Death Penalty Database

Tonga

Information current as of: January 23, 2011

General

Official Country Name

Kingdom of Tonga (Tonga). [1]

Geographical Region

Oceania (Polynesia). [2]

Death Penalty Law Status

Abolitionist de facto. Tonga’s last execution was in 1982. [3]

Methods of Execution

Hanging. [4]

References

[1] U.S. Dept. of State, Background Note: Tonga, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/16092.htm, Jun. 28, 2010.
[2] U.N., World Macro Regions and Components, U.N. Doc. ST/ESA/STAT/SER.R/29, 2000.
[3] Amnesty Intl., Death Penalty: Countries Abolitionist in Practice, http://www.amnesty.org/en/death-penalty/countries-abolitionist-in-practice, last accessed Oct. 22, 2010.
[4] Tonga Criminal Offenses, art. 33, Ch. 18, as amended by Act No. 46 of 1988.

Country Details

Language(s)

Tongan, English. [1]

Population

103,365. 103,365. [2]

Number of Individuals Currently Under Sentence of Death

0. We did not find any reports that individuals are held under sentence of death in Tonga.

Annual Number of Reported Executions

Executions in 2017 to date (last updated on December 6, 2017)

0. [3]

Executions in 2016

0. [4]

Per capita execution rate in 2016

Executions in 2015

0. [5]

Per capita execution rate in 2015

0 executions.

Executions in 2014

0. [6]

Per capita execution rate in 2014

0 executions

Executions in 2013

0. [7]

Per capita execution rate in 2013

0 executions

Executions in 2012

0. [8]

Per capita execution rate in 2012

0 executions

Executions in 2011

0. [9]

Per capita execution rate in 2011

0 executions

Executions in 2010

0. [10]

Executions in 2009

0. [11]

Executions in 2008

0. [12]

Executions in 2007

0. [13]

Year of Last Known Execution

1982. [14]

References

[1] U.S. Dept. of State, Background Note: Tonga, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/16092.htm, Jun. 28, 2010.
[2] U.S. Dept. of State, Background Note: Tonga, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/16092.htm, Jun. 28, 2010.
[3] DPW Executions and Death Sentences Monitor.
[4] Amnesty International, Death sentences and executions in 2016, ACT 50/5740/2017, Apr. 11, 2017.
[5] DPW Executions and Death Sentences Monitor.
[6] Amnesty Intl., Executions and Death Sentences in 2014, ACT 50/001/2015, Mar. 31, 2015.
[7] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2013, ACT 50/001/2014, Mar. 26, 2014.
[8] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2012, ACT 50/001/2012, Apr. 9, 2013.
[9] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2011, ACT 50/001/2012, http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ACT50/001/2012/en, Mar. 27, 2012.
[10] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2010, p. 5, ACT 50/001/2011, Mar. 28, 2011.
[11] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, p. 29, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010.
[12] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009.
[13] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2007, ACT 50/001/2008, Apr. 15, 2008.
[14] Amnesty Intl., Death Penalty: Countries Abolitionist in Practice, http://www.amnesty.org/en/death-penalty/countries-abolitionist-in-practice, last accessed Oct. 22, 2010.

Crimes and Offenders Punishable By Death

Crimes Punishable by Death

Aggravated Murder.
By statute, the offense of murder is punishable by death; the law does not describe degrees of murder. [1] Tonga’s courts apply the law as permitting the death penalty as an exception—the death penalty can be applied only when the possibility of life imprisonment is foreclosed due to the gravity of the offense and the lack of sufficient mitigating factors. [2]

Treason.
High treason is punishable by death. [3]

Does the country have a mandatory death penalty?

No. For murder, the punishment is death or life imprisonment; for high treason, the punishment is death, life imprisonment or a lesser term of years; these are the only death eligible offenses. [4]

For Which Offenses, If Any, Is a Mandatory Death Sentence Imposed?

