Death Penalty Database

Qatar

Information current as of: January 1, 2010

General

Official Country Name

State of Qatar (Qatar). [1]

Geographical Region

Asia (Western Asia). [2]

Death Penalty Law Status

Abolitionist de facto. Although a search of Amnesty reports does not confirm any execution since 2000, multiple sources confirm that an appeals court in Qatar confirmed the execution of a man who was then executed by firing squad on March 10, 2003 for a 2001 murder. [3]

Methods of Execution

Hanging. [4]

Shooting. [5]

Comments.
Executions are “rare” in Qatar, and we have not located many reports of executions; the most recent execution was by firing squad. [6] Qatar has rejected recommendations of members of the Human Rights Council that it “abolish stoning and flogging from its legislation;” [7] we found no legislation that establishes stoning as a punishment. A reasonable explanation of Qatar’s rejection is that it should not be asked to abolish punishments that do not exist under its current legislation, but we may not have all the relevant laws, or Article 1 of the Penal Code could be interpreted by some as authorizing Shari’a-based methods of punishment. [8]

References

[1] U.S. Dept. of State, Background Note: Qatar, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5437.htm, Jan. 29, 2010.
[2] U.S. Dept. of State, Background Note: Qatar, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5437.htm, Jan. 29, 2010.
[3] Amnesty International, Death Penalty News: March 2001, p. 6, ACT 53/002/2001, Mar. 2001; Hands Off Cain, Qatar: Murder, Offenses Against the State, Drug Offenses and Terrorism are Capital Crimes, http://www.handsoffcain.info/news/index.php?iddocumento=10001822, Jan. 1, 2008; The Hindu, Indian Executed in Qatar, Mar. 11, 2003 Mobin Pandit & Arh Khalifa, Lija Killer to Face Firing Squad, The Peninsula, Sep. 19, 2002.
[4] Qatar Criminal Procedure Code, art. 342, Law No. 23 of 2004; Qatar Penal Code, art. 59, Law No. 11 of 2004.
[5] Qatar Criminal Procedure Code, art. 342, Law No. 23 of 2004; Qatar Penal Code, art. 59, Law No. 11 of 2004.
[6] Amnesty International, Submission to the UN Universal Periodic Review, p. 3, MDE 22/001/2009, Sep. 1, 2009; Amnesty International, Death Penalty News: March 2001, p. 6, ACT 53/002/2001, Mar. 2001; Hands Off Cain, Qatar: Murder, Offenses Against the State, Drug Offenses and Terrorism are Capital Crimes, http://www.handsoffcain.info/news/index.php?iddocumento=10001822, Jan. 1, 2008; The Hindu, Indian Executed in Qatar, Mar. 11, 2003; Mobin Pandit & Arh Khalifa, Lija Killer to Face Firing Squad, The Peninsula, Sep. 19, 2002.
[7] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Qatar, para. 86(12), U.N. Doc. A/HRC/14/2, Mar. 15, 2010.
[8] Qatar Penal Code, art. 1, Law No. 2 of 2004.

Country Details

Language(s)

Arabic. [1]

Population

1,448,446. 1,448,446. [2]

Number of Individuals Currently Under Sentence of Death

20. Amnesty International’s 2009 submission to the Human Rights Council for Universal Periodic Review of human rights in Qatar estimated the death row population at approximately 20 individuals. [3]

Annual Number of Reported Executions

Executions in 2017 to date (last updated on November 15, 2017)

0. [4]

Executions in 2016

0. [5]

Per capita execution rate in 2016

Executions in 2015

0. [6]

Per capita execution rate in 2015

0 executions.

Executions in 2014

0. [7]

Per capita execution rate in 2014

0 executions

Executions in 2013

0. [8]

Per capita execution rate in 2013

0 executions

Executions in 2012

0. [9]

Per capita execution rate in 2012

0 executions

Executions in 2011

0. [10]

Per capita execution rate in 2011

0 executions

Executions in 2010

0. [11]

Executions in 2009

0. [12]

Executions in 2008

0. [13]

Executions in 2007

0. [14]

Year of Last Known Execution

2003. Although a search of Amnesty reports does not confirm any execution since 2000, multiple sources confirm that an appeals court in Qatar confirmed the death sentence of a man who was then executed by firing squad on March 10, 2003 for a 2001 murder; Hands Off Cain indicates that this was the most recent execution in Qatar as of early 2008. [15] Amnesty International has reported no executions in 2008 and 2009 and reports that executions in Qatar are “rare.” [16] We have found no reports of executions after 2003.

References

[1] U.S. Dept. of State, Background Note: Qatar, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5437.htm, Jan. 29, 2010.
[2] U.S. Dept. of State, Background Note: Qatar, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5437.htm, Jan. 29, 2010.
[3] Amnesty International, Submission to the UN Universal Periodic Review, p. 3, MDE 22/001/2009, Sep. 1, 2009.
[4] DPW Executions and Death Sentences Monitor.
[5] Amnesty International, Death sentences and executions in 2016, ACT 50/5740/2017, Apr. 11, 2017.
[6] DPW Executions and Death Sentences Monitor.
[7] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2014, ACT 50/001/2015, Mar. 31, 2015.
[8] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2013, ACT 50/001/2014, Mar. 26, 2014.
[9] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2012, ACT 50/001/2012, Apr. 9, 2013.
[10] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2011, ACT 50/001/2012, http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ACT50/001/2012/en, Mar. 27, 2012.
[11] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2010, p. 5, ACT 50/001/2011, Mar. 28, 2011.
[12] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, generally, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010.
[13] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, generally, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009.
[14] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2007, generally, ACT 50/001/2008, Apr. 15, 2008.
[15] Amnesty International, Death Penalty News: March 2001, p. 6, ACT 53/002/2001, Mar. 2001; Hands Off Cain, Qatar: Murder, Offenses Against the State, Drug Offenses and Terrorism are Capital Crimes, http://www.handsoffcain.info/news/index.php?iddocumento=10001822, Jan. 1, 2008; The Hindu, Indian Executed in Qatar, Mar. 11, 2010; Mobin Pandit & Arh Khalifa, Lija Killer to Face Firing Squad, The Peninsula, Sep. 19, 2002.
[16] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, generally, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, generally, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010; Amnesty International, Submission to the UN Universal Periodic Review, p. 3, MDE 22/001/2009, Sep. 1, 2009.

