comments.

Incendie criminel n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Some forms of arson might carry a statutory death penalty under a Fatwa on terrorism-related activities. [22]

Cambriolage n'ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Burglary can be punished by death as ta’zir under the Hanbali school (and others) of Sunni Islam when there are aggravating circumstances, [23] including recidivism. [24] Burglary has been punished by death when it resulted in armed robbery. [25]

Trafic de drogue ayant entraîné la mort.
According to Amnesty International, under a Fatwa issued around 1987 the death penalty became mandatory for a number of drug offenses; [26] under Royal Decree no. 39 of 2005, the death penalty apparently became discretionary for drug trafficking [27] —although other penalties might be applied for offenses resulting in death.

Trafic de drogue n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
According to Amnesty International, under Royal Decree no. 39 of 2005, the death penalty is applicable for the first offense of drug trafficking, receiving drugs from a trafficker, importing, exporting, manufacturing extracting or growing drugs, or for the recidivist offense of circulating drugs “by selling, donation, distribution, delivery, reception or transportation.” [28]

Possession de drogue.
An article published in Al-Adl indicates that not all Saudi appellate courts agree on the correct application of narcotics laws to those who possess drugs—some arguing that those who possess requisite amounts should be presumed to be engaged in trafficking, others arguing that possession should be considered trafficking based on other factors. (A finding of trafficking could trigger the death penalty under Royal Decree no. 39 of 2005). [29]

Adultère.
Zina carries the death penalty as hadd for married persons (and lashing for unmarried persons), under demanding evidentiary showings. [30] For a fuller explanation, see our comments.

Apostasie.
In Saudi Arabia, individuals can be and have been sentenced to death and executed for apostasy. [31] Although there is no contemporary consensus on the treatment of apostasy, it is punishable by death in Saudi Arabia. [32] The death penalty for apostasy may be ta’zir, as the Hanbali school does not consider apostasy to carry a hadd punishment, while still allowing for the death penalty. [33] Traditionally, apostates are afforded a period of time to turn back to Islam, [34] but the death penalty still applies under this rule (in jurisdictions that provide for it)—an individual who persists in his opinion will be executed, thus, there is ultimately no freedom to publically adhere to a divergent opinion without being executed. [35]

Relations homosexuelles entre adultes consentants.
Judges reportedly treat gay and lesbian sexual relations as zina, applying the penalty of death or lashing according to the circumstances. [36] The schools of Sunni Islam take different positions on the treatment of homosexual and lesbian acts. The Hanbali school treated male sodomy as carrying the penalty of death as hadd, regardless of the marital status of the offender, while lesbianism was punished (under all schools) as a ta’zir offense. In this regard, Saudi jurisprudence is heterodox in that it treats lesbianism as punishable as hadd. [37] The evidentiary requirements for inflicting a hadd penalty are demanding—for further explanation, see our comments.

Trahison.
We did not find any codified law on the offense of treason. The conditions under which treason was historically punished by death have been limited. Some scholars have confused the hadd penalty of death for rebellion—which was seen as treason—as a judicially enforceable penalty, but a discussion of the offense of rebellion shows that the hadd penalty, as conceived of by most schools, simply included the right of the ruler to kill when necessary in subduing a rebellion, which might include the right to pursue and dispatch fleeing rebels. Judicially inflicting the death penalty as hadd would require a finding that the rebel was actually spreading “corruption on earth” due to his actions (such as spreading terror) or because the rebel did not espouse a reasonably legitimate cause. This proof is not as simple as demonstrating that the rebel opposed a just authority—and in fact, for most schools (historically) the finding did not turn on whether the authority was just or the rebel was correct. In some cases, groups with heterodox beliefs may have been considered rebels, or, instead, corrupt on earth (these are not the same), although whether this carried a judicial penalty is unclear from the sources we referenced. [38] The Hanbali school of law does not treat rebellion as carrying religiously stipulated penalties, [39] so it may be that the death penalty for treason in Saudi Arabia is awarded as hadd when the offenders are guilty of spreading corruption on earth or as ta’zir if they are simply guilty of rebellion. Amnesty International suggests that the category of “corrupt on earth” is used as a justification for ta’zir punishment of political crimes, and does not differentiate between rebellion and corruption on earth; we are not sure whether this is due to a lack of clarity about the law or to judicial practices. [40] It might be likely that the death penalty as hadd for treasonable offenses would usually be construed as a penalty for terrorism.

Espionnage.
The death penalty might be applied as ta'zir for espionage. [41]

Crimes militaires n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Offenses such as treason and disloyalty are punished severely; other offenses would seem not to carry the death penalty (except when falling under the jurisdiction of a Sharia court, which might apply the death penalty). [42] We did not find any recent statutory law or description of the punishment of offenses by military personnel.

Autre(s) crime(s) n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
- Consumption of Intoxicants. Partaking of intoxicants has been considered a hadd offense with the penalty of whipping. [43] Recidivism might be a grounds for execution; [44] one Al-Adl article suggests that execution is possible for recidivist alcohol consumption and that some jurists might consider the death penalty for recidivism hadd. [45] Consumption of any intoxicant could be treated similarly to consumption of alcohol. [46]
- Sorcery or Witchcraft. Sorcery or witchcraft has been punished by death; [47] this is a ta’zir penalty. [48]
- Ta’zir Offenses. The previous entries discuss statutory penalties (hadd, qisas, or codified penalties) and confirmable cases where death penalties could be awarded as ta’zir. This is not necessarily a full representation of offenses punishable by death, because the death penalty might be awarded as ta’zir “where either the offense itself is of a very serious nature, such as spying for the enemy, propagating heretical doctrines, or practices which split the community, or the criminal is a habitual offender whose wickedness can only be so stopped.” [49] The death penalty might also be awarded as an enhanced punishment for a statutory offense, under some schools. [50] Reports indicate that such punishments do occur. [51]

Références

[1] Tahir Mahmood, et. al., Criminal Law in Islam and the Muslim World: A Comparative Perspective, p. 76-79, 313, Institute of Objective Studies, 1st. ed., 1996; M. Cherif Bassiouni, ed., The Islamic Criminal Justice System, p. 203-209, Oceana Publications, Inc., 1982.
[2] Khaled Abou El Fadl, Rebellion and Violence in Islamic Law, p 260-261, Cambridge University Press, 2001; Tahir Mahmood, et. al., Criminal Law in Islam and the Muslim World: A Comparative Perspective, p. 76-79, Institute of Objective Studies, 1st. ed., 1996; Dr. Hishaamibn Saalih Az-Zeer, Treacherous Murder, p. 86-87, 98, Al-Adl Journal Vol. 43.
[3] Tahir Mahmood, et. al., Criminal Law in Islam and the Muslim World: A Comparative Perspective, p. 313, Institute of Objective Studies, 1st. ed., 1996; M. Cherif Bassiouni, ed., The Islamic Criminal Justice System, p. 203-209, Oceana Publications, Inc., 1982.
[4] Gerald E. Lampe, ed., Justice and Human Rights in Islamic Law, p. 86, Intl. Law Inst., 1997.
[5] Mohamed S. El-Awa, Punishment in Islamic Law: A Comparative Study, p. 75, American Trust Publications, 1982. Note that for the Hanafi school, the death penalty could be awarded as ta’zir for a murder committed without use of means particularly likely to result in death. Id. at p. 109.
[6] M. Cherif Bassiouni, ed., The Islamic Criminal Justice System, p. 203-204, Oceana Publications, Inc., 1982.
[7] Tahir Mahmood, et. al., Criminal Law in Islam and the Muslim World: A Comparative Perspective, p. 76-79, 313, Institute of Objective Studies, 1st. ed., 1996; M. Cherif Bassiouni, ed., The Islamic Criminal Justice System, p. 203-209, Oceana Publications, Inc., 1982.
[8] Tahir Mahmood, et. al., Criminal Law in Islam and the Muslim World: A Comparative Perspective, p. 75-79, Institute of Objective Studies, 1st. ed., 1996.
[9] Amnesty Intl., Defying World Trends—Saudi Arabia’s Extensive Use of Capital Punishment, pp. 2-3, MDE 23/015/2001, Nov. 1, 2001.
[10] Muhammad Abdel Haleem, Adel Omar Sherif & Kate Daniels, eds., Criminal Justice in Islam: Judicial Procedure in the Shari’a, p. 41, I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd., 2003.
[11] Khaled Abou El Fadl, Rebellion and Violence in Islamic Law, p 6, 21, 47, 234-320, Cambridge University Press, 2001.
[12] Tahir Mahmood, et. al., Criminal Law in Islam and the Muslim World: A Comparative Perspective, p. 76-77, Institute of Objective Studies, 1st. ed., 1996; Khaled Abou El Fadl, Rebellion and Violence in Islamic Law, p 234-320, Cambridge University Press, 2001.
[13] Amnesty Intl., Defying World Trends—Saudi Arabia’s Extensive Use of Capital Punishment, pp. 2-3, MDE 23/015/2001, Nov. 1, 2001.
[14] Khaled Abou El Fadl, Rebellion and Violence in Islamic Law, p 6, 21, 47, 47, 234-320, Cambridge University Press, 2001; Tahir Mahmood, et. al., Criminal Law in Islam and the Muslim World: A Comparative Perspective, p. 76-79, 313, Institute of Objective Studies, 1st. ed., 1996.
[15] Tahir Mahmood, et. al., Criminal Law in Islam and the Muslim World: A Comparative Perspective, p. 68, 313, Institute of Objective Studies, 1st. ed., 1996; Mohamed S. El-Awa, Punishment in Islamic Law: A Comparative Study, p. 14, American Trust Publications, 1982. But see Dr. Nagaty Sanad, The Theory of Crime and Criminal Responsibility in Islamic Law: Shari’a, p. 64, Office of International Criminal Justice, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1991.
[16] Richard Clark, Executions in January 2010, http://www.capitalpunishmentuk.org/jan10.html, accessed Aug. 19, 2010.
[17] ExecutedToday.com, 2010: Salah ibn Rhaidan ibn Hailan Al-Johani, Medina Serial Rapist, http://www.executedtoday.com/2011/01/11/2010-salah-ibn-rihaidan-ibn-hailan-al-johani-medina-serial-rapist/, Jan. 11, 2010.
[18] Tahir Mahmood, et. al., Criminal Law in Islam and the Muslim World: A Comparative Perspective, p. 76-79, 313, Institute of Objective Studies, 1st. ed., 1996; Khaled Abou El Fadl, Rebellion and Violence in Islamic Law, p 261, Cambridge University Press, 2001.
[19] Mohamed S. El-Awa, Punishment in Islamic Law: A Comparative Study, p. 108-110, American Trust Publications, 1982.
[20] Richard Clark, Executions in January 2008, http://www.capitalpunishmentuk.org/jan08.html, accessed Aug. 19, 2010; Hands Off Cain, Saudi Arabia: Three Burmese Immigrants Beheaded, http://www.handsoffcain.info/archivio_news/200801.php?iddocumento=10301566&mover=0, Jan. 23, 2008.
[21] Richard Clark, Executions in May 2008, http://www.capitalpunishmentuk.org/may08.html, accessed Aug. 19, 2010.
[22] Amnesty Intl., Defying World Trends—Saudi Arabia’s Extensive Use of Capital Punishment, pp. 2-3, MDE 23/015/2001, Nov. 1, 2001.
[23] Mohamed S. El-Awa, Punishment in Islamic Law: A Comparative Study, p. 108-110, American Trust Publications, 1982.
[24] Dr. Hamad bin Ibraheem bin Abdul Azeez Ash-Shitwee, Punishment of Committing Theft for the Fifth Time: An Objective Study, generally, Al-Adl Journal Vol. 37.
[25] Richard Clark, Executions in January 2008, http://www.capitalpunishmentuk.org/jan08.html, accessed Aug. 19, 2010; Hands Off Cain, Saudi Arabia: Three Burmese Immigrants Beheaded, http://www.handsoffcain.info/archivio_news/200801.php?iddocumento=10301566&mover=0, Jan. 23, 2008.
[26] Amnesty Intl., Defying World Trends—Saudi Arabia’s Extensive Use of Capital Punishment, p. 2, MDE 23/015/2001, Nov. 1, 2001.
[27] Amnesty Intl., Affront to Justice: Death Penalty in Saudi Arabia, pp. 9-10, MDE 23/027/2008, Oct. 14, 2008.
[28] Amnesty Intl., Affront to Justice: Death Penalty in Saudi Arabia, pp. 9-10, MDE 23/027/2008, Oct. 14, 2008.
[29] Amnesty Intl., Affront to Justice: Death Penalty in Saudi Arabia, pp. 9-10, MDE 23/027/2008, Oct. 14, 2008; Ibraheem bin Saalih Al-Zughaibee, Degrees of Conviction in Cases of Narcotics and Other Cases Related to Textual and Discretionary Punishments, generally, Al-Adl Journal Vol. 38.
[30] Mohamed S. El-Awa, Punishment in Islamic Law: A Comparative Study, p. 14, American Trust Publications, 1982; Tahir Mahmood, et. al., Criminal Law in Islam and the Muslim World: A Comparative Perspective, p. 64-67, 217, 250-253, Institute of Objective Studies, 1st. ed., 1996. But see Dr. Nagaty Sanad, The Theory of Crime and Criminal Responsibility in Islamic Law: Shari’a, p. 64, Office of International Criminal Justice, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1991.
[31] Amnesty Intl., Defying World Trends—Saudi Arabia’s Extensive Use of Capital Punishment, p. 9, MDE 23/015/2001, Nov. 1, 2001; Amnesty Intl., Affront to Justice: Death Penalty in Saudi Arabia, pp. 9-10, MDE 23/027/2008, Oct. 14, 2008; International Commission of Jurists, Submission to the Universal Periodic Review of Saudi Arabia, p. 7, Sep. 2008.
[32] Mohamed S. El-Awa, Punishment in Islamic Law: A Comparative Study, p. 49-64, American Trust Publications, 1982; M. Cherif Bassiouni, Crimes and the Criminal Process, p. 277, Arab Law Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1997; M. Cherif Bassiouni, Leaving Islam is Not a Capital Crime, Chicago Tribune, Apr. 2, 2006.
[33] Mohamed S. El-Awa, Punishment in Islamic Law: A Comparative Study, p. 56, American Trust Publications, 1982; Tahir Mahmood, et. al., Criminal Law in Islam and the Muslim World: A Comparative Perspective, p. 313, Institute of Objective Studies, 1st. ed., 1996; Dr. Abdur-Rahmaanibn 'AaydAal-'Aayd, Rights of Individuals Regarding Crimes that Require Hudood Punishments, p. 84-85, Al-Adl Journal Vol. 40.
[34] The Maliki and Shafi’i schools applied the death penalty as hadd, while the Hanafi school of Sunni Islam and the Shi’a Imamiyah applied the death penalty as hadd for men, while imprisoning apostate women. The Hanbali school did not acknowledge the death penalty as a hadd penalty, but applied it as ta’zir. Mohamed S. El-Awa, Punishment in Islamic Law: A Comparative Study, p. 49-64, American Trust Publications, 1982; Tahir Mahmood, et. al., Criminal Law in Islam and the Muslim World: A Comparative Perspective, p. 80-81, Institute of Objective Studies, 1st. ed., 1996; Dr. Abdur-Rahmaanibn 'AaydAal-'Aayd, Rights of Individuals Regarding Crimes that Require Hudood Punishments, p. 84-85, Al-Adl Journal Vol. 40, http://www.moj.gov.sa/adl/ENG/Default.aspx, accessed Aug. 20, 2010.
[35] For a contrary view, see Robert Postawko, Towards an Islamic Critique of Capital Punishment, p. 290-293, UCLA Journal of Islamic and Near Eastern Law, Vol. 1, p. 269, 2002.
[36] Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Saudi Arabia: The situation of homosexuals, including treatment by authorities and legal penalties, http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3f7d4e1238.html, Aug. 16, 2002.
[37] Tahir Mahmood, et. al., Criminal Law in Islam and the Muslim World: A Comparative Perspective, p. 67-68, 313, Institute of Objective Studies, 1st. ed., 1996; Mohamed S. El-Awa, Punishment in Islamic Law: A Comparative Study, p. 109, American Trust Publications, 1982. Scholars adhering to the accepted definition of adultery as “[s]exual intercourse between a man and a woman without legal right or without the semblance of a legal right,” El-Awa at p. 14, state that any sexual contact other than penetration of the male organ into the female organ is not adultery and should not be punished as hadd. Dr. Nagaty Sanad, The Theory of Crime and Criminal Responsibility in Islamic Law: Shari’a, p. 38-44, Office of International Criminal Justice, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1991. This may be related to dispute over whether a later-revealed piece of legislation (Surah XXIV, abrogating earlier rules) fully addressed the issue of homosexual acts. El-Awa at p. 14-15.
[38] Khaled Abou El Fadl, Rebellion and Violence in Islamic Law, p 21, 234-320, 324-327, Cambridge University Press, 2001. Other resources stating that rebels who fight until subdued (as opposed to until arrested) are subject to the death penalty as hadd could be interpreted as acknowledging that the ruler may kill a rebel who fights to the death. See, for example, M. Cherif Bassiouni, ed., The Islamic Criminal Justice System, p. 197-198, Oceana Publications, Inc., 1982.
[39] Dr. Abdur-Rahmaanibn 'AaydAal-'Aayd, Rights of Individuals Regarding Crimes that Require HudoodPunishments, pp. 84-85, Al-Adl Journal Vol. 40.
[40] Amnesty Intl., Defying World Trends—Saudi Arabia’s Extensive Use of Capital Punishment, p. 11, MDE 23/015/2001, Nov. 1, 2001; Amnesty Intl., Affront to Justice: Death Penalty in Saudi Arabia, p. 8, MDE 23/027/2008, Oct. 14, 2008.
[41] Mohamed S. El-Awa, Punishment in Islamic Law: A Comparative Study, p. 109, American Trust Publications, 1982.
[42] Helen Chapin Metz, Saudi Arabia: A Country Study, 5th ed., Military Justice, Washington D.C.: The Division, 1993.
[43] Dr. Nagaty Sanad, The Theory of Crime and Criminal Responsibility in Islamic Law: Shari’a, p. 55, Office of International Criminal Justice, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1991.
[44] Mohamed S. El-Awa, Punishment in Islamic Law: A Comparative Study, p. 108-109, American Trust Publications, 1982.
[45] Dr. 'Ali ibnRaashid ad-Dubayyaan, Alcoholic Beverages: Legal Punishment and Detrimental Effects, pp. 202-205, Al-Adl Journal Vol. 37.
[46] Ibraheem bin Saalih Al-Zughaibee, Degrees of Conviction in Cases of Narcotics and Other Cases Related to Textual and Discretionary Punishments, generally, Al-Adl Journal Vol. 38.
[47] Khaled Abou El Fadl, The Culture of Ugliness in Modern Islam and Reengaging Morality, p. 53, UCLA Journal of Islamic and Near Eastern Law, Vol. 2, p. 33, 2002; BBC News, Saudis “give Lebanese sorcerer stay of execution,” http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8600398.stm, Apr. 2, 2010; Amnesty Intl., Saudi Arabia “Sorcery” Death Sentence Upheld, http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/saudi-arabia-sorcery-death-sentence-upheld-2010-03-18, Mar. 18, 2010 (appeals court decision); Amnesty Intl., Saudi Arabian Court Rejects “Sorcery” Death Sentence, http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/saudi-arabian-court-rejects-sorcery-death-sentence-2010-11-12, Nov. 12, 2010 (Supreme Court decision overturning the death sentence in this case).
[48] Amnesty Intl., Defying World Trends—Saudi Arabia’s Extensive Use of Capital Punishment, p. 3, MDE 23/015/2001, Nov. 1, 2001; Amnesty Intl., Affront to Justice: Death Penalty in Saudi Arabia, p. 8, MDE 23/027/2008, Oct. 14, 2008; Mohamed S. El-Awa, Punishment in Islamic Law: A Comparative Study, p. 109, American Trust Publications, 1982. Additionally, “sorcery” and “witchcraft” are not enumerated as hadd offenses in any source we have encountered.
[49] Mohamed S. El-Awa, Punishment in Islamic Law: A Comparative Study, p. 109, American Trust Publications, 1982.
[50] Mohamed S. El-Awa, Punishment in Islamic Law: A Comparative Study, p. 110, American Trust Publications, 1982.
[51] Amnesty Intl., Defying World Trends—Saudi Arabia’s Extensive Use of Capital Punishment, p. 10, MDE 23/015/2001, Nov. 1, 2001; Amnesty Intl., Affront to Justice: Death Penalty in Saudi Arabia, p. 8, MDE 23/027/2008, Oct. 14, 2008.