For each death-eligible offense, alternatives to the death penalty are specifically provided. [5]

Crimes For Which Individuals Have Been Executed Since January 2008:

No one has been executed in Tonga since 1982. [6]

Categories of Offenders Excluded From the Death Penalty:

Individuals Below Age 18 At Time of Crime.
We did not find an exclusion for individuals under the age of 18 in the domestic law; [7] however, Tonga is a party to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which prohibits the execution of individuals for crimes committed while under the age of 18. [8]

Pregnant Women.
The maximum sentence for a pregnant woman convicted of a capital offense is life imprisonment. [9]

Mentally Ill.
Persons may be determined incompetent to stand trial. Additionally, persons who due to mental disease were, at the time of the offense, unable to understand the physical nature of actions or omissions or unable to understand that an act or omission was wrong cannot be held criminally liable. [10]

References

[1] Tonga Criminal Offenses, arts. 87, 91, Ch. 18, as amended by Act No. 46 of 1988.
[2] For example, see Rex v. Ake, Case No. Cr. 140/05, Supreme Court of Tonga, Feb. 3, 2006.
[3] Tonga Criminal Offenses, art. 44, Ch. 18, as amended by Act No. 46 of 1988.
[4] Tonga Criminal Offenses, arts. 44, 87, 91, Ch. 18, as amended by Act No. 46 of 1988.
[5] Tonga Criminal Offenses, arts. 44, 87, 91, Ch. 18, as amended by Act No. 46 of 1988.
[6] Amnesty Intl., Death Penalty: Countries Abolitionist in Practice, http://www.amnesty.org/en/death-penalty/countries-abolitionist-in-practice, last accessed Oct. 22, 2010.
[7] Tonga Criminal Offenses, art. 91, Ch. 18, as amended by Act No. 46 of 1988 (Providing an exception for those under the age of 15 at the time of an offense).
[8] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1577 U.N.T.S. 3, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-11&chapter=4?=en, last accessed Oct. 22, 2010.
[9] Tonga Criminal Offenses, art. 40, Ch. 18, as amended by Act No. 46 of 1988.
[10] Tonga Criminal Offenses, arts. 17-18, Ch. 18, as amended by Act No. 46 of 1988.

International Commitments

ICCPR

Party?

No. [1]

Date of Accession

Not Applicable.

Signed?

No. [2]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

First Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, Recognizing Jurisdiction of the Human Rights Committee

Party?

No. [3]

Date of Accession

Not Applicable.

Signed?

No. [4]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, Toward the Abolition of the Death Penalty

Party?

No. [5]

Date of Accession

Not Applicable.

Signed?

No. [6]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

American Convention on Human Rights

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

Death Penalty Protocol to the ACHR

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR)

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

Protocol to the ACHPR on the Rights of Women in Africa

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

Arab Charter on Human Rights

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

2016 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [7]

Vote

Abstained. [8]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

No. [9]

2014 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [10]

Vote

Abstained. [11]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

No. [12]

2012 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [13]

Vote

Against. [14]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [15]

2010 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [16]

Vote

Against. [17]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [18]

2008 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [19]

Vote

Against. [20]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [21]

2007 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [22]

Vote

Against. [23]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [24]