Crimes and Offenders Punishable By Death

Crimes Punishable by Death

Aggravated Murder.
Parricide, murder by poisoning, explosion, murder of a public employee or murder aggravated by another offense carries the death penalty. [1] The government’s unofficial English translation of the Penal Code is not adequate to determine whether “premeditated murder” means a murder lacking sufficient provocation or instead means a murder involving planning or laying in wait. [2]

Murder.
Premeditated murder, which might be defined as murder in the absence of immediate provocation, carries the death penalty. [3]

Other Offenses Resulting in Death.
Intentional killing is punishable by death. [4] Hirabah (highway robbery or violent robbery) resulting in death may carry the death penalty when the offender or victim is a Muslim. [5] Arson resulting in death is punishable by death. [6] Torture to obtain forced confessions or self-incrimination, resulting in death, is punishable by death. [7] Kidnapping resulting in death is punishable by death. [8] Calumny (bearing false witness) carries the death penalty when resulting in execution of an innocent person. [9]

Terrorism-Related Offenses Resulting in Death.
Sinking or damaging a maritime vessel, theft of merchandise aboard a plane or ship (perhaps piracy), dumping in, infecting, or otherwise spoiling water resources, or purposely committing an act that could lead to spread of infection or an epidemic carries the death penalty when resulting in death. [10] Causing the death of a person in conjunction with an act with “terrorist purposes” (broadly defined as acts ranging from interference with the legal or public order to acts aimed at causing terror or disunity to acts of eco-terrorism or causing other serious harm) carries the death penalty. [11]

Terrorism-Related Offenses Not Resulting in Death.
Bearing arms for a “terrorist purposes” (broadly defined as acts ranging from interference with the legal or public order to acts aimed at causing terror or disunity to acts of eco-terrorism or causing other serious harm) carries the death penalty. [12] Founding an organization or using an organization to commit terrorist acts is punishable by death. [13] Receiving paramilitary training to commit a terrorist act (against Qatar) is punishable by death. [14]

Rape Not Resulting in Death.
Rape of a male or female is punishable by death: rape by a relative, guardian, caretaker or servant of the victim carries the death penalty. Rape is presumed if the victim is known to the offender to be mentally unstable (unable to consent). [15] Statutory rape of a victim the offender knows is under the age of 16 carries the death penalty if the offender is the victim’s relative, guardian, caretaker or servant. [16]

Drug Trafficking Resulting in Death.
Killing a public official in resisting enforcement of the narcotics laws carries the death penalty. [17]

Drug Trafficking Not Resulting in Death.
Recidivist drug trafficking-related offenses are punishable by death. [18]

Economic Crimes Not Resulting in Death.
Extortion by threat of accusation of a crime of honor (such as adultery) is punishable by death. [19]

Treason.
Treason against the external security of the state, such as bearing arms against the state (or instigating the same), perpetrating acts to undermine the independence or territorial integrity of the state, assisting in the hostile acts of a foreign state, interfering with the defense (including by breach of a defense contract during time of war), or giving information to an enemy, carries the death penalty. [20] Working for a foreign country, if detriment to the state occurs, is punishable by death. [21] Treason against the internal security of the state, such as insurrection or attempts on the person of the Emir or vice-Emir, carry the death penalty. [22] Attacks on the leader of a foreign nation are considered crimes against state security, and are punishable by death. [23]

Espionage.
Espionage for benefit of an enemy carries the death penalty. [24] Any espionage damaging to the state is punishable by death. [25]

Comments.
As of conclusion of our research, we did not locate a code of military justice; offenses may be punishable by death under such a code. The government’s unofficial translation of the Penal Code is at times unclear. The Constitution and penal law recognize the influence of Sharia law in Qatar, but the legislative authorities in Qatar do not appear to interpret Sharia to require wide-ranging application of the death penalty. For instance, adultery involving Muslims could carry the death penalty, if extreme evidentiary requirements are met, [26] but we did not find reports of its use. The scope of the death penalty appears to be limited mainly to serious offenses against the state and individual and to drug trafficking. Thus, we included violent offenses, such as hirabah (highway robbery or violent robbery) resulting in death, [27] but concluded that there was little evidence to support listing some other offenses. Under Article 1 of the Penal Code, such offenses could also include apostasy and adultery. [28]

Does the country have a mandatory death penalty?

Yes. Under Article 92 of the Penal Code, a court may reduce a capital sentence to as little as five years imprisonment if the circumstances of the crime call for mercy. This provision affects most law that would otherwise provide for a mandatory sentence of death. However, under Article 92(4) of the Penal Code, courts may not award reduced sentences for terrorist offenses, and some terrorism-related offenses carry the mandatory death penalty. [29]

Additionally, Article 1 of the Penal Code provides that for hadd and qesas offenses, Islamic Shari’a applies if the suspect or victim is a Muslim. [30] Thus, adultery and hirabah (highway robbery) resulting in death carry the mandatory death penalty as hadd, and murder is punished by death unless the victim’s family pardons the offender (either for blood money or as an act of forgiveness). [31] Such a death penalty is mandatory by international standards because a court cannot independently determine to exercise discretion during sentencing.