Engagements internationaux

La peine de mort en droit

La peine de mort en pratique

Observations et décisions des organes internationaux de protection des droits de l’homme concernant l’application de la peine de mort dans ce pays

Autres sources d’informations et contact

Bahrain

See full questionnaire

Recherche mise à jour le: 23 janvier 2011

Générales

Détails du pays

Crimes et personnes passibles de la peine de mort

Crimes passibles de la peine de mort

Meurtre avec circonstances aggravantes.
Murder of the perpetrator’s close relatives or of a public official, and murder using poisonous or explosive materials are all punishable by death. [1]

Meurtre.
Murder is punishable by death. [2]

Autre crime ayant entraîné la mort.
Calumniation – or falsely reporting information to judicial officials – is punishable by death if it results in a death sentence that is carried out. [3]

The following crimes, when they result in death, are also death-eligible: kidnapping, especially under aggravating circumstances; [4] rape, sexual assault or statutory rape, especially under aggravating circumstances; [5] assault; [6] arson; [7] the use of force in theft; [8] drug trafficking; [9] deliberately obstructing funerals or memorial services; [10] and certain crimes against property, transportation or agriculture under aggravating circumstances. [11]

Acte terroriste ayant entraîné la mort.
Deliberately causing damage to public buildings or property in order to cause panic or anarchy, or endangering or obstructing the operation of a vehicle; obstructing a telecommunications medium intended for public use, if it results in death, is punishable by death. [12]

Acte terroriste n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Forming or leading an armed gang which uses force to occupy or destroy a public or Government building, [13] which has attacked the local population, which uses arms to resist public authority, [14] or which aims to expropriate property or land is punishable by death. [15] Also, the king signed into law the “Protecting Society from Terrorist Acts” bill in August 2006; Article 6 of the law prescribes the death penalty for acts that “disrupt the provisions of the Constitution or laws, or prevent state enterprises or public authorities from exercising their duties.” [16] According to this law, committing or planning terrorist acts is punishable by death. [17]

Viol d’un enfant n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Sexual assault of a girl under the age of 16, without consent, is punishable by death even when it does not result in death. [18] The non-consent of the victim (statutory rape) is presumed if she is less than 14 years of age. [19]

Incendie criminel n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Arson of a public or Government building, even if it does not result in death, is punishable by death, but only if it is carried out against the state or civil servants. [20]

Trafic de drogue n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Drug trafficking not resulting in death, as provided by a law introduced in July 1984, is punishable by death. [21]

Trahison.
Deliberately committing an act which affects the country’s independence, unity, or territorial integrity; [22] taking up arms against Bahrain; [23] assisting the enemy in weakening the Armed Forces; [24] inciting service in a hostile armed force; [25] facilitating enemy entry into Bahrain or surrendering State property intended for defense; [26] using explosives to overthrow the state; [27] making attempts on the life or freedom of the Amir or Crown Prince; [28] or cooperating with a foreign power or leading or forming an armed gang in an attempt to overthrow the Constitution, Amiri rule, system of government [29] is punishable by death. The death sentence may also be handed down for any felony committed in wartime with the intent of helping the enemy, if the felony contributes to realizing this purpose. [30] In addition, any felonies affecting external state security committed with the intention of assisting the enemy or adversely affecting the military operations of the armed forces are punishable by death, if such acts contribute to realizing this purpose. [31]

Espionnage. [32]
Surrendering or destroying defense secrets or intending to do so; [33] or withholding, destroying, embezzling or falsifying documents related to national security in order to assist the enemy or adversely affect Bahrain’s armed forces, if the act contributes to realizing this purpose, [34] are all punishable by death

Crimes militaires n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Deliberately damaging weapons or other items used to defend the country during wartime is punishable by death. [35] If a person with authority to give orders to the armed forces or police personnel asks or instructs the latter to oppose government orders for an illegal purpose and is successful in doing so, the crime is punishable by death. [36]

Références

[1] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 333, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[2] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 333, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[3] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 234, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[4] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, arts. 357-359, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[5] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, arts. 148, 279, amended by Legislative Decree No. 9 of 1982 With Respect to Amendments to the Penal Code of 1976, art. 1, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[6] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, arts. 344, 349, amended by Legislative Decree No. 1 of 1986 With Respect to Amending Certain Provisions of the Penal Code, art. 1, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[7] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 346, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[8] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 349, amended by Legislative Decree No. 1 of 1986 With Respect to Amending Certain Provisions of the Penal Code, art. 1, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[9] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 277, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[10] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 376, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[11] Amnesty Intl., When the State Kills, p. 104, Amnesty Intl. Publications, 1989.
[12] Roger Hood & Carolyn Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective, p. 137, Oxford University Press, 4th ed., 2008.
[13] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 315, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[14] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 349, amended by Legislative Decree No. 1 of 1986 With Respect to Amending Certain Provisions of the Penal Code, art. 1, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[15] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, arts. 409, 414, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[16] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, arts. 410, 414, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[17] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, arts. 411, 414, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[18] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, arts. 413-414, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[19] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 155, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[20] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, arts. 284, 285, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[21] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 149, amended by Legislative Decree No. 9 of 1982 With Respect to Amendments to the Penal Code of 1976, art. 1, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[22] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 279, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[23] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 152, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[24] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 153, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[25] Human Rights Watch, World Report 2009 – Bahrain, http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/49705fac85.html, Jan. 14, 2009.
[26] Amnesty Intl., Bahrain: Submission to the Universal Periodic Review, p. 1, MDE 11/001/2007, Nov. 27, 2007.
[27] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 344, amended by Legislative Decree No. 1 of 1986 With Respect to Amending Certain Provisions of the Penal Code, art. 1, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[28] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 344, amended by Legislative Decree No. 1 of 1986 With Respect to Amending Certain Provisions of the Penal Code, art. 1, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[29] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 279, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[30] Amnesty Intl., When the State Kills, p. 104, Amnesty Intl. Publications, 1989.
[31] Roger Hood & Carolyn Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective, p. 137, Oxford University Press, 4th ed., 2008.
[32] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 112, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[33] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 113, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[34] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 114, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[35] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 115, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[36] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 116, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[37] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 279, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[38] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 147, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[39] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 148, amended by Legislative Decree No. 9 of 1982 With Respect to Amendments to the Penal Code of 1976, art. 1, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[40] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, arts. 175, 148-174, amended by Legislative Decree No. 9 of 1982 With Respect to Amendments to the Penal Code of 1976, art. 1, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[41] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, arts. 117, 118, 120, 124, 125, 127-139, 141, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[42] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, arts.116, 121-122, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[43] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 126, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[44] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 123, punishment laid out in art. 142, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[45] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 129, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.
[46] Bahrain Penal Code 1976, art. 151, translation: Gulf Translations W.L.L., 1976.

Engagements internationaux

La peine de mort en droit

La peine de mort en pratique

Observations et décisions des organes internationaux de protection des droits de l’homme concernant l’application de la peine de mort dans ce pays

Autres sources d’informations et contact

Brunei

See full questionnaire

Recherche mise à jour le: 1 avril 2011

Générales

Détails du pays

Crimes et personnes passibles de la peine de mort

Crimes passibles de la peine de mort

Meurtre.
“Whoever commits murder shall be punished with death.” [1]

Autre crime ayant entraîné la mort.
Abetting the suicide of a person unable to give legal consent is punishable by death. [2] All participants in a gang robbery during which a murder takes place “shall be punished by death.” [3] Arson resulting in death “shall be punished with death.” [4]

Acte terroriste ayant entraîné la mort.
Terrorism-Related Offenses Resulting in Death.

Laws penalizing attacks using fire or explosion could be applied to terrorism resulting in death. Such offenses when resulting in death “shall be punished with death.” [5]

Acte terroriste n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Persons in unlawful possession of weapons in security areas or “special” areas, or accompanying those who unlawfully possess weapons in security areas, are punished with death. [6]

Incendie criminel n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Arson of certain public utilities “shall be punished…with death.” [7]

Enlèvement n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Kidnapping “shall be punished by death” when carried out with the intent of murdering the victim or putting the victim in danger of murder. [8]

Trafic de drogue ayant entraîné la mort.
Unauthorized trafficking, manufacture, import or export or possession for the purpose of trafficking of requisite quantities of scheduled drugs is punished by death. A person accused of possession for the purpose of trafficking is presumed guilty. By law, an individual can be accused of possession for the purposes of trafficking for simply possessing the keys to premises on which drugs are found; that individual has the burden to prove that he did not possess the drugs, know of the drugs or possess them for trafficking. [9]

Possession de drogue.
A person accused of possession for the purpose of trafficking is presumed guilty of that offense. By law, an individual can be accused of possession for the purposes of trafficking for simply possessing the keys to premises on which drugs are found; that individual has the burden to prove that he did not possess the drugs, know of the drugs or possess them for trafficking. The punishment is death when the offender is in possession of requisite quantities of scheduled drugs. [10]

Trahison.
High treason is punishable by death. [11]

Crimes militaires n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Abetting a successful mutiny is punishable by death. [12]

Autre(s) crime(s) n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Perjury resulting in the conviction of an innocent defendant of a capital offense is punishable by death. [13]

Commentaires.
We did not find the complete military law.

Références

[1] Brunei Penal Code, art. 302, No. 16 of 1951, Laws of Brunei Ch. 22, Rev. Ed. 2001.
[2] Brunei Penal Code, art. 305, No. 16 of 1951, Laws of Brunei Ch. 22, Rev. Ed. 2001.
[3] Brunei Penal Code, art. 396, No. 16 of 1951, Laws of Brunei Ch. 22, Rev. Ed. 2001.
[4] Brunei Penal Code, art. 435(1)(a), No. 16 of 1951, Laws of Brunei Ch. 22, Rev. Ed. 2001.
[5] Brunei Penal Code, art. 435(1)(a), No. 16 of 1951, Laws of Brunei Ch. 22, Rev. Ed. 2001.
[6] Brunei Internal Security Act, arts. 40-41, Rev. Ed. 2008; Brunei Public Order Act, art. 28, Laws of Brunei Ch. 133, Rev. Ed. 2002.
[7] Brunei Penal Code, art. 435(1)(b), No. 16 of 1951, Laws of Brunei Ch. 22, Rev. Ed. 2001.
[8] Brunei Penal Code, art. 364, No. 16 of 1951, Laws of Brunei Ch. 22, Rev. Ed. 2001.
[9] Brunei Misuse of Drugs, arts. 3-5, 15-16, Second Schedule, Laws of Brunei Ch. 27, Rev. Ed. 2001.
[10] Brunei Misuse of Drugs, arts. 3A, 15-16, Second Schedule, Laws of Brunei Ch. 27, Rev. Ed. 2001.
[11] Brunei Penal Code, art. 121, No. 16 of 1951, Laws of Brunei Ch. 22, Rev. Ed. 2001.
[12] Brunei Penal Code, art. 132, No. 16 of 1951, Laws of Brunei Ch. 22, Rev. Ed. 2001.
[13] Brunei Penal Code, art. 194, No. 16 of 1951, Laws of Brunei Ch. 22, Rev. Ed. 2001.