References

[1] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4?=en, last accessed Oct. 22, 2010.
[2] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4?=en, last accessed Oct. 22, 2010.
[3] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-5&chapter=4?=en, last accessed Oct. 22, 2010.
[4] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-5&chapter=4?=en, last accessed Oct. 22, 2010.
[5] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Second Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, 1642 U.N.T.S. 414, Dec. 15, 1989, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-12&chapter=4?=en, last accessed Oct. 22, 2010.
[6] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Second Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, 1642 U.N.T.S. 414, Dec. 15, 1989, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-12&chapter=4?=en, last accessed Oct. 22, 2010.
[7] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Promotion and protection of human rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 54-71 U.N. Doc. A/71/484/Add.2, Dec. 6, 2016.
[8] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Promotion and protection of human rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 54-71 U.N. Doc. A/71/484/Add.2, Dec. 6, 2016.
[9] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Note Verbale dated 7 September 2017, U.N. Doc. A/71/1047, Sep. 13, 2017.
[10] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 141, 144, U.N. Doc. A/69/488/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2014.
[11] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, 73rd Plenary Meeting, pp. 17-18, U.N. Doc. A/69/PV.73, Dec. 18, 2014.
[12] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, Note Verbale dated 28 July 2015, U.N. Doc. A/69/993, Jul. 29, 2015.
[13] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 95-96, U.N. Doc. A/67/457/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2012.
[14] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, 60th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16-17, U.N. Doc. A/67/PV.60, Dec. 20, 2012.
[15] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, Note Verbale dated 16 April 2013, U.N. Doc. A/67/841, Apr. 23, 2013.
[16] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, p. 5, U.N. Doc. A/65/456/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2010.
[17] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, 71st Plenary Meeting, pp. 18-19, U.N. Doc. A/65/PV.71, Dec. 21, 2010.
[18] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, Note Verbale dated 11 March 2011, U.N. Doc. A/65/779, Mar. 11, 2011.
[19] U.N.G.A., 63rd session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, U.N. Doc. A/63/430/Add.2, Dec. 4, 2008.
[20] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, 70th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16-17, U.N. Doc. A/63/PV.70, Dec. 18, 2008.
[21] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, Note Verbale dated 10 February 2009, U.N. Doc. A/63/716, Feb. 12, 2009.
[22] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, pp. 3-4, U.N. Doc. A/62/439/Add.2, Dec. 5, 2007.
[23] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, 76th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16- 17, U.N. Doc. A/62/PV.76, Dec. 18, 2007.
[24] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, Note Verbale dated 11 January 2008, U.N. Doc. A/62/658, Feb. 2, 2008.

Death Penalty In Law

Does the country’s constitution make reference to capital punishment?

The Constitution provides that a person cannot be deprived of life except in accordance with law. [1]

Does the country’s constitution make reference to international law?

The Constitution does not discuss the relevance of international law to human rights. [2]

Have there been any significant changes in the application of the death penalty over the last several years?

We discovered no recent changes in the application of the death penalty in Tonga, where no one has been executed since 1982 [3] and a discretionary death penalty applies for only the offenses of aggravated murder and high treason. [4]

Is there currently an official moratorium on executions within the country?

No. However, even though we found no report of an official moratorium on executions in Tonga, and in fact Tonga in 2007 [5] and 2008 [6] signed the Note Verbale against the U.N. resolution for a universal moratorium on the death penalty, Tonga has not executed anyone since 1982. [7]

Have there been any significant published cases concerning the death penalty in national courts?

We found no major cases changing the application of the death penalty; in 2006, a sentencing decision of the Supreme Court in Rex v. Ake explained (in dicta, as the only issue in the appeal before the court was whether the court had discretion to award a sentence lesser than life imprisonment) that the death penalty is applied as an exception for extremely grave murders that can be characterized as the “rarest of rare,” outlining some support for this position.

Defendant’s counsel had argued that life imprisonment was not mandatory and apparently had failed to argue that mandatory life imprisonment was inconsistent within a system of discretionary sentencing in which the most severe punishments are reserved for the “rarest of rare” cases. Though citing some relevant principle and case law, the Court did not address this issue, although it recommended parole for the defendant upon service of 10-15 years of the life sentence for a murder committed while intoxicated and upon provocation insufficient to reduce the charge to manslaughter. [8]

Where can one locate or access judicial decisions regarding the death penalty?

Convictions and sentencing decisions of the Supreme Court and the judgments of the Court of Appeals (among other legal resources) can be accessed at http://www.paclii.org/to/.

What is the clemency process?

No death sentence can be executed without approval of the King with consent of the Privy Council. The King may, with the consent of the Privy Council, commute a sentence of death to life imprisonment. Review of a death sentence by the Privy Council is automatic; after pronouncing any sentence of death, the Chief Justice must submit reports and recommendations to the Prime Minister for submission to the Privy Council. [9]

Are jury trials provided for defendants charged with capital offenses?