For Which Offenses, If Any, Is a Mandatory Death Sentence Imposed?

Aggravated Murder.
For crimes involving Muslim offenders or victims, aggravated murder carries the mandatory death penalty unless the victim’s family pardons the offender (for a payment of blood money or as an act of forgiveness). [32] We do not know whether Article 92, a universal provision permitting discretion, is applied when Muslims are not involved in an aggravated murder. [33]

Murder.
For murder involving Muslim offenders, qesas may apply in the absence of a pardon from the victim’s family (for a payment of blood money or as an act of forgiveness), [34] and this constitutes a mandatory death penalty. We do not know whether Article 92, a universal provision permitting discretion, is applied when Muslims are not involved in an murder. [35]

Other Offenses Resulting in Death.
Hirabah (highway robbery, or violent robbery) resulting in death may carry the mandatory death penalty if the offender or victim is a Muslim. [36]

Terrorism-Related Offenses Resulting in Death.
Terrorism resulting in death carries the mandatory death penalty; courts are expressly forbidden to exercise discretion in sentencing. Any offense under the Penal Code committed for “terrorist purposes” carries the mandatory death penalty if resulting in death. [37]

Terrorism-Related Offenses Not Resulting in Death.
Terrorism involving the use of arms carries the mandatory death penalty, and any offense punishable under the Penal Code by at least life imprisonment carries the death penalty when committed for “terrorist purposes;” courts are expressly forbidden to use discretion during sentencing. [38]

Drug Trafficking Resulting in Death.
Killing a public official in resisting enforcement of the narcotics laws carries the death penalty. [39] Article 92 of the Penal Code (permitting discretion) might not apply. [40]

Comments.
Offenses such as adultery involving Muslims could carry the mandatory death penalty if extreme evidentiary requirements are met, but the court’s discretion in avoiding a factual finding that would require the death penalty might be considered sufficient to render this penalty discretionary. [41] We did not find reports of its recent application, or of other hadd offenses indicated by Article 1.

The government’s unofficial translation of the Penal Code is at times unclear.

Crimes For Which Individuals Have Been Executed Since January 2008:

According to Amnesty International, there were no executions in 2008 [42] and 2009; [43] we found no reports of executions in 2010.

Categories of Offenders Excluded From the Death Penalty:

Individuals Below Age 18 At Time of Crime.
Qatar’s Penal Code prohibits the execution of individuals for crimes committed while under the age of 18, [44] and Qatar has ratified the Covenant on the Rights of the Child (with reservations to unrelated provisions), [45] which prohibits that practice.

Pregnant Women.
Under Qatar’s Criminal Procedure Code, pregnant women cannot be executed until after delivery. [46] Qatar has ratified the Arab Charter on Human Rights, [47] which prohibits that practice.

Women With Small Children.
Under Qatar’s 2004 Criminal Procedure Code, women sentenced to death as qisas (a kin’s right of retaliation such as for murder) or hadd (a Quran-prescribed punishment) will be executed after delivery; however, women sentenced to death as tazir (a merely statutory penalty) are not executed until two years after delivery, and their sentences may be commuted. [48] In 2009, Qatar ratified the Arab Charter on Human Rights, [49] which prohibits the execution of nursing mothers, so the exception for nursing mothers may now be complete regardless of the nature of a woman’s crime. [50]

Intellectually Disabled.
Under Qatar’s Penal Code, “mental defect” resulting in partial incapacity is an extenuating excuse, while total incapacity precludes criminal responsibility. [51]

Mentally Ill.
Under Qatar’s Penal Code, mental insanity resulting in partial incapacity is an extenuating excuse, while total incapacity precludes criminal responsibility. [52]

Elderly.
There is no specific exception for the elderly, but under Qatar’s Criminal Procedure Code, a person held under sentence of death for 30 years will not be executed. [53]