Engagements internationaux

La peine de mort en droit

La peine de mort en pratique

Observations et décisions des organes internationaux de protection des droits de l’homme concernant l’application de la peine de mort dans ce pays

Autres sources d’informations et contact

Cameroun

See full questionnaire

Recherche mise à jour le: 27 mars 2012

Générales

Détails du pays

Crimes et personnes passibles de la peine de mort

Crimes passibles de la peine de mort

Meurtre avec circonstances aggravantes.
Le meurtre par empoisonnement [1] ou pour faciliter un crime, [2] le meurtre d’un enfant de 15 ans ou moins, [3] et le meurtre d’ascendants [4] sont passibles de la peine de mort.

Meurtre.
Le meurtre avec préméditation [5] est passible de la peine de mort.

Autre crime ayant entraîné la mort.
Le vol commis avec violence et ayant entrainé la mort [6] et l’enlèvement d’un mineur de moins de 21 ans ayant entraîné la mort du mineur [7] sont passibles de la peine de mort.

Acte terroriste ayant entraîné la mort.
Tout acte terroriste dans un avion ou aéroport et entraînant la mort [8] est passible de la peine de mort.

Incendie criminel n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Le vol commis avec violence, provoquant des blessures graves, est passible de la peine de mort. [9]

Trahison. [10]

Espionnage. [11]

Autre(s) crime(s) n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
- Agression d’un fonctionnaire avec l’intention de donner la mort; [12]
- Tentative de crime passible de la peine de mort et conspiration pour commettre un crime passible de la peine de mort; [13]
- Pillage en bande organisée commis en temps de guerre. [14]

Commentaires.
A la fin de nos recherches, aucun texte de loi applicable à la justice militaire pénale n’a pu être trouvé. Bien que nous ne sachions pas si ces crimes sont passibles de la peine de mort, ni combien le sont, des rapports indiquent que les tribunaux militaires peuvent exercer leur compétence sur les civils, lorsque le président déclare la loi martiale et dans les cas impliquant des troubles de l’ordre civil ou la violence armée organisée. Les tribunaux militaires sont également compétents pour les crimes en bandes organisées, le banditisme et les coupeurs de routes. Le gouvernement a interprété ces directives au sens large et a parfois utilisé les tribunaux militaires pour juger des questions concernant les groupes de dissidents utilisant des armes à feu. [15]

Références

[1] Code Pénal Camerounais, art. 276(1)(b), Lois N° 65-LF-24 du 12 novembre 1965 et N° 67-LF-1 du 12 juin 1967, mis à jour le 10 juin 2004, publié dans Samuel Ngue, Code Pénal, Minos, 3eme ed., 2004-2005.
[2] Code Pénal Camerounais, art. 276(1)(c), Lois N° 65-LF-24 du 12 novembre 1965 et N° 67-LF-1 du 12 juin 1967, mis à jour le 10 juin 2004, publié dans Samuel Ngue, Code Pénal, Minos, 3eme ed., 2004-2005.
[3] Code Pénal Camerounais, art. 350, Lois Lois N° 65-LF-24 du 12 novembre 1965 et N° 67-LF-1 du 12 juin 1967, mis à jour le 10 juin 2004, publié dans Samuel Ngue, Code Pénal, Minos, 3eme ed., 2004-2005.
[4] Code Pénal Camerounais, art. 351, Lois N° 65-LF-24 du 12 novembre 1965 et N° 67-LF-1 du 12 juin 1967, mis à jour le 10 juin 2004, publié dans Samuel Ngue, Code Pénal, Minos, 3eme ed., 2004-2005.
[5] Code Pénal Camerounais, art. 276(1)(a), Lois N° 65-LF-24 du 12 novembre 1965 et N° 67-LF-1 du 12 juin 1967, mis à jour le 10 juin 2004, publié dans Samuel Ngue, Code Pénal, Minos, 3eme ed., 2004-2005.
[6] Code Pénal Camerounais, art. 320(2), Lois N° 65-LF-24 du 12 novembre 1965 et N° 67-LF-1 du 12 juin 1967, mis à jour le 10 juin 2004, publié dans Samuel Ngue, Code Pénal, Minos, 3eme ed., 2004-2005.
[7] Code Pénal Camerounais, art. 354 en lien avec arts. 352-353, Lois N° 65-LF-24 du 12 novembre 1965 et N° 67-LF-1 du 12 juin 1967, mis à jour le 10 juin 2004, publié dans Samuel Ngue, Code Pénal, Minos, 3eme ed., 2004-2005.
[8] Loi portant répression des infractions et actes dirigés contre la sécurité de l’aviation civile, art. 10 en lien avec arts. 3-4, Loi N° 2001/019, 19 décembre 2001.
[9] Code Pénal Camerounais, art. 320(2), Lois N° 65-LF-24 du 12 novembre 1965 et N° 67-LF-1 du 12 juin 1967, mis à jour le 10 juin 2004, publié dans Samuel Ngue, Code Pénal, Minos, 3eme ed., 2004-2005.
[10] Code Pénal Camerounais, arts. 102, 103, 111, 112, Lois N° 65-LF-24 du 12 novembre 1965 et N° 67-LF-1 du 12 juin 1967, mis à jour le 10 juin 2004, publié dans Samuel Ngue, Code Pénal, Minos, 3eme ed., 2004-2005.
[11] Code Pénal Camerounais, art. 103, Lois N° 65-LF-24 du 12 novembre 1965 et N° 67-LF-1 du 12 juin 1967, mis à jour le 10 juin 2004, publié dans Samuel Ngue, Code Pénal, Minos, 3eme ed., 2004-2005.
[12] Code Pénal Camerounais, art. 156(5), Lois N° 65-LF-24 du 12 novembre 1965 et N° 67-LF-1 du 12 juin 1967, mis à jour le 10 juin 2004, publié dans Samuel Ngue, Code Pénal, Minos, 3eme ed., 2004-2005.
[13] Code Pénal Camerounais, arts. 94, 95, Lois N° 65-LF-24 du 12 novembre 1965 et N° 67-LF-1 du 12 juin 1967, mis à jour le 10 juin 2004, publié dans Samuel Ngue, Code Pénal, Minos, 3eme ed., 2004-2005.
[14] Code Pénal Camerounais, art. 236, Lois N° 65-LF-24 du 12 novembre 1965 et N° 67-LF-1 du 12 juin 1967, mis à jour le 10 juin 2004, publié dans Samuel Ngue, Code Pénal, Minos, 3eme ed., 2004-2005.
[15] GeED et al., Cameroon: NGO report on the implementation of the ICCPR - Replies to the List of Issues CCPR/C/CMR/Q4 (Rapport de la société civile sur la mise en œuvre du PIDCP - Réponses à la liste des points a traiter CCPR/C/CMR/Q4), pp. 25-26, http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrc/docs/ngos/GeED_Cameroon_HRC99.pdf, juin 2010.

Engagements internationaux

La peine de mort en droit

La peine de mort en pratique

Observations et décisions des organes internationaux de protection des droits de l’homme concernant l’application de la peine de mort dans ce pays

Autres sources d’informations et contact

Chine

See full questionnaire

Recherche mise à jour le: 10 avril 2014

Générales

Détails du pays

Crimes et personnes passibles de la peine de mort

Crimes passibles de la peine de mort

Meurtre avec circonstances aggravantes.
The death penalty in China is applicable to murder generally, rather than to aggravated murder specifically. [1] However, the gradation of sentencing coupled with the directive for a lighter sentence where circumstances indicate a low level of culpability suggests that whether a murder is committed under aggravating circumstances is considered in sentencing. [2]

Meurtre.
A person who intentionally commits homicide is punishable by death. [3]

Autre crime ayant entraîné la mort.
A person who commits arson, breaches a dike, causes explosion, spreads poisonous, radioactive substances or infectious pathogens and causes the death of another person is punishable by death. [4] Violently or forcefully hijacking an aircraft, causing the death of another person, is a death-eligible crime. [5] Producing or selling tainted food or fake medicine is punishable by death when the criminal act results in death. [6] A person who causes the death of another person by intentionally inflicting injury is subject to the death penalty. [7] Causing death from raping a woman or having a sexual intercourse with a girl under the age of 14 is a crime punishable by death. [8] A person who causes the death of another person who is forced to engage in prostitution is subject to the death penalty. [9] Abducting someone for extortion or holding someone hostage, thereby killing or causing the death of the victim, is punishable by death. [10] A person who causes the death of an abducted woman or a child or his or her relatives is punishable by death, if the circumstances are “especially serious.” [11] Causing the death of another person in the course of robbery is punishable by death. [12] Causing the death of commanders or military personnel with violence or intimidation, particularly during wartime, is a death-eligible crime. [13]

Acte terroriste ayant entraîné la mort.
China’s anti-terrorism laws treat those participating in lethal terrorist activities under the laws for murder, kidnapping, and other crimes affecting public safety. [14] A person can be sentenced to death for sabotaging means of transportation, utilities, or certain construction equipment, if the consequences are serious. [15] Setting fire, breaching dikes, causing explosion, spreading poison, or employing other dangerous means that lead to death are punishable by death. [16] Airplane hijacking resulting in death is also punishable by death. [17] Illegal trade, manufacture or transport of nuclear materials or other weapons can be death-eligible if the circumstances are “serious.” [18] Additionally, a “serious” case of stealing or forcibly seizing weapons, explosives, poisonous or radioactive substances, infectious disease pathogens or other substances that endanger public security [19] are death-eligible offenses that could be characterized as terrorism-related.

Acte terroriste n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
China’s anti-terrorism laws treat those participating in non-deadly terrorist activities that lead to serious injury or property loss under the laws for kidnapping and other crimes affecting public safety. [20] Such other crimes could include sabotage of transportation, utilities, or certain construction equipment, [21] setting fire, breaching dikes, causing explosions, spreading poison, or employing other dangerous means that lead to serious injuries or property loss. [22] Additionally, airplane hijacking (resulting in serious injury or damage to the aircraft) [23] or illegal trade, manufacture or transport of nuclear materials or other weapons, ammunition or explosives (with serious consequences) are death-eligible offenses that could be characterized as terrorism-related. [24]

Viol n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Multiple rape, public rape, causing serious injury from rape are all death-eligible offenses. [25] Raping an abducted or trafficked woman is punishable by death, if the circumstances are “especially serious.” [26] Forcing someone into prostitution after rape is also punishable by death, if the circumstances are “especially serious.” [27]

Viol d’un enfant n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Sexual relations with a girl under the age of 14 is a death-eligible offense if it involves multiple rape, public rape, or serious injury or other “serious” circumstances. [28] Rape of a child is punishable by death when it is rape during an abduction or trafficking. [29] Forcing a child into prostitution after rape is also punishable by death, if the circumstances are “especially serious.” [30]

Vol n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Robbery is punishable by death if it involves intrusion into public transportation, or a bank or a banking institution. [31] Repeatedly committing robbery, stealing a large sum of money, causing serious injury during robbery, impersonating a serviceman or policeman during robbery, or armed robbery are also punishable by death. [32] Stealing or forcibly seizing weapons, equipment or military supplies is death-eligible if the circumstances are “especially serious.” [33] Additionally, a “serious” case of stealing or forcibly seizing weapons, explosives, poisonous or radioactive substances, infectious disease pathogens or other substances that endanger public security [34] is a death-eligible offense.

Incendie criminel n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
A person who commits arson, thereby inflicting serious injury or causing heavy property loss, is subject to the death penalty. [35]

Enlèvement n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
A leader of a gang involved in abducting and trafficking women and children is subject to the death penalty, if the circumstances are “especially serious.” [36] Aggravated abduction of three or more women or children is a death-eligible offense, as is trafficking three or more women or children and stealing a baby or an infant for the purpose of selling the victim, if the circumstances are “especially serious.” [37] Additionally, abduction involving violence, coercion or anaesthesia, or abduction resulting in serious harm is a death-eligible offense if the circumstances are “especially serious.” [38]

Cambriolage n'ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Intruding into a residence for the purpose of robbery is punishable by death. [39]

Trafic de drogue n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Use of arms or violence to cover up drug trafficking crimes or to resist arrest or detention is punishable by death. [40] A death sentence may also be imposed when opium of not less than 1000 grams, heroin or methylaniline of not less than 50 grams, or other narcotic drugs of large quantities are involved. [41] Participants in international drug smuggling, leaders of trafficking groups, or government officials who divert state-controlled drugs for illegal sale may also be punished by death. [42]

Crimes économiques n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Graft and bribery are punishable by death if particularly large sums of money or property value are involved. [43] A person who embezzles more than 100,000 yuan is subject to the death penalty, “if the circumstances are especially serious.” [44] Illegal trade, manufacture or transport of nuclear materials or other weapons can be death-eligible if the circumstances are “serious.” [45]

In 2011, 13 other non-violent, economic crimes such as smuggling cultural relics and precious metals, robbing ancient cultural ruins, and engaging in fraudulent activities with financial bills or letters of credit were removed from the list of death-eligible crimes. [46]

Trahison.
Crimes harmful to national security are death-eligible, if causing particularly serious harm and under aggravating circumstances. These crimes include “especially serious” cases of plotting with foreign states, organizations, or individuals; organizing or plotting to undermine national unification; involvement in rebellion, rioting; colluding with foreign sources for subversive purposes; defection; supplying arms to enemy during wartime; [47] sabotage of military resources; [48] and supply of faulty equipment to armed units. [49]

Additionally, some death-eligible offenses by military personnel can be classified as treason: violently obstructing commanders or military personnel, causing serious injuries or involving “especially serious” circumstances; [50] fabrication of rumors in collusion with the enemy, under “especially serious” circumstances; [51] and illegal sale or transfer of military weaponry, if there are “especially serious” circumstances or large amount of weapons or equipment involved. [52]

Espionnage.
A person who joins an espionage organization, accepts a mission from an espionage organization, or directs an enemy to a bombing or shelling target is punishable by death, “if the circumstances are especially serious” or the crime causes serious harm to the State and the people. [53] Stealing, spying into, buying, or illegally supplying State secrets for an organization or individual outside China is death-eligible, “if the circumstances are especially serious” or the crime causes serious harm to the State and the people. [54] A person who steals, spies into, buys, or illegally supplies military secrets to agencies, organizations or individuals outside of China is subject to the death penalty. [55]

Crimes militaires n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
A serviceman who cooperates with the enemy after surrender is punishable by death. [56] Obstructing commanders or military personnel with violence or intimidation that involves serious injury or other “especially serious” circumstances, particularly during wartime; [57] desertion or defection while piloting vessels or aircraft that involves “especially serious” circumstances; [58] fabrication of rumors in collusion with the enemy, under “especially serious” circumstances; [59] forcible seizure of weaponry or military supplies, under “especially serious” circumstances; [60] and illegal sale or transfer of military weaponry, under “especially serious” circumstances, [61] are punishable by death. Sabotaging weaponry, military installations or military telecommunications is a death-eligible offense under “especially serious” circumstances. [62] Supplying faulty military equipment to the armed forces is punishable by death if the circumstances are “especially serious.” [63]

Some offenses are death-eligible when they result in major losses during battle. Major losses in battle most likely involve the death of military personnel, but arguably could involve only the loss of military equipment. Potentially death-eligible crimes for causing major losses are: defying orders, endangerment of military operations by concealing information or providing false information, or fleeing from battle. [64]

Military personnel who commit offenses against civilians or civilian resources are subject to the death penalty, if the circumstances are “especially serious.” [65]

Autre(s) crime(s) n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
- Aggravated assault: A person who intentionally inflicts injury upon another person through especially cruel means, thereby causing severe injury or disability, is punishable by death. [66] Since 2011, the crime of intentionally wounding a person to force him/her to donate an organ is death-eligible under certain circumstances. [67]
- Trafficking and forced prostitution crimes: Arranging for another person to engage in prostitution, forcing a girl under the age of 14 to engage in prostitution, forcing multiple people to engage in prostitution or repeatedly forcing a person to engage in prostitution, or inflicting injury upon a person forced to engage in prostitution is punishable by death, if the circumstances are “especially serious.” [68] Also, a person who entices or forces an abducted or trafficked woman into prostitution, or sells such woman to a person that would force her into prostitution, is punishable by death if the circumstances are “especially serious.” [69] A person who inflicts injury upon an abducted woman or a child or his or her relatives is punishable by death, if the circumstances are “especially serious.” [70] Selling a woman or a child to a territory outside of China, under “especially serious” circumstances, is also a death-eligible crime. [71]
- Producing or selling tainted food or medicine: Producing or selling tainted food or fake medicine is punishable by death when the criminal act results in serious medical injury or involves other “especially serious” circumstances. [72]
- Prison riots: Organizing or actively participating in an armed prison riot or jailbreak is punishable by death if the circumstances are “especially serious.” [73] Some experts note that this provision may have been abolished, [74] but on our reading of the successive amendments to the Criminal Law, this article was never revised or removed.