Defendants have the right to request a seven-member jury. [10]

Brief Description of Appellate Process

The Supreme Court tries and sentences in capital cases; [11] appeals lie to the Court of Appeal, [12] which may review fact and law. [13]

References

[1] The Constitution of Tonga, art. 14, Dec. 31, 1988.
[2] The Constitution of Tonga, Dec. 31, 1988.
[3] Amnesty Intl., Death Penalty: Countries Abolitionist in Practice, http://www.amnesty.org/en/death-penalty/countries-abolitionist-in-practice, last accessed Oct. 22, 2010.
[4] Tonga Criminal Offenses, arts. 44, 87, 91, Ch.18, as amended by Act No. 46 of 1988.
[5] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, Note Verbale dated 11 January 2008, U.N. Doc. A/62/658, Feb. 2, 2008.
[6] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, Note Verbale dated 10 February 2009, U.N. Doc. A/63/716, Feb. 12, 2009.
[7] Amnesty Intl., Death Penalty: Countries Abolitionist in Practice, http://www.amnesty.org/en/death-penalty/countries-abolitionist-in-practice, last accessed Oct. 22, 2010.
[8] For example, see Rex v. Ake, Case No. Cr. 140/05, Supreme Court of Tonga, Feb. 3, 2006.
[9] Tonga Criminal Offenses, arts. 33-34, Ch. 18, as amended by Act No. 46 of 1988.
[10] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Tonga, Denial of Fair Public Trial, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/eap/136012.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[11] For example, see Rex v. Ake, Case No. Cr. 140/05, Supreme Court of Tonga, Feb. 3, 2006.
[12] The Constitution of Tonga, arts. 91-92, Dec. 31, 1988.
[13] As in, for example, Kaho v. Rex, No. AC 32 of 2009, Court of Appeal of Tonga, Jul. 14, 2010.

Death Penalty In Practice

Where Are Death-Sentenced Prisoners incarcerated?

We did not find reports that any individuals are held under sentence of death in Tonga. Maximum security facilities are located at Hu’atolitoli on the main island, Tongatapu. [1]

Description of Prison Conditions

As of 2010, the maximum security facility located at Hu’atolitoli reportedly consisted of wooden huts and some newly constructed compounds situated inside a barbed wire fence. Prison breaks were extremely common, with 33 individuals escaping (out of a prison population of 170, not entirely housed at this facility). Officials contemplated whether a desire to stay with family or else dissatisfaction with conditions might explain “why people are leaving.” [2] The U.S. Department of State reports that prison conditions in Tonga “generally met international standards” during 2009, and that the Tonga Red Cross monitored conditions by visiting the main prison (which could mean the Hu’atolitoli facility on the main island) on a quarterly basis. [3] Women are kept in a separate part of the Hu’atolitoli facility. [4]

Are there any known foreign nationals currently under sentence of death?

We found no reports that individuals are held under sentence of death in Tonga.

What are the nationalities of the known foreign nationals on death row?

We found no reports that individuals are held under sentence of death in Tonga.

Are there any known women currently under sentence of death?

We found no reports that individuals are held under sentence of death in Tonga.

Are there any reports of individuals currently under sentence of death who may have been under the age of 18 at the time the crime was committed?

We found no reports that individuals are held under sentence of death in Tonga.

Comments regarding the racial/ethnic composition on death row

We found no reports that individuals are held under sentence of death in Tonga.

Are there lawyers available for indigent defendants facing capital trials?

The law does not provide for public defenders, but a Community Legal Center (which is funded at least in part by donations) provided free representation and attorneys occasionally took cases pro bono. [5]

Are there lawyers available for indigent prisoners on appeal?