References

[1] Qatar Penal Code, arts. 300-301, Law No. 11 of 2004; Qatar Law To Control Narcotic Drugs and Dangerous Psychotropic Substances and to Regulate Their Use and Trade Therein, art. 52, No. 9 of 1987.
[2] Qatar Penal Code, arts. 300-301, Law No. 11 of 2004.
[3] Qatar Penal Code, arts. 300-301, Law No. 11 of 2004.
[4] Qatar Penal Code, arts. 1, 300-302, Law No. 11 of 2004; Cherif Bassiouni, Crimes and the Criminal Process, p. 282-283, Arab Law Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1997.
[5] Qatar Penal Code, art. 1, Law No. 11 of 2004; Cherif Bassiouni, Crimes and the Criminal Process, p. 279-280, Arab Law Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1997.
[6] Qatar Penal Code, art. 235, Law No. 11 of 2004.
[7] Qatar Penal Code, art. 159, Law No. 11 of 2004.
[8] Qatar Penal Code, arts. 318, Law No. 11 of 2004.
[9] Qatar Penal Code, art. 173, Law No. 11 of 2004.
[10] Qatar Penal Code, arts. 244, 245, 250, 252, Law No. 11 of 2004.
[11] Qatar Law On Combating Terrorism, arts. 1-2, 11, No. 3 of 2004.
[12] Qatar Law On Combating Terrorism, arts. 1-2, No. 3 of 2004.
[13] Qatar Law On Combating Terrorism, arts. 3, 6, No. 3 of 2004.
[14] Qatar Law On Combating Terrorism, art. 7, No. 3 of 2004.
[15] Qatar Penal Code, arts. 279, 280, 283, 284, Law No. 11 of 2004.
[16] Qatar Penal Code, arts. 279, 280, 283, 284, 289, Law No. 11 of 2004.
[17] Qatar Law To Control Narcotic Drugs and Dangerous Psychotropic Substances and to Regulate Their Use and Trade Therein, art. 52, No. 9 of 1987.
[18] Qatar Law To Control Narcotic Drugs and Dangerous Psychotropic Substances and to Regulate Their Use and Trade Therein, art. 34, No. 9 of 1987.
[19] Qatar Penal Code, art. 352, Law No. 11 of 2004.
[20] Qatar Penal Code, arts. 98-103, 105, 109-111, 118, Law No. 11 of 2004.
[21] Qatar Penal Code, art. 107, Law No. 11 of 2004.
[22] Qatar Penal Code, arts. 130-132, Law No. 11 of 2004.
[23] Qatar Penal Code, art. 135, Law No. 11 of 2004.
[24] Qatar Penal Code, arts. 103, 109-111, Law No. 11 of 2004.
[25] Qatar Penal Code, art. 107, Law No. 11 of 2004.
[26] Qatar Penal Code, art. 1, Law No. 11 of 2004 ; Cherif Bassiouni, Crimes and the Criminal Process, p. 280, Arab Law Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1997.
[27] Qatar Penal Code, art. 1, Law No. 11 of 2004; Cherif Bassiouni, Crimes and the Criminal Process, p. 279-289, Arab Law Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1997.
[28] Qatar Penal Code, art. 1, Law No. 2 of 2004.
[29] Qatar Penal Code, art. 92, Law No. 11 of 2004; Qatar Law On Combating Terrorism, arts. 1-2, No. 3 of 2004.
[30] Qatar Penal Code, art. 1, Law No. 11 of 2004.
[31] Cherif Bassiouni, Crimes and the Criminal Process, p. 277-283, Arab Law Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1997; Permanent Constitution of the State of Qatar, art. 1, 2004, translated by: Qatar Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2007; Qatar Criminal Procedure Code, art. 345, Law No. 23 of 2004; Qatar Penal Code, arts. 1, 300, Law No. 11 of 2004
[32] Qatar Penal Code, arts. 1, 300-301, Law No. 11 of 2004; Cherif Bassiouni, Crimes and the Criminal Process, p. 282-283, Arab Law Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1997.
[33] Qatar Penal Code, arts. 1, 92, 300, 302, Law No. 11 of 2004.
[34] Qatar Penal Code, arts. 1, 300-301, Law No. 11 of 2004; Cherif Bassiouni, Crimes and the Criminal Process, p. 282-283, Arab Law Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1997.
[35] Qatar Penal Code, arts. 1, 92, 300, 302, Law No. 11 of 2004.
[36] Qatar Penal Code, art. 1, Law No. 11 of 2004; Cherif Bassiouni, Crimes and the Criminal Process, p. 282-283, Arab Law Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1997.
[37] Qatar Law On Combating Terrorism, arts. 1-2, 11, No. 3 of 2004; Qatar Penal Code, art. 92(4), Law No. 11 of 2004.
[38] Qatar Law On Combating Terrorism, arts. 1-2, No. 3 of 2004; Qatar Penal Code, art. 92(4), Law No. 11 of 2004.
[39] Qatar Law To Control Narcotic Drugs and Dangerous Psychotropic Substances and to Regulate Their Use and Trade Therein, art. 52, No. 9 of 1987.
[40] Qatar Penal Code, arts. 1, 300-301, Law No. 11 of 2004; Cherif Bassiouni, Crimes and the Criminal Process, p. 282-283, Arab Law Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1997.
[41] Qatar Penal Code, art. 1, Law No. 11 of 2004; Cherif Bassiouni, Crimes and the Criminal Process, p. 280, Arab Law Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1997.
[42] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, generally, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009.
[43] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, generally, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010.
[44] Qatar Penal Code, art. 20, Law No. 11 of 2004.
[45] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, National Report Submitted in Accordance with Paragraph 15(a) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: State of Qatar, sec. 4.5.3, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/7/QAT/1, Nov. 19, 2009.
[46] Qatar Criminal Procedure Code, art. 345, Law No. 23 of 2004.
[47] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, National Report Submitted in Accordance with Paragraph 15(a) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: State of Qatar, sec. 4.5.3, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/7/QAT/1, Nov. 19, 2009.
[48] Qatar Criminal Procedure Code, art. 345, Law No. 23 of 2004.
[49] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, National Report Submitted in Accordance with Paragraph 15(a) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: State of Qatar, sec. 4.5.3, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/7/QAT/1, Nov. 19, 2009.
[50] Permanent Constitution of the State of Qatar, art. 6, 2004, translated by: Qatar Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2007 (stating that Qatar shall respect and implement its obligations under international agreements, charters and conventions).
[51] Qatar Penal Code, art. 54, Law No. 11 of 2004
[52] Qatar Penal Code, art. 54, Law No. 11 of 2004
[53] Qatar Criminal Procedure Code, art. 375, Law No. 23 of 2004.

International Commitments

ICCPR

Party?

No. [1]

Date of Accession

Not Applicable.

Signed?

No. [2]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

First Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, Recognizing Jurisdiction of the Human Rights Committee

Party?

No. [3]

Date of Accession

Not Applicable.

Signed?

No. [4]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, Toward the Abolition of the Death Penalty

Party?

No. [5]

Date of Accession

Not Applicable.

Signed?