Commentaires.
Thirteen death-eligible economic crimes were removed from the Criminal Law in 2011. [75] It was the first time China had reduced the number of crimes subject to the death penalty since the law took effect in 1979. [76] The crimes that are no longer death-eligible include: smuggling cultural relics, gold, silver, and other precious metals and rare animals and their products; engaging in fraud with financial bills or letters of credit; the false issuance of exclusive value-added tax invoices to defraud export tax refunds or to offset taxes; forging or selling forged exclusive value-added tax invoices; teaching crime-committing methods; and robbing ancient cultural ruins. [77] At the same time, the government increased the number of death-eligible crimes, adding the offense of forced organ donation and expanding the circumstances under which death can be imposed for producing or selling harmful food and medicine. [78]

Articles in the Criminal Law that authorize the death penalty for crimes other than murder often do so ambiguously, providing for lengthy imprisonment or death under crimes involving death, serious injury or some other aggravating circumstance. [79] Articles 5 and 48 of the Criminal Law imply that courts in China should interpret such language narrowly; [80] however, statements by the Supreme People’s Court indicate that currently courts in China probably apply the death penalty broadly. [81] Because China’s courts do not release information that would allow a narrower interpretation [82] (though there are plans to publish key death penalty judgments in the near future for this reason), [83] it is possible that the courts interpret statutory language providing for the death penalty expansively. This is consistent with reports based on leaks from official sources indicating that China’s execution rate exceeded 10,000 per year by the 1980’s and has only recently dropped to 5,000 to 7,000 executions per year. [84]

Références

[1] Criminal Law of the People’s Republic of China, art. 232, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[2] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 232, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[3] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 232, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[4] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 115, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[5] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 121, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[6] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, arts. 141, 144, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[7] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 234, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[8] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 236, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[9] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 358, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[10] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 239, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[11] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 240, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[12] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 263, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[13] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 426, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[14] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 120, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[15] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 119, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[16] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 115, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[17] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 121, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[18] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 125, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[19] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 127, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[20] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 120, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[21] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 119, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[22] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 115, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[23] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 121, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[24] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, arts. 125, 127, 151, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[25] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 236, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[26] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 240, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[27] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 358, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[28] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 236, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[29] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 240, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[30] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 358, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[31] Criminal Law of the People’s Republic of China, art. 263, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[32] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, arts. 263, 267, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[33] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 438, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[34] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 127, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[35] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 115, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011
[36] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 240, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[37] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 240, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[38] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 240, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[39] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 263, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[40] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 347, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[41] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 347, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[42] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, arts. 347, 355, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[43] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 386, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[44] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 383, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[45] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, arts. 125, 151, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[46] Xinhua, 13 crimes removed from death penalty list, China.org.cn, http://www.china.org.cn/china/NPC_CPPCC_2011/2011-02/25/content_22006335.htm, Feb. 25, 2011.
[47] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, arts. 102, 103(1), 104, 106, 108, 112, 113, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[48] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 369, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[49] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 370, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[50] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 426, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[51] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 433, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[52] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 439, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[53] Criminal Law of the People’s Republic of China, arts. 110, 113, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[54] Criminal Law of the People’s Republic of China, arts. 111, 113, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[55] Criminal Law of the People’s Republic of China, art. 431(2), Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[56] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 423, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[57] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 426, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[58] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 430, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[59] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 433, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[60] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 438, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[61] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 439, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[62] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 369, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[63] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 370, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[64] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, arts. 421, 422, 424, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[65] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 446, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[66] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 234, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[67] Amnesty Intl., Executions and death sentences in 2011, p. 19, ACT 50/001/2012, Mar. 26, 2012.
[68] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 358, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[69] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 240, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[70] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 240, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[71] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 240, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[72] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, arts. 141, 144, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011. Amnesty Intl., Executions and death sentences in 2011, p. 19, ACT 50/001/2012, Mar. 26, 2012.
[73] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 317, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[74] Roger Hood & Carolyn Doyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective, pp. 144-146, Oxford University Press, 4th ed., 2008.
[75] Xinhua, 13 crimes removed from death penalty list, China.org.cn, http://www.china.org.cn/china/NPC_CPPCC_2011/2011-02/25/content_22006335.htm, Feb. 25, 2011.
[76] Xinhua, 13 crimes removed from death penalty list, China.org.cn, http://www.china.org.cn/china/NPC_CPPCC_2011/2011-02/25/content_22006335.htm, Feb. 25, 2011.
[77] Xinhua, 13 crimes removed from death penalty list, China.org.cn, http://www.china.org.cn/china/NPC_CPPCC_2011/2011-02/25/content_22006335.htm, Feb. 25, 2011.
[78] Amnesty Intl., Executions and death sentences in 2011, p. 19, ACT 50/001/2012, Mar. 26, 2012.
[79] Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[80] Criminal Law of the People’s Republic of China, arts. 5, 48, Jul. 1, 1979, as amended through to Feb. 25, 2011.
[81] Xie Chuanjiao, New guideline on death penalty, China Daily, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2008-12/23/content_7331191.htm, Dec. 23, 2008.
[82] Clive Stafford Smith, China must show mercy, The Guardian, http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/libertycentral/2009/oct/24/china-death-penalty, Oct. 24, 2009.
[83] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions 2012, p. 19, ACT 50/001/2013, Apr. 10, 2013.
[84] Johnson & Zimring, The Next Frontier: National Development, Political Change, and the Death Penalty in Asia, pp. 238-239, Oxford University Press, 2009.

Engagements internationaux

La peine de mort en droit

La peine de mort en pratique

Observations et décisions des organes internationaux de protection des droits de l’homme concernant l’application de la peine de mort dans ce pays

Autres sources d’informations et contact

Japon

See full questionnaire

Recherche mise à jour le: 12 novembre 2013

Générales

Détails du pays

Crimes et personnes passibles de la peine de mort

Crimes passibles de la peine de mort

Meurtre.
Killing another person is punishable by death. [1] However, as a matter of practice, Japan only imposes the death penalty for murder accompanied by other aggravating factors, including multiple victims and the commission of additional felonies.

Autre crime ayant entraîné la mort.
Robbery causing death at the scene of the robbery is punishable by death. [2] Rape during the course of a robbery that causes death is punishable by death. [3] Pollution of public drinking water causing the death of a person is punishable by death. [4] Causing the death of a person in the course of overturning or destroying a train or tram, or in the course of capsizing, sinking or destroying a vessel is punishable by death. [5] Endangering traffic, thereby overturning a train or tram or capsizing a vessel and causing death of a person is punishable by death. [6] Participating in a duel causing death is also death-eligible. [7]

Acte terroriste ayant entraîné la mort. [8]
Aircraft hijacking causing death [9] and destruction of airplanes resulting in death [10] are punishable by death.

Acte terroriste n’ayant pas entraîné la mort. [11]
Destruction by explosives and the illegal use of explosives are punishable by death. [12]

Incendie criminel n’ayant pas entraîné la mort. [13]
Arson of a building, train, tram, vessel, or mine in which a person is present, or which is used as a dwelling, is punishable by death. [14]

Trahison. [15]
Instigating foreign aggression against Japan [16] carries the death sentence. Assisting the enemy through direct military service or otherwise affording military advantage is punishable by death. [17] Leading an insurrection is punishable by death. [18]

Autre(s) crime(s) n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
The following offenses are punishable by death:
- Causing a flood that damages a building, train, tram or mine that is used as a dwelling or where people are present is punishable by death. [19]
- Detonating an explosive and thereby damaging a building, train, tram, vessel or mine that is used as a dwelling or where people are present is punishable by death. [20]
- Causing damage to an inhabited structure by trespass. [21]

Commentaires.
Although many crimes are deemed “death-eligible” by various statutes, the application of the death penalty has been restricted by Japanese jurisprudence. In 1983, the Supreme Court of Japan ruled in the Norio Nagayama case that “selection of the death penalty by a court should be an option in extremely heinous cases when there is room for virtually no other penalty.” The Nagayama decision sets out the factors to consider in determining whether capital punishment is an appropriate penalty. Such factors include the number of victims, the motives of the offender, his age, criminal record and degree of remorse, and the brutality of the crime and its social impact. [22]

Johnson & Zimring confirm that “in practice it is only homicide offenders who now are sentenced to death.” [23] Our review of the available jurisprudence, literature on the topic, and the facts of crimes that have resulted in executions indicate that the only crime for which individuals are sentenced to death in Japan is murder accompanied by aggravating circumstances. Additionally, in recent years, the death penalty has been most frequently applied to individuals who killed during the commission of another crime or killed vulnerable people such as the elderly, females, or children. [24]

Références

[1] Penal Code of Japan, art. 199, Act No. 45 of 1907, as last amended by Act No. 54 of 2007, Apr. 24, 1907.
[2] Penal Code of Japan, art. 240, Act No. 45 of 1907, as last amended by Act No. 54 of 2007, Apr. 24, 1907.
[3] Penal Code of Japan, art. 241, Act No. 45 of 1907, as last amended by Act No. 54 of 2007, Apr. 24, 1907.
[4] Penal Code of Japan, art. 146, Act No. 45 of 1907, as last amended by Act No. 54 of 2007, Apr. 24, 1907.
[5] Penal Code of Japan, art. 126(3), Act No. 45 of 1907, as last amended by Act No. 54 of 2007, Apr. 24, 1907.
[6] Penal Code of Japan, arts. 125-127, Act No. 45 of 1907, as last amended by Act No. 54 of 2007, Apr. 24, 1907.
[7] Petra Schmidt, Capital Punishment in Japan, p. 31, Koninklijke Brill, 2002.
[8] Roger Hood & Carolyn Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective, p. 136, Oxford University Press, 4th ed., 2008; Petra Schmidt, Capital Punishment in Japan, p. 31, Koninklijke Brill, 2002.
[9] Roger Hood & Carolyn Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective, p. 136, Oxford University Press, 4th ed., 2008; Petra Schmidt, Capital Punishment in Japan, p. 31, Koninklijke Brill, 2002.
[10] Petra Schmidt, Capital Punishment in Japan, p. 31, Koninklijke Brill, 2002.
[11] Petra Schmidt, Capital Punishment in Japan, p. 31, Koninklijke Brill, 2002.
[12] Penal Code of Japan, art. 117, Act No. 45 of 1907, as last amended by Act No. 54 of 2007, Apr. 24, 1907. Japan Explosives Control Act, art. 1, Act No. 149 of 1950. Petra Schmidt, Capital Punishment in Japan, p. 31, Koninklijke Brill, 2002.
[13] Penal Code of Japan, art. 108, Act No. 45 of 1907, as last amended by Act No. 54 of 2007, Apr. 24, 1907.
[14] Penal Code of Japan, art. 108, Act No. 45 of 1907, as last amended by Act No. 54 of 2007, Apr. 24, 1907.
[15] Penal Code of Japan, arts. 81, 82, 77(1)(i), Act No. 45 of 1907, as last amended by Act No. 54 of 2007, Apr. 24, 1907.
[16] Penal Code of Japan, art. 81, Act No. 45 of 1907, as last amended by Act No. 54 of 2007, Apr. 24, 1907.
[17] Penal Code of Japan, art. 82, Act No. 45 of 1907, as last amended by Act No. 54 of 2007, Apr. 24, 1907.
[18] Penal Code of Japan, art. 77(1)(i), Act No. 45 of 1907, as last amended by Act No. 54 of 2007, Apr. 24, 1907.
[19] Penal Code of Japan, art. 119, Act No. 45 of 1907, as last amended by Act No. 54 of 2007, Apr. 24, 1907.
[20] Penal Code of Japan, arts. 108, 117(1), Act No. 45 of 1907, as last amended by Act No. 54 of 2007, Apr. 24, 1907.
[21] Penal Code of Japan, arts. 119, Act No. 45 of 1907, as last amended by Act No. 54 of 2007, Apr. 24, 1907. Death Penalty Project, The Death Penalty in Japan: A Report on Japan’s legal obligations under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and an assessment of public attitudes to capital punishment, p. 8, http://www.deathpenaltyproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/DPP-Japan-report.pdf, Mar. 2013.
[22] Judgment on Standards for Selection of the Death Penalty, Case 1981(A) No. 1505, Keishu Reporter vol. 37, no. 6, p. 609, Supreme Court of Japan, 1983.
[23] David T. Johnson & Franklin E. Zimring, The Next Frontier: National Development, Political Change, and the Death Penalty in Asia, p. 68, Oxford University Press, 2009.
[24] Mark Schreiber, Is Aum’s Guru Finally Headed for the Gallows?, Japan Times, http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/fd20111120bj.html#.T_5Duo6fIyE, Nov. 20, 2011.

Engagements internationaux

La peine de mort en droit

La peine de mort en pratique

Observations et décisions des organes internationaux de protection des droits de l’homme concernant l’application de la peine de mort dans ce pays

Autres sources d’informations et contact

Madagascar

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Recherche mise à jour le: 7 mars 2013

Générales

Détails du pays

Crimes et personnes passibles de la peine de mort

Crimes passibles de la peine de mort

Meurtre avec circonstances aggravantes.
Le parricide, [1] l'empoisonnement, [2] l’assassinat (le meurtre commis avec préméditation ou guet-apens, sauf en cas d'infanticide commis par la mère), [3] et le meurtre qui précède, accompagne ou suit un autre crime, [4] tel que le vol d'un bœuf, [5] sont passibles de peine de mort.