The law does not provide for public defenders, but a Community Legal Center (which is funded at least in part by donations) provided free representation and attorneys occasionally took cases pro bono. [6]

Comments on Quality of Legal Representation

In the only recent sentencing for a capital offense—in this case involving a mandatory life sentence for murder—the Court stated that defendant’s counsel, in contesting the mandatory life sentence, had misstated law and failed to provide a complete analysis of the very limited set of relevant statutory resources. The Court, in dicta, explained why the death penalty applies only to the “rarest of rare” crimes, relying on various cases and legal resources that discuss criteria for discretion in sentencing. Defendant’s counsel apparently failed to use any of these resources to make any arguments that discretion during sentencing would also disallow the extreme punishment of life imprisonment without some exercise of court discretion (in its decision, the Court actually recommends parole after 10-15 years). [7] We found no other commentary on or indication of the adequacy of available representation in Tonga.

Other Comments on Criminal Justice System

We have no other comments on the criminal justice system upon conclusion of our research.

References

[1] Islands Business, Transcript of Radio Australia Interview with Police Commissioner Chris Kelly, http://www.islandsbusiness.com/news/index_dynamic/containerNameToReplace=MiddleMiddle/focusModuleID=130/focusContentID=20665/tableName=mediaRelease/overideSkinName=newsArticle-full.tpl?PHPSESSID=fdd8846b4988051dda77df3a1ee7c06f, Wed. 25, 2010.
[2] Islands Business, Transcript of Radio Australia Interview with Police Commissioner Chris Kelly, http://www.islandsbusiness.com/news/index_dynamic/containerNameToReplace=MiddleMiddle/focusModuleID=130/focusContentID=20665/tableName=mediaRelease/overideSkinName=newsArticle-full.tpl?PHPSESSID=fdd8846b4988051dda77df3a1ee7c06f, Aug. 25, 2010; Radio New Zealand International, Tonga Prison Extension Ready by June, http://www.rnzi.com/pages/news.php?op=read&id=53502, May 12, 2010; Intl. Centre for Prison Studies, World Prison Brief: Tonga, King’s College, London, http://www.kcl.ac.uk/depsta/law/research/icps/worldbrief/wpb_country.php?country=208, last accessed Oct. 22, 2010.
[3] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Tonga, Torture and Cruel, Inhuman or Other Degrading Punishment or Treatment, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/eap/136012.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[4] American Correctional Institution, Inc., The Correctional Service of Tonga, Gale, Cengage Learning, http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+correctional+service+of+Tonga-a0152584907, 2006.
[5] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Tonga, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/eap/136012.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[6] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Tonga, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/eap/136012.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[7] For example, see Rex v. Ake, Case No. Cr. 140/05, Supreme Court of Tonga, Feb. 3, 2006.

Decisions of International Human Rights Bodies

Decisions of Human Rights Committee

Tonga is not a party to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, [1] so the Human Rights Committee does not issue concluding observations or decisions on petitions regarding the country.

Decisions of Other Human Rights Bodies

Italy, a member of the Human Rights Council during its 2008 Universal Periodic Review of human rights in Tonga, recommended that Tonga formally abolish the death penalty; in response, Tonga stated that “the current determination for constitutional and political reform and the consideration of other international human rights instruments may offer further opportunities for discussion and debate on this issue.” [2]

References

[1] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4?=en, last accessed Oct. 22, 2010.
[2] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Final Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Tonga, paras. 26, 66, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/8/48, Jun. 5, 2008.

Additional Sources and Contacts

Direct member(s) of World Coalition Against the Death Penalty

None.

Other non-governmental organizations and individuals engaged in advocacy surrounding the death penalty

National Centre for Women and Children www.civilsocietytonga.org

Helpful Reports and Publications

None.

Additional notes regarding this country

Reportedly, significant changes to Tonga’s governmental structure are afoot. [1]

References

[1] Telegraph.co.uk, King of Tonga in Legal Row over New Zealand Residence, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/australiaandthepacific/tongafrenchpolynesia/8061534/King-of-Tonga-in-legal-row-over-New-Zealand-royal-residence.html, Oct. 13, 2010.

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