No. [6]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

American Convention on Human Rights

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

Death Penalty Protocol to the ACHR

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR)

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

Protocol to the ACHPR on the Rights of Women in Africa

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

Arab Charter on Human Rights

Party?

Yes. [7]

Date of Accession

January 11, 2009. [8]

Signed?

Yes. [9]

Date of Signature

January 24, 2008. [10]

2016 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [11]

Vote

Against. [12]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

No.

2014 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [13]

Vote

Against. [14]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [15]

2012 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [16]

Vote

Against. [17]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [18]

2010 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [19]

Vote

Against. [20]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [21]

2008 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [22]

Vote

Against. [23]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [24]

2007 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [25]

Vote

Against. [26]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [27]

References

[1] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Jun. 4, 2010.
[2] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Jun. 4, 2010.
[3] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-5&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Jun. 4, 2010.
[4] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-5&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Jun. 4, 2010.
[5] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Second Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, 1642 U.N.T.S. 414, Dec. 15, 1989, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-12&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Jun. 4, 2010.
[6] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Second Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, 1642 U.N.T.S. 414, Dec. 15, 1989, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-12&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Jun. 4, 2010.
[7] Arab League, Statement of Signatures and Ratifications of the Arab Charter of Human Rights, http://www.lasportal.org/wps/wcm/connect/498481804a04776ea1d7bd526698d42c/%D8%AC%D8%AF%D9%88%D9%84+%D8%AA%D8%B5%D8%AF%D9%8A%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AF%D9%88%D9%84+%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%89+%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%8A%D8%AB%D8%A7%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%B1%D8%A8%D9%8A+%D9%84%D8%AD%D9%82%D9%88%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A5%D9%86%D8%B3%D8%A7%D9%86.pdf?MOD=AJPERES (translated from Arabic by DPW), last accessed Apr. 7, 2014.
[8] Arab League, Statement of Signatures and Ratifications of the Arab Charter of Human Rights, http://www.lasportal.org/wps/wcm/connect/498481804a04776ea1d7bd526698d42c/%D8%AC%D8%AF%D9%88%D9%84+%D8%AA%D8%B5%D8%AF%D9%8A%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AF%D9%88%D9%84+%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%89+%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%8A%D8%AB%D8%A7%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%B1%D8%A8%D9%8A+%D9%84%D8%AD%D9%82%D9%88%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A5%D9%86%D8%B3%D8%A7%D9%86.pdf?MOD=AJPERES (translated from Arabic by DPW), last accessed Apr. 7, 2014.
[9] Arab League, Statement of Signatures and Ratifications of the Arab Charter of Human Rights, http://www.lasportal.org/wps/wcm/connect/498481804a04776ea1d7bd526698d42c/%D8%AC%D8%AF%D9%88%D9%84+%D8%AA%D8%B5%D8%AF%D9%8A%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AF%D9%88%D9%84+%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%89+%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%8A%D8%AB%D8%A7%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%B1%D8%A8%D9%8A+%D9%84%D8%AD%D9%82%D9%88%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A5%D9%86%D8%B3%D8%A7%D9%86.pdf?MOD=AJPERES (translated from Arabic by DPW), last accessed Apr. 7, 2014.
[10] Arab League, Statement of Signatures and Ratifications of the Arab Charter of Human Rights, http://www.lasportal.org/wps/wcm/connect/498481804a04776ea1d7bd526698d42c/%D8%AC%D8%AF%D9%88%D9%84+%D8%AA%D8%B5%D8%AF%D9%8A%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AF%D9%88%D9%84+%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%89+%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%8A%D8%AB%D8%A7%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%B1%D8%A8%D9%8A+%D9%84%D8%AD%D9%82%D9%88%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A5%D9%86%D8%B3%D8%A7%D9%86.pdf?MOD=AJPERES (translated from Arabic by DPW), last accessed Apr. 7, 2014.
[11] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Promotion and protection of human rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 54-71 U.N. Doc. A/71/484/Add.2, Dec. 6, 2016.
[12] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Promotion and protection of human rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 54-71 U.N. Doc. A/71/484/Add.2, Dec. 6, 2016.
[13] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 141, 144, U.N. Doc. A/69/488/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2014.
[14] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, 73rd Plenary Meeting, pp. 17-18, U.N. Doc. A/69/PV.73, Dec. 18, 2014.
[15] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, Note Verbale dated 28 July 2015, U.N. Doc. A/69/993, Jul. 29, 2015.
[16] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 95-96, U.N. Doc. A/67/457/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2012.
[17] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, 60th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16-17, U.N. Doc. A/67/PV.60, Dec. 20, 2012.
[18] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, Note Verbale dated 16 April 2013, U.N. Doc. A/67/841, Apr. 23, 2013.
[19] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, p. 5, U.N. Doc. A/65/456/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2010.
[20] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, 71st Plenary Meeting, pp. 18-19, U.N. Doc. A/65/PV.71, Dec. 21, 2010.
[21] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, Note Verbale dated 11 March 2011, U.N. Doc. A/65/779, Mar. 11, 2011.
[22] U.N.G.A., 63rd session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, U.N. Doc. A/63/430/Add.2, Dec. 4, 2008.
[23] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, 70th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16-17, U.N. Doc. A/63/PV.70, Dec. 18, 2008.
[24] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, Note Verbale dated 10 February 2009, U.N. Doc. A/63/716, Feb. 12, 2009.
[25] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, pp. 3-4, U.N. Doc. A/62/439/Add.2, Dec. 5, 2007.
[26] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, 76th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16- 17, U.N. Doc. A/62/PV.76, Dec. 18, 2007.
[27] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, Note Verbale dated 11 January 2008, U.N. Doc. A/62/658, Feb. 2, 2008.