Autre crime ayant entraîné la mort.
Les crimes suivants, lorsqu'ils conduisent à la mort, sont passibles de la peine capitale : la castration, [6] l'enlèvement d'un mineur, [7] l'incendie criminel [8] et la destruction par quelques moyens que ce soit d’édifices, de routes, ou de machines à vapeur. [9]

Vol n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Le vol à main armée est passible de peine de mort. Il suffit qu’un des coupables soit porteur d’une arme apparente ou cachée, ou ait laissé l’arme dans le véhicule utilisé pour le conduire avec ses complices sur le lieu du forfait ou pour le fuir, pour que le vol soit passible de mort. [10]

Incendie criminel n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
L'incendie criminel d’édifices, navires ou généralement de lieux habités [11] et l'incendie criminel de toute propriété appartenant à l'État sont passibles de la peine de mort. [12]

Acte terroriste n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
La destruction, par explosion d’une mine, de propriétés appartenant à l'État [13] et le dépôt sur une voie publique ou privée d’un engin explosif dans une intention criminelle [14] sont des crimes passibles de la peine capitale.

Enlèvement n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Arrêter, détenir ou séquestrer illégalement un individu est passible de la peine mort si la victime a été torturée. [15]

Trahison.
Les actes de trahison et la provocation à commettre des actes de trahison sont passibles de la peine de mort. [16] Tenter d'assassiner le chef de l'État, [17] inciter la population à entrer en guerre civile, [18] commander des troupes militaires sans autorisation, [19] détruire des propriétés appartenant à l'État par l’explosion d’une mine, [20] piller des propriétés appartenant à l'État à la tête d'un groupe armé, [21] et comploter contre la sécurité intérieure de l'État [22] sont passibles de peine de mort.

Espionnage.
Les actes d'espionnage ou la provocation ou l’offre de commettre de tels actes sont passibles de la peine de mort. [23]

Crimes militaires n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
La désertion ou l'incitation à déserter, [24] la révolte en temps de guerre, [25] le complot contre le commandant d'un navire ou la sûreté de ce navire, [26] le refus d’obéir [27] ou tout abandon de poste en présence de l'ennemi, [28] le sabotage d'un vaisseau militaire conduisant à la perte de ce vaisseau, [29] l’exercice de violences sur un soldat blessé afin de le dépouiller, [30] la destruction ou toute tentative de destruction des infrastructures de défense nationale en temps de guerre, [31] l'automutilation volontaire afin de se rendre impropre au service en temps de guerre, [32] et la capitulation sans en avoir reçu l'ordre ou avant d'avoir épuisé tous les moyens de défense [33] sont passibles de peine de mort.

Autre(s) crime(s) n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Les infractions suivantes sont passibles de la peine capitale et ce même lorsqu'elles ne conduisent pas à la mort.
- l’empoisonnement ; [34]
- les coups ou blessures portés à un fonctionnaire, un agent de la force publique ou un magistrat dans l’exercice de leurs fonctions avec l'intention de causer la mort ; [35]
- l’emploi de torture ou la commission d’actes de barbarie dans l’exécution d’un crime ; [36]
- le faux témoignage contre un accusé condamné à la peine capitale. [37] Un interprète qui aura de mauvaise foi dénaturé la substance de paroles ou de documents est puni des peines du faux témoignage ; [38]
- la tentative d’un crime passible de peine de mort ; [39]
- la commission d’un deuxième crime passible d'une peine de travaux forcés à perpétuité lorsque l'on a déjà été condamné pour un autre crime [40] (sauf si la première condamnation avait été rendue par un tribunal militaire). [41]

Références

[1] Code pénal de Madagascar, arts. 302, 312, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[2] Code pénal de Madagascar, arts. 302, 312, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[3] Code pénal de Madagascar, arts. 296-298, 302, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[4] Code pénal de Madagascar, art. 304, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[5] Ordonnance relative à la Répression des Vols de Bœufs, art. 4, Loi No. 60-106, 27 septembre 1960, mise à jour au 17 mai 1976.
[6] Code pénal de Madagascar, art. 316, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[7] Code pénal de Madagascar, art. 355, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[8] Code pénal de Madagascar, arts. 434-435, 437, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[9] Code pénal de Madagascar, art. 437, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[10] Code pénal de Madagascar, art. 381, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[11] Code pénal de Madagascar, arts. 434-435, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[12] Code pénal de Madagascar, art. 95, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[13] Code pénal de Madagascar, art. 95, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[14] Code pénal de Madagascar, arts. 2, 302, 435, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[15] Code pénal de Madagascar, art. 344, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[16] Code pénal de Madagascar, arts. 75-76, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005. Code de justice du service national, arts. 184-186, 188, 190, 1 octobre 1962, mis à jour au 8 février 1977.
[17] Code pénal de Madagascar, arts. 87, 97, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[18] Code pénal de Madagascar, arts. 91, 97, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[19] Code pénal de Madagascar, arts. 92-94, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[20] Code pénal de Madagascar, art. 95, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[21] Code pénal de Madagascar, art. 96, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[22] Code pénal de Madagascar, art. 125, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[23] Code pénal de Madagascar, art. 77, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005. Code de justice du service national, art.187, 1 octobre 1962, mis à jour au 8 février 1977.
[24] Code de justice du service national Code de justice du service national, arts. 127, 128, 135, 1 octobre 1962, mis à jour au 8 février 1977.
[25] Code de justice du service national, art.136, 1 octobre 1962, mis à jour au 8 février 1977.
[26] Code de justice du service national, art.137, 1 octobre 1962, mis à jour au 8 février 1977.
[27] Code de justice du service national, art.138, 1 octobre 1962, mis à jour au 8 février 1977.
[28] Code de justice du service national, arts. 161, 163, 173, 177-179,180-181, 1 octobre 1962, mis à jour au 8 février 1977.
[29] Code de justice du service national, arts. 170, 172, 1 octobre 1962, mis à jour au 8 février 1977.
[30] Code de justice du service national, art.149, 1 octobre 1962, mis à jour au 8 février 1977.
[31] Code de justice du service national, arts. 155-156, 1 octobre 1962, mis à jour au 8 février 1977.
[32] Code de justice du service national, art.166, 1 octobre 1962, mis à jour au 8 février 1977.
[33] Code de justice du service national, arts. 168, 169, 171, 174, 1 octobre 1962, mis à jour au 8 février 1977.
[34] Code pénal de Madagascar, art. 302, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[35] Code pénal de Madagascar, art. 233, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[36] Code pénal de Madagascar, art. 303, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[37] Code pénal de Madagascar, art. 361, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[38] Code pénal de Madagascar, art. 367, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[39] Code pénal de Madagascar, art. 2, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[40] Code pénal de Madagascar, art. 56, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.
[41] Code pénal de Madagascar, art. 57, mis à jour au 28 janvier 2005.

Engagements internationaux

La peine de mort en droit

La peine de mort en pratique

Observations et décisions des organes internationaux de protection des droits de l’homme concernant l’application de la peine de mort dans ce pays

Autres sources d’informations et contact

Mali

See full questionnaire

Recherche mise à jour le: 27 mars 2012

Générales

Détails du pays

Crimes et personnes passibles de la peine de mort

Crimes passibles de la peine de mort

Meurtre avec circonstances aggravantes.
Le meurtre prémédité, [1] le meurtre qui aura précédé, accompagné ou suivi un autre crime ou délit, [2] le meurtre commis dans un but rituel [3] ou par immolation, [4] le parricide [5] et l’empoisonnement entraînant la mort, [6] sont passibles de la peine de mort.

Autre crime ayant entraîné la mort.
Les actes de torture perpétrés par un agent de la fonction publique et entraînant la mort sont passibles de la peine de mort. [7]

Acte terroriste ayant entraîné la mort.
Le détournement d’un aéronef entraînant la mort, [8] la destruction de tout édifice, toute voie publique, toute installation ou tout véhicule d’utilité publique au moyen d’un engin explosif et provoquant la mort, [9] sont passibles de la peine de mort.

Acte terroriste n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Provoquer l’explosion ou l’incendie des infrastructures de transport [10] ou des installations appartenant à l’État, [11] déposer des explosifs sur des routes, [12] et prendre part à un groupe ayant tenté de perpétrer ou ayant perpétré une attaque terroriste visant à provoquer une sécession, la dévastation, le massacre ou le pillage, [13] sont des actes passibles de la peine de mort.

Vol n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Le vol commis en bande, le vol à main armée commis avec violence ou sous l’effet de substances enivrantes, sont passibles de la peine de mort. [14]

Incendie criminel n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Mettre le feu à des édifices habituellement habités, à des bateaux ou à des véhicules, est un acte passible de la peine de mort. [15] Incendier un bâtiment appartenant à l’État ou le détruire au moyen d’un engin explosif sont des actes passibles de la peine de mort. [16]

Enlèvement n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
L’arrestation illégale, la séquestration et la prise d’otage sont passibles de la peine de mort lorsque la victime a été torturée. [17]

Trahison.
Commettre une trahison au service d’une puissance étrangère, [18] former un complot ou tenter de renverser du gouvernement, [19] former un complot visant à attenter à la sûreté de l’État concerté alors que l’on est fonctionnaire [20] ou que l’on appartient à un groupe armé, [21] former un complot visant à porter atteinte à l’autorité des commandants militaires en temps de guerre, [22] prendre illégalement le commandement de forces publiques, [23] et tenter de provoquer la sédition, la guerre civile, la dévastation ou des massacres, [24] sont des actes passibles de la peine de mort.

Espionnage.
L’espionnage commis par des étrangers est passible de la peine de mort. [25]

Crimes militaires n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Aux termes du Code de justice militaire de 1995 du Mali, la désertion en présence de l’ennemi, [26] des actes de lâcheté ou des manquements aux obligations militaires, [27] l’insubordination en temps de guerre, [28] et l’incitation à la mutinerie en temps de guerre [29] sont des actes passibles de la peine de mort.

Crimes de guerre, crimes contre l’humanité et génocide.
Les crimes contre l’humanité [30] et les crimes de génocide [31] sont passibles de la peine de mort.

Autre(s) crime(s) n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
- L’agression d’agents au service de l’État en vue de provoquer la mort est passible de la peine de mort. [32]
- L’empoisonnement [33] ou l’empoisonnement collectif des systèmes d’approvisionnement en eau, [34] qu’ils entraînent ou non la mort, sont passibles de la peine de mort.
- Employer des tortures ou commettre des actes de barbarie pour l’exécution d’un crime est passible de la peine de mort. [35]
- Toute tentative d’un crime pour lequel la peine de mort est encourue est passible de la peine de mort. [36]

Références

[1] Code pénal du Mali, arts. 199 et 200, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[2] Code pénal du Mali, art. 201, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[3] Code pénal du Mali, art. 201, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[4] Code pénal du Mali, art. 201, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[5] Code pénal du Mali, arts. 199 et 200, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[6] Code pénal du Mali, arts. 199, 200, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[7] Code pénal du Mali, art. 209, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[8] Code pénal du Mali, art. 308, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[9] Code pénal du Mali, art. 307, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[10] Code pénal du Mali, art. 311, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[11] Code pénal du Mali, art. 51 1°, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[12] Code pénal du Mali, arts. 3, 307, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[13] Code pénal du Mali, arts. 47, 52, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[14] Code pénal du Mali, art. 253, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[15] Code pénal du Mali, art. 305, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[16] Code pénal du Mali, art. 51.1°, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[17] Code pénal du Mali, arts. 237, 238, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[18] Code pénal du Mali, arts. 33, 34, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001. Code de justice militaire du Mali, art. 129, Loi No. 95-042/AN-RM, 20 avril 1995.
[19] Code pénal du Mali, arts. 45, 50, 52, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[20] Code pénal du Mali, arts. 77-80, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[21] Code pénal du Mali, art. 51, 2° et 3°, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[22] Code de justice militaire du Mali, art. 130, Loi No. 95-042/AN-RM, 20 avril 1995.
[23] Code pénal du Mali, arts. 48, 49, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[24] Code pénal du Mali, arts. 47, 52, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[25] Code pénal du Mali, arts. 33-35, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[26] Code de justice militaire du Mali, arts. 117, 118, Loi No. 95-042/AN-RM, 20 avril 1995.
[27] Code de justice militaire du Mali, arts. 127, 129, 176, 177, Loi No. 95-042/AN-RM, 20 avril 1995.
[28] Code de justice militaire du Mali, arts. 154, 171, Loi No. 95-042/AN-RM, 20 avril 1995.
[29] Code de justice militaire du Mali, art. 150, Loi No. 95-042/AN-RM, 20 avril 1995.
[30] Code pénal du Mali, arts. 29, 32, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[31] Code pénal du Mali, arts. 30, 32, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[32] Code pénal du Mali, art. 153, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[33] Code pénal du Mali, arts. 199, 200, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[34] Code pénal du Mali, art. 314, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[35] Code pénal du Mali, art. 200, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.
[36] Code pénal du Mali, art. 3, Loi No. 01-079, 20 août 2001.

Engagements internationaux

La peine de mort en droit

La peine de mort en pratique

Observations et décisions des organes internationaux de protection des droits de l’homme concernant l’application de la peine de mort dans ce pays

Autres sources d’informations et contact

Maroc

See full questionnaire

Recherche mise à jour le: 5 avril 2011

Générales

Détails du pays

Crimes et personnes passibles de la peine de mort

Crimes passibles de la peine de mort

Meurtre avec circonstances aggravantes.
Murder of the king [1] or of any member of the royal family, [2] murder of an on-duty public official, [3] murder committed in order to further another crime, [4] planned or premeditated murder, [5] parricide, [6] poisoning, [7] murder through abuse of a child under 15, [8] and abandoning a child under 15 or an incapacitated person with the intent to cause death, [9] are punishable by death.

Autre crime ayant entraîné la mort.
Systematic abusive treatment of a child under 15 years, leading to that child’s death, is punishable by death when committed by the child’s guardian. [10] Castration without intent to cause death, but leading to death, is punishable by death. [11] Arson of any kind resulting in the death of a person is punishable by death. [12] Kidnapping of a minor resulting in the death of the minor is punishable by death. [13]

Acte terroriste ayant entraîné la mort.
A terrorist offense (such as the destruction of roads or buildings, the obstruction of vehicles, or the poisoning of the environment or of water supplies), causing one or more deaths, is punishable by death. [14] Inciting a person to commit a death-eligible terrorism offense is punishable by death. [15]

Acte terroriste n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
The 2003 anti-terrorism law sets out a list of offenses which are characterized as terrorist offenses if they are committed with terrorist intent. Terrorist intent is defined as the intent to cause a serious breach of public order (“atteinte à l’ordre public”) through intimidation, terror or violence. [16]

Terrorist offenses are punishable by death, even where no deaths are caused, if the underlying offense is punishable by life in prison. [17] These offenses include: hostage-taking in furtherance of another crime, [18] kidnapping a minor for a ransom, [19] counterfeiting money or public bonds, [20] armed robbery, [21] and arson causing permanent injury. [22] This list is not exhaustive, however, given the vagueness of the definition of underlying offenses.

Additionally, inciting a person to commit a death-eligible terrorism offense is punishable by death. [23]

Incendie criminel n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Arson of habitually occupied buildings, ships, tents, vehicles or other structures, is punishable by death. [24]

Enlèvement n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Torturing a kidnapped victim is punishable by death. [25] Aiding in the commission of this crime by providing a place for detention or a means of transportation is also punishable by death. [26]

Crimes économiques n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Accepting or offering a bribe in furtherance of a death-eligible crime, [27] and accepting a bribe as a judge or jury member where the bribe leads to a death sentence, [28] are punishable by death.

Trahison.
Acts of treason, [29] including incitement to civil war, devastation, massacre and pillaging, [30] are punishable by death. For civilian and military officials to plot together to commit treason against “the internal security of the state” is punishable by death. [31] Incitement or provocation to commit treason is also punishable by death. [32]

Espionnage.
Espionage [33] and provocation or incitement to commit espionage [34] are punishable by death.

Crimes militaires n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Desertion, [35] disobeying orders to march on the enemy, [36] assaulting a wounded soldier in order to steal from him or her, [37] attempting to destroy buildings or equipment used for military purposes, [38] dereliction of duty in presence of the enemy, [39] self-mutilation in time of war, [40] unlawful capitulation, [41] and plotting against military commanders, [42] are punishable by death.

Escaped prisoners of war who are found carrying weapons are punishable by death. [43]

Autre(s) crime(s) n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
-Repeat offender: an offender who is successively convicted of two offenses that are punishable by life imprisonment is punishable by death. [44]
-Attempt: attempting poisoning, [45] and attempting a death-eligible crime, [46] are punishable by death.
-Torture: committing torture or barbarous acts in the course of committing another crime is punishable by death. [47]
-Perjury: committing perjury leading to a death sentence is punishable by death. [48]
-Abuse of public authority: abuse of authority by a public official, leading to a death-eligible crime, is punishable by death. [49]
-Public health offenses: the Prevention of Crimes Against Public Health Act provides that the death penalty may be imposed for trading in the manufacture of products or substances that are unfit for human consumption and pose a threat to public health. [50]
-Assault on the king: assaulting the king (except where he is completely unharmed) is punishable by death. [51]

Références

[1] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 163, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[2] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 165, 167, 168, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[3] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 267, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[4] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 392, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[5] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 393-395, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[6] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 396, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[7] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 398, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[8] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 408, 410 in conjunction with arts. 461, 463, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[9] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 459, 463, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[10] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 411, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[11] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 412, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[12] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 584, 581-583, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[13] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 474 in conjunction with arts. 471-473, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[14] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 218.3, 588, 590-591, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[15] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 218.5, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[16] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 218-1, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[17] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 218-1, 218-7, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[18] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 437, 218-1, 218-7, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[19] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 473, 218-1, 218-7, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[20] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 334, 218-1, 218-7, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[21] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 507, 218-1, 218-7, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[22] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 584, 588, 218-1, 218-7, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[23] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 218.5, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[24] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 580, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[25] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 438, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[26] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 439, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[27] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 252, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[28] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 253, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[29] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 181-182, 190, 202, 203, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007. Morocco Code of Military Justice, arts. 185-187, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-56-270, Nov. 10, 1956.
[30] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 201, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[31] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 235, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[32] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 186, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[33] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 185, 190, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007. Morocco Code of Military Justice, art. 186, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-56-270, Nov. 10, 1956.
[34] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 186, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[35] Morocco Code of Military Justice, arts. 144, 145, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-56-270, Nov. 10, 1956.
[36] Morocco Code of Military Justice, art. 153, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-56-270, Nov. 10, 1956.
[37] Morocco Code of Military Justice, art. 164, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-56-270, Nov. 10, 1956.
[38] Morocco Code of Military Justice, arts. 170, 171, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-56-270, Nov. 10, 1956.
[39] Morocco Code of Military Justice, arts. 175, 177, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-56-270, Nov. 10, 1956.
[40] Morocco Code of Military Justice, art. 179, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-56-270, Nov. 10, 1956.
[41] Morocco Code of Military Justice, arts. 181, 182, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-56-270, Nov. 10, 1956.
[42] Morocco Code of Military Justice, art. 184, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-56-270, Nov. 10, 1956.
[43] Morocco Code of Military Justice, art. 183, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-56-270, Nov. 10, 1956.
[44] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 154-155, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[45] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 398, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[46] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 114,promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[47] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 399, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[48] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 369, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[49] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 259, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[50] U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Human Rights, Status of the International Covenants on Human Rights: Question of the death penalty: Report of the Secretary-General submitted pursuant to Commission resolution 2003/67, Annex II, p. 21, para. 9, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/2004/86, Jan. 23, 2004.
[51] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 163-164, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.

Engagements internationaux

La peine de mort en droit

La peine de mort en pratique

Observations et décisions des organes internationaux de protection des droits de l’homme concernant l’application de la peine de mort dans ce pays

Autres sources d’informations et contact

Mauritanie

See full questionnaire

Recherche mise à jour le: 5 avril 2011

Générales

Détails du pays

Crimes et personnes passibles de la peine de mort

Crimes passibles de la peine de mort

Meurtre avec circonstances aggravantes.
Planned or premeditated murder, [1] parricide, [2] poisoning, [3] infanticide, [4] murder of a judge or public official in the course of his duties, [5] and murder committed in order to commit cannibalism [6] are punished by death.

Meurtre.
Where the perpetrator and the victim share the same religion, the Penal Code defines simple murder as a “qisas” or equivalent retaliation offense, [7] which under Shari’a law (as applied) can mean application of the death penalty for intentional killing or killing that results from indifference to human life. [8] Murder is therefore punished by death (except where one of the victim’s heirs grants clemency, either freely given or in exchange for payment of diyya, compensation). [9]

Autre crime ayant entraîné la mort.
When they result in death, the following offenses are punishable by death: torturing a kidnapped or sequestrated person, [10] kidnapping a minor, [11] abandoning a child or an incapacitated person, [12] assaulting a judge or public official in the course of his duties, [13] arson (or destruction by explosive device), [14] and the voluntary destruction of buildings, bridges, dams or roads. [15]

Acte terroriste ayant entraîné la mort.
The recent anti-terrorism legislation passed in July 2010 greatly expands the number of death-eligible offenses. Under the law, any terrorist act is punishable by death if it causes the death of one or more persons. [16] The law sets out an exceptionally broad definition of what constitutes terrorism.

Any of 24 offenses set out in Articles 4 to 6, if committed with terrorist intent, is a terrorist offense. Terrorist intent, as defined in Article 3, is the intent to commit an act in order to seriously intimidate the population, compel the authorities to act in a certain manner, pervert society’s fundamental values, destabilize constitutional, political, economic or social institutions, or harm the interests of a foreign country or an international organization.

The 24 offenses cover a vast range of activities, including: endangering the security of the state; [17] endangering the lives, bodily integrity, or freedom of persons; [18] cyber-criminality; [19] producing, transporting or using explosives or weapons; [20] endangering the safety of air or sea navigation systems; [21] money-laundering; [22] receiving stolen goods; [23] destroying infrastructure or transportation systems; [24] interfering with the distribution of water, electricity, or telecommunications; [25] spreading toxic substances; [26] providing or receiving training to commit a terrorist act; [27] participating in a group created to commit a terrorist act; [28] assisting, supporting or funding a person or group to commit a terrorist act; [29] inciting to terrorism; [30] failing to inform authorities of any information relating to the preparation of a terrorist act; [31] hijacking any means of transportation; [32] or threatening to do any of the above. [33]

The adoption of the 2010 anti-terrorism law was very controversial. Nearly one third of Parliament – including members of the presidential party – challenged the constitutionality of the law before the Constitutional Council. The Council deemed a dozen articles contrary to the Constitution, including Articles 3, 4 and 5 which define terrorism in terms that criminalized a long list of activities, and article 21, which provides for the death penalty. [34] By March 2011, we were unable to ascertain whether the final version of the law incorporated the Constitutional Council’s holdings.

Viol n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Mauritania’s law sets forth the houdoud penalty for rape—death (without flogging) if the offender is married, and flogging and hard labor (as a substitute for exile) if the offender is unmarried. [35] The rape of a child is punished in the same way as the rape of an adult. [36]

Vol n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Armed robbery and attempted armed robbery (i.e. breaking into a dwelling at night or laying in wait on a public road at any time, while bearing a weapon, with the intent to forcefully take property, whether or not any property is actually taken) is punishable by death. [37]

Incendie criminel n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Arson (or destruction by explosive device) of inhabited dwellings or occupied vehicles is punishable by death. [38]

Adultère.
Adultery is defined under Islamic law as voluntary sexual relations without the substance of a legal right, whether or not the adulterer is married. [39] A Muslim person who commits adultery is punished by death if he or she is married or divorced. [40] Stringent rules of evidence apply: adultery must be proved by 4 witnesses, a confession, or, for women with no legal partner, pregnancy. [41]

Apostasie.
Apostasy by word or by deed is punished by death, unless the defendant repents. In particular, refusing to pray despite acknowledging prayer’s obligatory nature is punished by death, if one persists in this refusal until the end of a set period. [42]

Relations homosexuelles entre adultes consentants.
Sexual relations between Muslim men are punished by death. [43]

Trahison.
Treason, attempted treason, provocation or offer to commit treason and other crimes against the security of the state are punishable by death. [44] As of December 2010, we were unable to locate the legislation defining military offenses, which is reported also to impose the death penalty for treason. [45]

Espionnage.
Espionage and provocation or offer to commit espionage are punishable by death. [46]

Autre(s) crime(s) n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
- Repeat offenses: a repeat offender who was previously sentenced to forced labor for life and who commits a second offense carrying the same penalty is punishable by death. If the first sentence was handed down by a military court, the first offense must also be punishable under civil criminal law in order to trigger the repeat offender rule. [47]
- Torture: Committing acts of torture or barbarous acts in the course of committing a crime is punishable by death. [48]
- Perjury: Perjury [49] and intentional mistranslation of documents or speech, [50] leading to another’s death sentence, is punishable by death.
- Accomplice: An accomplice to a crime receives the same sentence as the person who committed the crime. An accomplice to a death-eligible crime is thus punishable by death, unless the law specifically provides otherwise. [51] Any person who furnishes a known criminal with a place to live, to rest or to meet is considered an accomplice. [52]

Références

[1] Penal Code of Mauritania, arts. 272-274, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.
[2] Penal Code of Mauritania, art. 278, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.
[3] Penal Code of Mauritania, art. 278, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.
[4] Penal Code of Mauritania, art. 278, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.
[5] Penal Code of Mauritania, art. 215, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.
[6] Penal Code of Mauritania, art. 278, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.
[7] Penal Code of Mauritania, art. 280, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.
[8] M. Cherif Bassiouni, ed., The Islamic Criminal Justice System, pp. 203-209, Oceana Publications, Inc., 1982.
[9] Penal Code of Mauritania, art. 280, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.
[10] Penal Code of Mauritania, art. 322, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.
[11] Penal Code of Mauritania, art. 333, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.
[12] Penal Code of Mauritania, art. 328, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.
[13] Penal Code of Mauritania, art. 213, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983. This is a qisas offense.
[14] Penal Code of Mauritania, arts. 410, 411, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.
[15] Penal Code of Mauritania, art. 413, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.
[16] Anti-Terrorism Law Abrogating and Replacing Law No. 2005-047, dated Jul. 26, 2005, Law No. 2010-035, art. 17, Jul. 21, 2010.
[17] Anti-Terrorism Law Abrogating and Replacing Law No. 2005-047, dated Jul. 26, 2005, Law No. 2010-035, art. 4.1, Jul. 21, 2010.
[18] Anti-Terrorism Law Abrogating and Replacing Law No. 2005-047, dated Jul. 26, 2005, Law No. 2010-035, art. 4.2, Jul. 21, 2010.
[19] Anti-Terrorism Law Abrogating and Replacing Law No. 2005-047, dated Jul. 26, 2005, Law No. 2010-035, art. 4.3, Jul. 21, 2010.
[20] Anti-Terrorism Law Abrogating and Replacing Law No. 2005-047, dated Jul. 26, 2005, Law No. 2010-035, arts. 4.5, 4.6, Jul. 21, 2010.
[21] Anti-Terrorism Law Abrogating and Replacing Law No. 2005-047, dated Jul. 26, 2005, Law No. 2010-035, art. 4.4, Jul. 21, 2010.
[22] Anti-Terrorism Law Abrogating and Replacing Law No. 2005-047, dated Jul. 26, 2005, Law No. 2010-035, art. 4.8, Jul. 21, 2010.
[23] Anti-Terrorism Law Abrogating and Replacing Law No. 2005-047, dated Jul. 26, 2005, Law No. 2010-035, art. 4.7, Jul. 21, 2010.
[24] Anti-Terrorism Law Abrogating and Replacing Law No. 2005-047, dated Jul. 26, 2005, Law No. 2010-035, art. 5.1, Jul. 21, 2010.
[25] Anti-Terrorism Law Abrogating and Replacing Law No. 2005-047, dated Jul. 26, 2005, Law No. 2010-035, art. 5.3, Jul. 21, 2010.
[26] Anti-Terrorism Law Abrogating and Replacing Law No. 2005-047, dated Jul. 26, 2005, Law No. 2010-035, arts. 5.2, 5.4, Jul. 21, 2010.
[27] Anti-Terrorism Law Abrogating and Replacing Law No. 2005-047, dated Jul. 26, 2005, Law No. 2010-035, arts. 6.2, 6.3, Jul. 21, 2010.
[28] Anti-Terrorism Law Abrogating and Replacing Law No. 2005-047, dated Jul. 26, 2005, Law No. 2010-035, art. 6.1, Jul. 21, 2010.
[29] Anti-Terrorism Law Abrogating and Replacing Law No. 2005-047, dated Jul. 26, 2005, Law No. 2010-035, arts. 6.5, 6.6, 6.8, 6.9, Jul. 21, 2010.
[30] Anti-Terrorism Law Abrogating and Replacing Law No. 2005-047, dated Jul. 26, 2005, Law No. 2010-035, art. 6.7, Jul. 21, 2010.
[31] Anti-Terrorism Law Abrogating and Replacing Law No. 2005-047, dated Jul. 26, 2005, Law No. 2010-035, art. 6.10, Jul. 21, 2010.
[32] Anti-Terrorism Law Abrogating and Replacing Law No. 2005-047, dated Jul. 26, 2005, Law No. 2010-035, art. 6.11, Jul. 21, 2010.
[33] Anti-Terrorism Law Abrogating and Replacing Law No. 2005-047, dated Jul. 26, 2005, Law No. 2010-035, art. 6.12, Jul. 21, 2010.
[34] Alkarama, Mauritania, Universal periodic Review (UPR), p. 3, http://en.alkarama.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=591:mauritania-human-rights-council-reviews-mauritania&catid=28:communiqu&Itemid=144, Apr. 22, 2010.
[35] Penal Code of Mauritania, arts. 309, 310, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983; Dr. Nagaty Sanad, The Theory of Crime and Criminal Responsibility in Islamic Law: Shari’a, p. 51, Office of International Criminal Justice, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1991. Tahir Mahmood, et. al., Criminal Law in Islam and the Muslim World: A Comparative Perspective, p. 68, Institute of Objective Studies, 1st. ed., 1996; Mohamed S. El-Awa, Punishment in Islamic Law: A Comparative Study, p. 18-19, American Trust Publications, 1982.
[36] Code on the Judicial Protection of Children, Ordinance No. 2005-015, art. 24, Dec. 5, 2005.
[37] Penal Code of Mauritania, arts. 353-354, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.
[38] Penal Code of Mauritania, arts. 410, 411, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.
[39] Dr. NagatySanad, The Theory of Crime and Criminal Responsibility in Islamic Law: Shari’a, p. 51, Office of International Criminal Justice, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1991.
[40] Penal Code of Mauritania, art. 307, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.
[41] Penal Code of Mauritania, art. 307, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.
[42] Penal Code of Mauritania, art. 306, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.
[43] Penal Code of Mauritania, art. 308, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.
[44] Penal Code of Mauritania, arts. 67-69, 88, 90, 92, 95, 96, 122, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.
[45] Amnesty Intl., When the State Kills, p. 174, Amnesty Intl. Publications, 1989.
[46] Penal Code of Mauritania, art. 70, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.
[47] Penal Code of Mauritania, art. 50, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.
[48] Penal Code of Mauritania, art. 279, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.
[49] Penal Code of Mauritania, arts. 341, 344, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.
[50] Penal Code of Mauritania, arts. 347, 344, 341, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.
[51] Penal Code of Mauritania, arts. 53, 54, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983. See e.g. Penal Code of Mauritania, art. 354 (accomplice to armed robbery), Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.
[52] Penal Code of Mauritania, art. 55, Ordinance No. 83-162, Jul. 9, 1983.