Death Penalty In Law

Does the country’s constitution make reference to capital punishment?

Qatar’s Constitution does not directly or indirectly reference capital punishment or a right to life, but does provide that “no person may be subjected to torture, or any degrading treatment…” [1]

Does the country’s constitution make reference to international law?

Under Article 6 of the Constitution, “The State shall respect the international charters and conventions, and strive to implement all international agreements, charters, and conventions it is party thereof.” [2]

Have there been any significant changes in the application of the death penalty over the last several years?

The scope of the death penalty has been somewhat better defined in Qatar over the last several decades; while the scope may have been recently enlarged, execution of death sentences remains rare. Over the last several decades, Qatar has instituted a permanent Constitution, codified its penal law and criminal procedure code with provisions protecting the rights of the accused and continued to enter international human rights treaties; [3] these represent significant changes at least in that they legally define the scope of the death penalty. Additionally, over the last decade Qatar has unified its courts into one Sharia-influenced secular system, [4] which should render jurisprudence more predictable and unified than is possible in a dualistic system. In 2008, Qatar instituted a Constitutional Court that hears appeals on constitutional questions; [5] this plausibly will improve the protection of constitutional rights related to application of the death penalty (such as the right to a fair trial and the prohibition of tortured confessions, over which Amnesty International has expressed concern in the past). [6] On the other hand, laws passed in 2004 created a mandatory death penalty for vaguely defined terrorist offenses. [7] Executions of death sentences have been extremely rare in Qatar over the past three decades, [8] so in terms of carrying out death sentences, there have been no major changes.

Is there currently an official moratorium on executions within the country?

No.

While Qatar executes only rarely and in its recent report to the Human Rights Council treated the death penalty as a non-issue, Qatar continues to issue death sentences and, in 2009, signed the Note Verbale dissociating from the U.N. General Assembly’s 2008 resolution for a moratorium on executions. [9]

Have there been any significant published cases concerning the death penalty in national courts?

We did not find any significant published cases. There have been cases with significant outcomes, such as the conviction of members of the 1996 coup attempt followed by the Court of Appeal’s decision to increase their sentences to the death penalty; this case was protested as involving tortured confessions and unfair trials. [10] Any significance this case might have could be diminished by thoroughgoing changes to law and courts subsequent to that case; reports based on current data challenge (but do not disprove) the contention that tortured confessions and unfair trials are a major issue in Qatar. [11]

Where can one locate or access judicial decisions regarding the death penalty?

The Supreme Judiciary Council is building an Arabic and English website at: http://www.sjc.gov.qa/arabic/intro.html. We have not determined whether judicial decisions of the courts will ultimately be available through this resource.

NYU Law’s GlobaLex program maintains a page on Qatar’s legal system, including suggested research tools, at: http://www.nyulawglobal.org/globalex/Qatar.htm. This resource may provide notification as new resources for researching the decisions of Qatar’s courts become available.

What is the clemency process?

Under Article 67 of the Constitution, the Emir has the right to pardon offenders or commute sentences “in accordance with the law.” The penal law indicates that a final death sentence must be ratified by the Emir prior to execution and that commutation is automatic after 30 years. [12] We did not find specific laws describing the clemency process or the extent of the Emir’s legal prerogative of mercy; we do not know whether that power is limited in the case of qisas or hadd. [13] In 2009, Qatar ratified the Arab Charter on Human Rights, [14] which states in Article 6 that all individuals sentenced to death must be allowed to seek pardon or commutation; this suggests that the right to seek pardon or commutation should extend to all death-sentenced individuals. [15]

The U.S. Department of State reports that a committee within the Ministry of the Interior reviews cases and makes recommendations on leniency to the Emir. [16]

Are jury trials provided for defendants charged with capital offenses?

Yes, trials are by jury [17] (a Court of Assizes). [18]

Brief Description of Appellate Process

A judgment awarding the death penalty must be unanimous; after such a decision, the Court of First Instance must produce a written opinion signed by the Chief Judge within 15 days of the judgment (or else the conviction is nullified). Appeals in capital cases are automatic; the prosecutor must file the trial court’s judgment along with the prosecutor’s memorandum of opinion within 30 days with the Court of Appeal. The Court of Appeal reviews questions of both law and fact de novo. Cassation appeals are also automatic; within 60 days of a decision by the appeals court, the prosecutor must file that court’s judgment along with the prosecutor’s memorandum of opinion with the Court of Cassation. This final court of appeal reviews cases for mistake of law, procedure and jurisdiction after the merits of cases have been determined. [19]

Beyond this mandatory review process, individuals may also apply to the Court of Cassation for fact-based reconsideration if (among other factors) there are new facts supporting their innocence or new facts that could lead to mitigation; execution of a death sentence is stayed upon a request for reconsideration. [20] Also, Pursuant to Article 140 of the Constitution, Qatar enacted Law No. 12 of 2008 establishing a Constitutional Court. [21] While our access to the law or a full description is lacking, what we do know suggests that individuals may file interlocutory appeals with the Constitutional Court on constitutional questions involved in their cases.

The U.S. Department of State reports that high filing fees (from $360 to $5,500) restrict the right to appeal at all levels; [22] the fact that Qatar requires its prosecutors to initiate appeals for capital defendants suggests that capital defendants do not face this restriction.