Engagements internationaux

La peine de mort en droit

La peine de mort en pratique

Observations et décisions des organes internationaux de protection des droits de l’homme concernant l’application de la peine de mort dans ce pays

Autres sources d’informations et contact

Niger

See full questionnaire

Recherche mise à jour le: 27 mars 2012

Générales

Détails du pays

Crimes et personnes passibles de la peine de mort

Crimes passibles de la peine de mort

Meurtre avec circonstances aggravantes.
L’assassinat (c’est-à-dire planifié ou avec préméditation - sauf dans le cas où la mère tue son nouveau-né), [1] le parricide, [2] le meurtre ou tentative de meurtre sur une personne jouissant d’une protection internationale, [3] le meurtre d’un juge en fonctions ou d’un fonctionnaire officiel, [4] le meurtre précédé, accompagné ou suivi d’un autre crime, [5] et le meurtre commis pour préparer ou faciliter un crime ou assurer l’impunité de ses auteurs [6] sont passibles de la peine de mort.

Autre crime ayant entraîné la mort.
Les crimes suivants, lorsqu’ils entraînent la mort (même s’il n’y a pas d’intention de donner la mort), sont passibles de la peine de mort : la castration, [7] l’empoisonnement [8] et l’enlèvement d’un mineur. [9]

Acte terroriste ayant entraîné la mort.
Le détournement, la destruction ou la mise en danger d’un avion, d’un bateau ou d’un véhicule, ou de toute autre infrastructure ou équipement privé ou public ; l’explosion d’une bombe ou le rejet de substances toxiques ; se doter de, produire ou utiliser du matériel nucléaire ou radioactif avec l’intention de causer un tort important, sont passibles de la peine de mort lorsqu’ils entraînent la mort. [10] Le meurtre d’une personne jouissant d’une protection internationale est passible de la peine de mort. [11] Toute tentative de commettre les délits ci-dessus est également passible de la peine de mort. [12]

Acte terroriste n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Commettre un acte de violence susceptible d’entraîner des lésions corporelles graves, d’une façon telle que cela met en danger la sécurité d’un aéroport ou d’un autre bâtiment, est passible de la peine de mort. [13] Faire exploser une bombe ou émettre des produits chimiques toxiques ou se doter de, produire ou utiliser un matériel radioactif ou nucléaire avec l’intention de causer des dommages corporels graves ou d’importants dégâts matériels sont passibles de la peine de mort quand ils entraînent des « pertes économiques considérables ». [14] Toute tentative de commettre l’un des délits ci-dessus est également passible de la peine de mort. [15]

Incendie criminel n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Le vol précédé ou suivi d’un viol, [16] le vol entraînant des traces de blessures ou de contusions [17] et le vol de bétail précédé ou suivi d’un viol, d’un enlèvement ou d’usage d’arme à feu, [18] sont passibles de la peine de mort.

Trahison.
La trahison, et l’incitation à commettre un acte de trahison, sont passibles de la peine de mort. [19] Les atteintes à la sécurité de l’état [20] (lever ou organiser des bandes [21] ou organiser un mouvement insurrectionnel) [22] sont aussi passibles de la peine de mort.

Espionnage.
L’espionnage et la provocation ou l’offre de commettre des actes d’espionnage sont passibles de la peine de mort. [23]

Crimes de guerre, crimes contre l’humanité et génocide.
Le génocide, [24] les crimes contre l’humanité, [25] la préparation ou l’entente établie afin de commettre un génocide ou des crimes contre l’humanité, [26] et certains crimes en temps de guerre, [27] sont passibles de la peine de mort.

Autre(s) crime(s) n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
- Actes de torture : l’emploi de tortures ou d’actes de barbarie pour l’exécution d’un crime, est passible de la peine de mort. [28] La torture corporelle d’une personne enlevée est aussi passible de la peine de mort. [29]
- Le trafic d’êtres humains : « Aliéner la liberté » de plusieurs personnes, soit gratuitement soit en échange d’argent, est passible de la peine de mort. [30] Il est difficile de préciser la nature exacte du délit car le Code Pénal n’en mentionne pas les éléments. Il semble, néanmoins que cela englobe un vaste éventail de délits relatifs au trafic d’êtres humains, car il remplace une disposition ancienne interdisant la traite d’esclaves. [31] Un commentateur la décrit comme étant une disposition « fourre-tout » dont l’interprétation diffère d’un juge à l’autre. [32] Elle ne comprend pas les délits relatifs à l’esclavage en soi (comme le fait d’être propriétaire d’un esclave ou d’inciter à devenir propriétaire d’esclave), ces délits étant abordés dans une autre partie du Code. [33]
- L’empoisonnement : l’empoisonnement est passible de la peine de mort même lorsqu’il n’entraîne pas la mort. [34]
- Donner asile à des criminels : fournir habituellement et en toute connaissance de cause, un logement, lieu de retraite ou de réunion à un criminel passible de la peine de mort est passible de la peine de mort. [35] - Le faux témoignage: Le faux témoignage en matière criminelle [36] et la dénaturation de mauvaise foi par un interprète de la substance de paroles ou de documents oralement traduits sont passibles de la peine de mort lorsqu’il en résulte une condamnation à mort. [37] - Toute tentative d’un crime passible de la peine de mort est passible de la peine de mort. [38]
- La récidive : Une personne condamnée à l’une des peines les plus graves (peine de mort, emprisonnement à vie ou emprisonnement d’une durée de 10 à 30 ans), [39] et qui, ultérieurement commet un second délit sanctionné par la prison à vie, sera condamnée à mort. Si la première condamnation est prononcée par un tribunal militaire, le premier délit est aussi passible de sanction dans le cadre de la législation pénale et civile afin d’enclencher la règle de la récidive. [40]

Commentaires.
Selon Roger Hood et Carolyn Hoyle, « le détournement de fonds publics ou le vol de la propriété collective » [41] sont passibles de la peine de mort. Lors de notre recherche, nous n’avons pas pu trouver la source législative étayant cette affirmation.

Il peut y avoir d’autres délits susceptibles d’entraîner la peine de mort, qui relèvent de la loi militaire, mais à la fin de notre recherche en mars 2012, nous n’avons pas pu trouver la législation relative aux délits militaires au Niger (le Code de Justice Militaire de 2002).

Références

[1] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 243, Loi N° 61-27 du 15 juillet 1961, mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[2] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 243, Loi N° 61-27 du 15 juillet 1961, mise à jour par la Loi n° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[3] Loi Nigérienne modifiant le Code Pénal, art. 399.13 en lien avec art.399.19, Loi N° 2008-18, 23 juin 2008.
[4] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 175, Loi N°61-27 du 15 juillet 1961 mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[5] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 242, Loi N°61-27 du 15 juillet 1961 mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[6] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 242, Loi N°61-27 du 15 juillet 1961 mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[7] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 232, Loi N°61-27 du 15 juillet 1961 mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[8] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 243, Loi N°61-27 du 15 juillet 1961 mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[9] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 257, Loi N°61-27 du 15 juillet 1961 mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[10] Loi Nigérienne modifiant le Code Pénal, arts. 399.1, 399.3, 399.4, 399.7, 399.9, 399.10, 399.15, 399.16, Loi N° 2008-18, 23 juin 2008.
[11] Loi Nigérienne modifiant le Code Pénal, arts. 399.13, Loi N° 2008-18, 23 juin 2008.
[12] Loi Nigérienne modifiant le Code Pénal, arts. 399.19, Loi N° 2008-18, 23 juin 2008.
[13] Loi Nigérienne modifiant le Code Pénal, arts. 399.4, Loi N° 2008-18, 23 juin 2008.
[14] Loi Nigérienne modifiant le Code Pénal, arts. 399.15, 399.16, Loi N° 2008-18, 23 juin 2008.
[15] Loi Nigérienne modifiant le Code Pénal, arts. 399.19, Loi N° 2008-18, 23 juin 2008.
[16] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 310, Loi N°. 61-27 du 15 juillet, 1961, mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[17] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 312, Loi N°. 61-27 du 15 juillet, 1961, mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[18] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 324, Loi N°. 61-27 du 15 juillet, 1961, mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[19] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 62-64, Loi N°. 61-27 du 15 juillet, 1961, mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[20] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 83 conjointement avec arts. 78, 80-82, art.85, art.87, art.90, art. 91, Loi N° 61-27 du 15 juillet 1961, mise à jour par la Loi N°2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[21] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 87, Loi N°. 61-27 du 15 juillet, 1961, mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[22] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 91, Loi N°. 61-27 du 15 juillet, 1961, mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[23] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 65, Loi N°. 61-27 du 15 juillet, 1961, mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[24] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 208.1, Loi N°. 61-27 du 15 juillet, 1961, mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[25] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 208.2, Loi N°. 61-27 du 15 juillet, 1961, mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[26] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 208.5, Loi N°. 61-27 du 15 juillet, 1961, mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[27] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 2008.3, 208.4, Loi N°. 61-27 du 15 juillet, 1961, mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[28] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 244, Loi N°. 61-27 du 15 juillet, 1961, mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[29] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 267, Loi N°. 61-27 du 15 juillet, 1961, mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[30] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 270, Loi N° 61-27 du 15 juillet 1961, mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[31] Kadir Abdelkader Galy, L’esclavage au Niger : Aspects historiques et juridiques, p. 119, Editions Karthala, 2010.
[32] Kadir Abdelkader Galy, L’esclavage au Niger : Aspects historiques et juridiques, p. 119, Editions Karthala, 2010.
[33] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 270.1-270.5, Loi N° 61-27 du 15 juillet 1961, mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[34] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 243, Loi N° 61-27 du 15 juillet 1961, mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[35] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 205, Loi N° 61-27 du 15 juillet 1961, mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[36] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 212, Loi N° 61-27 du 15 juillet 1961, mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[37] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 215, Loi N° 61-27 du 15 juillet 1961, mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[38] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 2, Loi N° 61-27 du 15 juillet 1961, mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[39] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 5, Loi N° 61-27 du 15 juillet 1961, mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[40] Code Pénal du Niger, art. 56, Loi N° 61-27 du 15 juillet 1961, mise à jour par la Loi N° 2003-025 du 13 juin 2003.
[41] Roger Hood & Carolyn Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective (La Peine de Mort : Une Perspective Mondiale), p. 139, n. 42, Oxford University Press, 4th ed., 2008.

Engagements internationaux

La peine de mort en droit

La peine de mort en pratique

Observations et décisions des organes internationaux de protection des droits de l’homme concernant l’application de la peine de mort dans ce pays

Autres sources d’informations et contact

Thaïlande

See full questionnaire

Recherche mise à jour le: 19 juillet 2015

Générales

Détails du pays

Crimes et personnes passibles de la peine de mort

Crimes passibles de la peine de mort

Meurtre avec circonstances aggravantes.
The following aggravated forms of murder are punishable by death: committing murder “by employing torture or acts of cruelty;” [1] murder of an ascendant, [2] murder of an official, or murder of those who assist officials; [3] murder to prepare or facilitate another offense; [4] murder “for the purpose of securing the benefit obtained through any other offence or of concealing any other offence or of escaping punishment for any other offence committed by him;” [5] murder or attempted murder of a member of the royal family; [6] and murder or attempted murder of a foreign head of state that has friendly relations with Thailand. [7]

Meurtre.
Murder (even without aggravating factors) is punishable by death. [8]

Autre crime ayant entraîné la mort.
The following offenses are punishable by death if they result in the death of a victim, even in the absence of an intent to cause death: committing a theft [9] or a gang-robbery; [10] raping a woman or girl [11] or committing “indecent acts” on a child under the age of 15; [12] having sexual relations with a girl under the age of 15, even if they are consensual; [13] forcibly detaining, enslaving or trafficking a child under 15 years; [14] kidnapping to obtain a ransom [15] or supporting such an offense; [16] and committing arson [17] or causing an explosion. [18] Causing (or attempting to cause) the death of a member of the royal family, the head of a foreign friendly state or an accredited foreign representative is also punishable by death, and it is unclear whether the law requires evidence of intent. [19]

In March 2015, the National Legislative Assembly voted to amend the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2008 to make human trafficking a capital offense if it causes a trafficking victim’s death. [20]

Acte terroriste n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Arson of State buildings or places of mass gatherings, religious sites, or public transportation vehicles is punishable by death. [21] Reports indicate that airplane hijacking is also a capital offense under the 1978 Royal Act on Certain Offences Related to Air Travel, [22] which we were not able to locate during our research.

Viol n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Raping a woman or girl under the age of 15 with a gun or explosives, or with the intent to murder, is punishable by death if it results in serious injury. [23]

Incendie criminel n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Committing arson or preparing to do so by setting fire to a building or vessel used as a human dwelling, a building or vessel used for storage or manufacture of goods, public places such as a house of entertainment, a meeting place, a State building, a place for performing religious ceremonies, a railway station, airport, or public parking, or a boat, airplane or train used for public transportation, are punishable by death. [24]

Enlèvement n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Kidnapping for ransom and causing grievous bodily harm or any physical or mental injury by torture to the kidnapped person is punishable by death. [25] Being an accomplice to this offense is also punishable by death. [26]

In addition, the Narcotics Act, which makes forcibly drugging a woman or person lacking legal competence a capital offense, likely affects whether certain kidnapping offenses in Thailand are punishable by death. [27]

Trafic de drogue n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
The death penalty can be imposed for manufacturing, importing or exporting category 1 or “dangerous” narcotics for commercial purposes. [28]

Possession de drogue.
Possession of more than 20 grams of category 1 or “dangerous” narcotics is a capital offense. [29] The use of deception, coercion, intimidation, physical threat, or dark influence to force any woman or person lacking legal competence to take narcotics is also a capital offense. [30]

Crimes économiques n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
The death penalty may be imposed on a government official or a democratic representative, [31] a judicial official or a prosecutor [32] for demanding or accepting a bribe. In July 2015, an amendment to the Anti-Corruption Act expanded the death penalty to foreign officials and staff of international organizations who demand or accept a bribe. [33]

Trahison.
The following treasonous offenses are punishable by death: endangering the life of the King [34] or committing a deadly or violent action against the royal family; [35] causing or attempting to cause the death of the head of a friendly foreign state or an accredited foreign representative; [36] committing or threatening to commit an act of violence to overthrow the constitution or seize power; [37] acting with the intent to cause the country to fall under the sovereignty of a foreign State or to deteriorate the independence of the State; [38] a Thai citizen taking up arms against Thailand or assisting an enemy; [39] and committing any act with the intent to cause danger to the external security of the State, if such danger occurs. [40]

A number of treason and espionage offenses are also reportedly punishable by death under the Military Criminal Code. [41]

Espionnage.
Espionage to aid an enemy in preparation for battle or during wartime is a capital offense. [42] Reports indicate that the Military Criminal Code also imposes the death penalty for espionage. [43]

Crimes militaires n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
A number of capital treason offenses laid out in the Criminal Code are relevant to the military, including instigating neglect of duty by a member of the armed forces, committing mutiny, deserting, committing a breach of discipline, [44] and bearing arms against the country. [45]

We were unable to locate the Military Criminal Code during our research, but reports indicate that it also imposes the death penalty for the following offences: dodging the draft, deserting or deserting one’s duty in the face of the enemy; [46] surrendering against orders [47] or more generally committing acts of insubordination in the face of the enemy; [48] initiating or organizing a conspiracy or armed rebellion through armed threats, armed assault, or by creating public unrest; [49] assaulting a commanding officer in the face of the enemy; [50] and abandoning or destroying military property, equipment or supplies in face of the enemy. [51] A number of treason and espionage offenses are also punishable by death under the Military Criminal Code. [52] Any offence committed by a released prisoner of war returning to active combat duty is also punishable by death. [53]

Autre(s) crime(s) n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
- Offenses against women and minors: Procuring, recruiting, luring, enticing or coercing a child under the age of 15 to gratify the sexual desire of another person; [54] or using deception, coercion, intimidation, physical threat, or dark influence to force any woman or person lacking legal competence to take narcotics [55] are punishable by death.