Reports of separate processes in Sharia courts for serious criminal offenses are outdated or mistaken; over the last decade, Qatar has unified its courts into a Sharia-influenced secular court system. [23]

References

[1] Permanent Constitution of the State of Qatar, art. 36, 2004, translated by: Qatar Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2007.
[2] Permanent Constitution of the State of Qatar, art. 6, 2004, translated by: Qatar Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2007.
[3] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, National Report Submitted in Accordance with Paragraph 15(a) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: State of Qatar, secs. 4.5.1-4.5.3, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/7/QAT/1, Nov. 19, 2009.
[4] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Qatar, Denial of Fair Public Trial, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136078.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[5] Permanent Constitution of the State of Qatar, art. 140, 2004, translated by: Qatar Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2007; U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, National Report Submitted in Accordance with Paragraph 15(a) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: State of Qatar, secs. 4.5.1-4.5.3, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/7/QAT/1, Nov. 19, 2009; U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Qatar, Denial of Fair Public Trial, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136078.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[6] Amnesty International, Submission to the UN Universal Periodic Review, p. 3, MDE 22/001/2009, Sep. 1, 2009.
[7] Qatar Law On Combating Terrorism, arts. 1-2, No. 3 of 2004; Qatar Penal Code, art. 92(4), Law No. 11 of 2004.
[8] Amnesty International, Submission to the UN Universal Periodic Review, p. 3, MDE 22/001/2009, Sep. 1, 2009; Amnesty International, Death Penalty News: March 2001, p. 6, ACT 53/002/2001, Mar. 2001; Hands Off Cain, Qatar: Murder, Offenses Against the State, Drug Offenses and Terrorism are Capital Crimes, http://www.handsoffcain.info/news/index.php?iddocumento=10001822, Jan. 1, 2008; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, generally, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, generally, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010.
[9] Amnesty International, Death Penalty News: March 2001, p. 6, ACT 53/002/2001, Mar. 2001; Amnesty International, Submission to the UN Universal Periodic Review, p. 3, MDE 22/001/2009, Sep. 1, 2009; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, generally, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010; U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, Note Verbale dated 10 February 2009, U.N. Doc. A/63/716, Feb. 12, 2009.
[10] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Summary Prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, in Accordance with Paragraph 15(c) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: Qatar, paras. 10-12, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/7/QAT/3, Nov. 24, 2009.
[11] Permanent Constitution of the State of Qatar, art. 140, 2004, translated by: Qatar Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2007; U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, National Report Submitted in Accordance with Paragraph 15(a) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: State of Qatar, sec. 4.5.2, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/7/QAT/1, Nov. 19, 2009; U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Qatar, Denial of Fair Public Trial, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136078.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[12] Qatar Criminal Procedure Code, art. 340, 375, Law No. 23 of 2004; Qatar Penal Code, art. 58, Law No. 11 of 2004.
[13] For limited support, see Qatar Criminal Procedure Code, art. 345, Law No. 23 of 2004.
[14] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, National Report Submitted in Accordance with Paragraph 15(a) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: State of Qatar, sec. 4.5.3, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/7/QAT/1, Nov. 19, 2009.
[15] Permanent Constitution of the State of Qatar, art. 6, 2004, translated by: Qatar Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2007 (stating that Qatar shall respect and implement its obligations under international agreements, charters and conventions).
[16] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Qatar, Arbitrary Arrest or Detention, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136078.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[17] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Qatar, Denial of Fair Public Trial, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136078.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[18] Qatar Criminal Procedure Code, Law No. 23 of 2004.
[19] Qatar Criminal Procedure Code, arts. 240, 241, 273, 283, 288, 290, 302, Law No. 23 of 2004.
[20] Qatar Criminal Procedure Code, arts. 304, 311, Law No. 23 of 2004.
[21] Permanent Constitution of the State of Qatar, art. 140, 2004, translated by: Qatar Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2007; U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, National Report Submitted in Accordance with Paragraph 15(a) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: State of Qatar, sec. 4.5.2, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/7/QAT/1, Nov. 19, 2009; U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Qatar, Denial of Fair Public Trial, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136078.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[22] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Qatar, Denial of Fair Public Trial, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136078.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[23] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Qatar, Denial of Fair Public Trial, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136078.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.

Death Penalty In Practice

Where Are Death-Sentenced Prisoners incarcerated?

We did not find reports on the location of death row in Qatar; the U.S. Department of State reports that convicted prisoners are held at the State Security Prison and the Central Prison. [1]

Description of Prison Conditions

Reports indicate that Qatar’s prisons sometimes do not meet minimum international standards and may sometimes overcrowded, although overcrowding may be mainly in pre-trial and pre-deportation detention facilities. Conditions at the State Security Prison are better than those at the Central Prison. Reports of torture and abuse are on the decline. [2]

Are there any known foreign nationals currently under sentence of death?

Yes; reports indicate that at least six out of the approximately 20 individuals on death row in Qatar are foreign nationals. [3]

What are the nationalities of the known foreign nationals on death row?

Reports indicate that foreigners on death row include nationals of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, [4] India and Nepal. [5]

Are there any known women currently under sentence of death?

Yes. [6]

Are there any reports of individuals currently under sentence of death who may have been under the age of 18 at the time the crime was committed?

We found no reports that individuals in Qatar are held under sentence of death for crimes committed while under the age of 18; this practice is prohibited in Qatar. [7]

Comments regarding the racial/ethnic composition on death row

Reports indicate that at least six out of the approximately 20 individuals on death row in Qatar are foreign nationals; at least some of these individuals are migrant laborers from poor countries. [8] Qatar’s population predominantly consists of foreign nationals; reports indicate that the rights of and exercise of rights by foreign nationals is somewhat limited. [9]

Are there lawyers available for indigent defendants facing capital trials?