- Use of firearms or explosives: The illegal use of firearms or explosives is a capital offense under the Firearms and Accessories, Explosives, Fireworks, and Other Equivalence Act, [56] which we were not able to consult first-hand.

- Attempts: Certain attempted offenses may be punished like the offense itself: attempting to cause the death of a member of the royal family, the head of a foreign friendly state or an accredited foreign representative, [57] and attempted murder of a member of the royal family [58] or a friendly foreign head of state [59] are punishable by death.

Commentaires.
As of September 2014, the National Legislative Assembly set up under military rule was considering a bill creating a new terrorism-related capital offense for destroying or damaging an aircraft, or committing an act in an airport which causes death or forces the closure of an airport. [60]

Références

[1] Thailand Criminal Code, sec. 289(5), B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[2] Thailand Criminal Code, sec. 289(1), B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[3] Thailand Criminal Code, secs. 289(2)-(3), B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[4] Thailand Criminal Code, sec. 289(6), B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[5] Thailand Criminal Code, sec. 289(7), B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[6] Thailand Criminal Code, sec. 107, 109, 132, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[7] Thailand Criminal Code, secs. 130, 132, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[8] Thailand Criminal Code, secs. 288, 289(4), B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003). Intl. Federation for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Thailand, p. 19, no. 411/2, Mar. 2005.
[9] Thailand Criminal Code, sec. 339, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[10] Thailand Criminal Code, sec. 340, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[11] Thailand Criminal Code, secs. 276, 277, 277bis, 277ter, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003). Intl. Federation for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Thailand, p. 19, no. 411/2, Mar. 2005.
[12] Thailand Criminal Code, secs. 278, 279, 280(2), B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[13] Thailand Criminal Code, secs. 277, 277bis, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003). Intl. Federation for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Thailand, p. 19, no. 411/2, Mar. 2005.
[14] Thailand Criminal Code, secs. 310, 312, 312bis(2), B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003). Intl. Federation for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Thailand, p. 19, no. 411/2, Mar. 2005.
[15] Thailand Criminal Code, secs. 313, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[16] Thailand Criminal Code, secs. 313, 314, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003). Intl. Federation for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Thailand, p. 19, no. 411/2, Mar. 2005.
[17] Thailand Criminal Code, secs. 218, 221, 222, 224, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[18] Thailand Criminal Code, secs. 221, 222, 224, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[19] Thailand Criminal Code, sec. 130, 131, 132, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[20] Reuters, Thailand toughens trafficking law with death penalty, steep fines, http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/03/26/us-thailand-trafficking-idUSKBN0MM10V20150326, Mar. 26, 2015.
[21] Thailand Criminal Code, sec. 218, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[22] Roger Hood & Carolyn Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective, p. 136, Oxford University Press, 4th ed., 2008. Amnesty Intl., When the State Kills, p. 215, Amnesty International Publications, 1989.
[23] Thailand Criminal Code, secs. 276, 277, 277ter, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[24] Thailand Criminal Code, secs. 218, 219, B.E. 2499, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[25] Thailand Criminal Code, secs. 313, 314, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[26] Thailand Criminal Code, secs. 313, 314, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[27] Thailand Narcotics Act, sec. 93, B.E. 2522 (1979), as amended through to Act No. 5, B.E. 2545 (2002). Intl. Federation for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Thailand, p. 19, no. 411/2, Mar. 2005.
[28] Thailand Narcotics Act, secs. 7, 15, 65, B.E. 2522 (1979), as amended through to Act No. 5, B.E. 2545 (2002).Intl. Federation for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Thailand, p. 19, no. 411/2, Mar. 2005.
[29] Thailand Narcotics Act, sec. 66, B.E. 2522 (1979), as amended through to Act No. 5, B.E. 2545 (2002). Intl. Federation for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Thailand, p. 19, no. 411/2, Mar. 2005.
[30] Thailand Narcotics Act, sec. 93, B.E. 2522 (1979), as amended through to Act No. 5, B.E. 2545 (2002). Intl. Federation for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Thailand, p. 19, no. 411/2, Mar. 2005.
[31] Thailand Criminal Code, sec. 149, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[32] Thailand Criminal Code, secs. 201, 202, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[33] Amendment No. 3 to Thailand Anti-Corruption Act of 1999, sec. 123(2), as cited in Bangokok Post, Death New Corruption Remedy, http://www.bangkokpost.com/news/general/621164/death-new-corruption-remedy, Jul. 13, 2015 ; The Guardian, New anti-corruption law in Thailand extends death penalty to foreigners, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jul/15/new-anti-corruption-law-in-thailand-extends-death-penalty-to-foreigners, Jul. 15, 2015; Bangkok Post, NACC defends death penalty for graft cases, http://www.bangkokpost.com/news/politics/621376/nacc-defends-death-penalty-for-graft-cases, Jul. 14, 2015.
[34] Thailand Criminal Code, sec. 108, 132, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[35] Thailand Criminal Code, secs. 107, 109, 130, 132, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[36] Thailand Criminal Code, secs. 130, 131, 132, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[37] Thailand Criminal Code, sec. 113, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[38] Thailand Criminal Code, sec. 119, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[39] Thailand Criminal Code, secs. 121, 122, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[40] Thailand Criminal Code, sec. 127, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[41] Intl. Federation for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Thailand, pp. 19-20, no. 411/2, Mar. 2005.
[42] Thailand Criminal Code, secs. 122, 124, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[43] Intl. Federation for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Thailand, pp. 19-20, no. 411/2, Mar. 2005.
[44] Thailand Criminal Code, sec. 122, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[45] Thailand Criminal Code, sec. 121, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[46] Intl. Federation for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Thailand, pp. 18-20, no. 411/2, Mar. 2005.
[47] Intl. Federation for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Thailand, p. 19, no. 411/2, Mar. 2005.
[48] Intl. Federation for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Thailand, pp. 19-20, no. 411/2, Mar. 2005.
[49] Intl. Federation for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Thailand, p. 20, no. 411/2, Mar. 2005.
[50] Intl. Federation for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Thailand, p. 20, no. 411/2, Mar. 2005.
[51] Intl. Federation for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Thailand, p. 19, no. 411/2, Mar. 2005.
[52] Intl. Federation for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Thailand, pp. 19-20, no. 411/2, Mar. 2005.
[53] Intl. Federation for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Thailand, p. 19, no. 411/2, Mar. 2005.
[54] Thailand Criminal Code, sec. 283, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[55] Thailand Narcotics Act, sec. 93, B.E. 2522 (1979), as amended through to Act No. 5, B.E. 2545 (2002). Intl. Federation for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Thailand, p. 19, no. 411/2, Mar. 2005.
[56] Firearms and Accessories, Explosives, Fireworks, and Other Equivalence Act, B.E. 2490 (1947), as amended through to B.E. 2542 (1999), as cited in Intl. Federation for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Thailand, p. 19, no. 411/2, Mar. 2005.
[57] Thailand Criminal Code, sec. 130, 131, 132, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[58] Thailand Criminal Code, sec. 107, 109, 132, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[59] Thailand Criminal Code, secs. 130, 132, B.E. 2499 (1956), as amended through to Criminal Code No. 17, B.E. 2547 (2003).
[60] Zee News, Thailand’s new bill proposes death for airport closure, http://zeenews.india.com/news/world/thailands-new-bill-proposes-death-for-airport-closure_1472802.html, Sep. 19, 2014.

Engagements internationaux

La peine de mort en droit

La peine de mort en pratique

Observations et décisions des organes internationaux de protection des droits de l’homme concernant l’application de la peine de mort dans ce pays

Autres sources d’informations et contact

Tunisie

See full questionnaire

Recherche mise à jour le: 17 février 2011

Générales

Détails du pays

Crimes et personnes passibles de la peine de mort

Crimes passibles de la peine de mort

Meurtre avec circonstances aggravantes.
Premeditated murder, [1] parricide, [2] murder when it is preceded, accompanied or followed by another offense punishable by a prison sentence and murder committed in order to further or facilitate another offense, including to ensure impunity for the offense, [3] are punishable by death.

Autre crime ayant entraîné la mort.
When resulting in death, kidnapping, sequestration [4] and arson [5] are punishable by death.

Acte terroriste ayant entraîné la mort.
In December 2007, 30 people were put on trial for terrorism-related acts. Two were sentenced to death, one of whom had his death sentence commuted to life in prison on appeal. [6] They were reportedly prosecuted for belonging to an organization that had adopted terrorism to pursue its objectives, for having received military training to commit terrorist acts, for possession and transport of arms, explosives and munitions, recruitment and training of persons to carry out terrorist acts, participation in armed rebellion resulting in the premeditated death of people and the incitement of the population to kill one another. [7] It is possible that the one man still on death row for these offenses (Saber Ragoubi) was also convicted of offenses such as premeditated murder and attacks against the state security, which carry a sentence of death. [8]

Acte terroriste n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
In December 2007, 30 people were put on trial for terrorism-related acts. Two were sentenced to death, one of whom had his death sentence commuted to life in prison on appeal. [9] They were reportedly prosecuted for belonging to an organization that had adopted terrorism to pursue its objectives, for having received military training to commit terrorist acts, for possession and transport of arms, explosives and munitions, recruitment and training of persons to carry out terrorist acts, participation in armed rebellion resulting in the premeditated death of people and the incitement of the population to kill one another. [10] It is possible that the one man still on death row for these offenses (Saber Ragoubi) was also convicted of offenses such as premeditated murder and attacks against the state security, which carry a sentence of death. [11]

Viol n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Rape committed with violence, threat or use of a weapon is punishable by death. [12] Rape committed on a child younger than 10 years old is punishable by death. Rape committed on a child older than 10 years old with violence, threat or use of a weapon is punishable by death. [13]

Incendie criminel n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Arson or destruction using explosive devices of State-owned goods is punishable by death. [14]

Trahison.
Acts of treason (including attacks against state security) and provoking or offering to commit treason are punishable by death. [15]

Espionnage.
Espionage and provoking or offering to commit espionage are punishable by death. [16]

Crimes militaires n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
The Code of Military Justice provides for a number of death-eligible offenses (desertion, disobedience…). [17]

Autre(s) crime(s) n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
-Attempt of a death-eligible offense. [18]
-Assault on a judge on duty, with threat or use of a weapon. [19]

Références

[1] Penal Code of Tunisia, art. 201, Jul. 9, 1913, as amended through Jun. 29, 2010.
[2] Penal Code of Tunisia, art. 203, Jul. 9, 1913, as amended through Jun. 29, 2010.
[3] Penal Code of Tunisia, art. 204, Jul. 9, 1913, as amended through Jun. 29, 2010.
[4] Penal Code of Tunisia, arts. 237, 251, Jul. 9, 1913, as amended through Jun. 29, 2010.
[5] Penal Code of Tunisia, art. 307, Jul. 9, 1913, as amended through Jun. 29, 2010.
[6] Magharebia, Tunisian court upholds death penalty for convicted terrorist, http://www.magharebia.com/cocoon/awi/xhtml1/en_GB/features/awi/newsbriefs/general/2008/02/21/newsbrief-01, Feb. 21, 2008. Magharebia, Amnesty International criticises Tunisian death sentence, http://www.magharebia.com/cocoon/awi/xhtml1/en_GB/features/awi/newsbriefs/general/2008/02/22/newsbrief-03, Feb. 22, 2008.
[7] Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, Peine de mort d’un salafiste confirmée, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/article.php?art=576, Jun. 5, 2008.
[8] Amnesty Intl., Act now for Saber Ragoubi, Tunisia, http://www.amnesty.org/en/appeals-for-action/act-now-saber-ragoubi-tunisia, Dec. 6, 2010.
[9] Magharebia, Tunisian court upholds death penalty for convicted terrorist, http://www.magharebia.com/cocoon/awi/xhtml1/en_GB/features/awi/newsbriefs/general/2008/02/21/newsbrief-01, Feb. 21, 2008. Magharebia, Amnesty International criticises Tunisian death sentence, http://www.magharebia.com/cocoon/awi/xhtml1/en_GB/features/awi/newsbriefs/general/2008/02/22/newsbrief-03, Feb. 22, 2008.
[10] Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, Peine de mort d’un salafiste confirmée, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/article.php?art=576, Jun. 5, 2008.
[11] Amnesty Intl., Act now for Saber Ragoubi, Tunisia, http://www.amnesty.org/en/appeals-for-action/act-now-saber-ragoubi-tunisia, Dec. 6, 2010.
[12] Penal Code of Tunisia, art. 227, Jul. 9, 1913, as amended through Jun. 29, 2010.
[13] Penal Code of Tunisia, art. 227, Jul. 9, 1913, as amended through Jun. 29, 2010.
[14] Penal Code of Tunisia, art. 76, Jul. 9, 1913, as amended through Jun. 29, 2010.
[15] Penal Code of Tunisia, arts. 60, 60bis, 60ter, 61bis, 63, 72, 74, Jul. 9, 1913, as amended through Jun. 29, 2010. Code of Military Justice of Tunisia, arts. 117-119, 123, promulgated by decree of Jan. 10, 1957, updated until 2010.
[16] Penal Code of Tunisia, art. 60ter, Jul. 9, 1913, as amended through Jun. 29, 2010. Code of Military Justice of Tunisia, arts. 121, 122, promulgated by decree of Jan. 10, 1957, updated until 2010.
[17] Code of Military Justice of Tunisia, arts. 69, 70, 79, 81, 99, 104, 109, 111, 113, 115, 116, promulgated by decree of Jan. 10, 1957, updated until 2010.
[18] Penal Code of Tunisia, art. 59, Jul. 9, 1913, as amended through Jun. 29, 2010.
[19] Penal Code of Tunisia, art. 126, Jul. 9, 1913, as amended through Jun. 29, 2010.

Engagements internationaux

La peine de mort en droit

La peine de mort en pratique

Observations et décisions des organes internationaux de protection des droits de l’homme concernant l’application de la peine de mort dans ce pays

Autres sources d’informations et contact

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