Yes. The Criminal Procedure Code requires courts to appoint counsel for unrepresented criminal defendants. [10] Reportedly, in practice the government provides counsel for indigent defendants. [11]

Are there lawyers available for indigent prisoners on appeal?

We were unable to confirm whether indigent prisoners receive state-funded counsel during ordinary review of capital cases by the Court of Appeal and Court of Cassation, which is a mandatory process. [12]

Comments on Quality of Legal Representation

We did not find comments on the quality of legal representation.

Other Comments on Criminal Justice System

Human rights organizations have questioned the Emir’s potential to interfere with the judiciary by removing judges, deporting foreign nationals, and withdrawing Qatari citizenship. [13] The U.S. Department of State confirms that the judiciary is susceptible to interference, particularly because a majority of judges in Qatar are foreign nationals who can be easily deported; however, the Emir has not exercised his power to remove a judge. [14] Our evaluation is that while the Emir’s discretion is commendable and the judiciary is probably independent, the existence of broad-ranging powers to remove judges diminishes the independence of any judiciary.

The U.S. Department of State reports that while torture, ill-treatment of prisoners, unfairness in legal proceedings and other violations may have been problematic in the past, Qatar is actively addressing and eliminating these problems. [15] Qatar’s imperfect but ongoing efforts to address torture and related issues have been recognized by the U.N. Committee on Torture. [16] Still, the majority of individuals currently held under sentence of death have alleged that they were tortured for confessions and faced unfair trials. [17]

Reportedly, in practice individuals are not presumed innocent and are required to prove their innocence. [18]

References

[1] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Qatar, Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136078.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[2] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Qatar, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136078.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[3] Mark Warren, Foreigners Under Sentence of Death Worldwide, http://users.xplornet.com/~mwarren/world.html, May 7, 2010; Prabhakar Ghmire, Fund to Save Nepali Workers on Death Row Abroad, Republica, http://www.myrepublica.com/~myrepub/portal/index.php?action=news_details&news_id=7847, Jul. 25, 2009.
[4] Mark Warren, Foreigners Under Sentence of Death Worldwide, http://users.xplornet.com/~mwarren/world.html, May 7, 2010.
[5] Prabhakar Ghmire, Fund to Save Nepali Workers on Death Row Abroad, Republica, http://www.myrepublica.com/~myrepub/portal/index.php?action=news_details&news_id=7847, Jul. 25, 2009.
[6] Prabhakar Ghmire, Fund to Save Nepali Workers on Death Row Abroad, Republica, http://www.myrepublica.com/~myrepub/portal/index.php?action=news_details&news_id=7847, Jul. 25, 2009.
[7] Qatar Penal Code, art. 20, Law No. 11 of 2004.
[8] Mark Warren, Foreigners Under Sentence of Death Worldwide, http://users.xplornet.com/~mwarren/world.html, May 7, 2010; Prabhakar Ghmire, Fund to Save Nepali Workers on Death Row Abroad, Republica, http://www.myrepublica.com/~myrepub/portal/index.php?action=news_details&news_id=7847, Jul. 25, 2009.
[9] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Qatar, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136078.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[10] Qatar Criminal Procedure Code, arts. 221-223, Law No. 23 of 2004.
[11] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Qatar, Arbitrary Arrest or Detention, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136078.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[12] Qatar Criminal Procedure Code, arts. 240, 241, 273, 283, 288, 290, 302, Law No. 23 of 2004.
[13] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Summary Prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, in Accordance with Paragraph 15(c) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: Qatar, paras. 26-32, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/7/QAT/3, Nov. 24, 2009.
[14] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Qatar, Denial of Fair Public Trial, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136078.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[15] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Qatar, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136078.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[16] U.N. Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, Committee Against Torture, Consideration of Reports Submitted by State Parties Under Article 19 of the Convention, Conclusions and Recommendations of the Committee Against Torture: Qatar, U.N. Doc. CAT/C/QAT/CO/1, Jul. 25, 2006.
[17] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Summary Prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, in Accordance with Paragraph 15(c) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: Qatar, paras. 10-12, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/7/QAT/3, Nov. 24, 2009.
[18] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Qatar, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136078.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.

Decisions of International Human Rights Bodies

Decisions of Human Rights Committee

While Qatar has recently expressed interest in ratifying the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, it has not yet done so. [1] Thus, the Human Rights Committee does not review human rights practices in Qatar for compliance with the Covenant.

Decisions of Other Human Rights Bodies

Members of the Human Rights Council in its 2009 Universal Periodic Review of human rights in Qatar recommended that Qatar continue to work to assure fair trials and conditions permitting adequate defenses, the right to the presumption of innocence, the right of appeal, and the right to the possibility of mercy; Qatar supported these recommendations. [2] Qatar did not support recommendations that it commute all death sentences and institute an official moratorium on executions with a view towards abolishing the death penalty. [3]

References

[1] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, National Report Submitted in Accordance with Paragraph 15(a) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: State of Qatar, sec. 4.5.3, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/7/QAT/1, Nov. 19, 2009.
[2] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Qatar, para. 83(37), U.N. Doc. A/HRC/14/2, Mar. 15, 2010.
[3] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Qatar, para. 86(7-12), U.N. Doc. A/HRC/14/2, Mar. 15, 2010.

Additional Sources and Contacts

Direct member(s) of World Coalition Against the Death Penalty

None.

Other non-governmental organizations and individuals engaged in advocacy surrounding the death penalty

Reprieve
PO Box 72054
London EC3P 3BZ
United Kingdom
Tel 020 7553 8140
Fax 020 7553 8189
info@reprieve.org.uk
http://www.reprieve.org.uk

Helpful Reports and Publications

None.

Additional notes regarding this country

None.

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