Death Penalty Database

Papua New Guinea

Information current as of: September 10, 2019

General

Official Country Name

Independent State of Papua New Guinea (Papua New Guinea). [1]

Geographical Region

Oceania (Melanesia). [2]

Death Penalty Law Status

Abolitionist de facto. The last execution was carried out in 1954. [3]

Methods of Execution

Hanging. [4]

Lethal Injection.

Shooting. [5]

Other. [6]

Other.
Asphyxiation. [7]

References

[1] BBC Country Profiles: Papua New Guinea, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-15436981, Jan. 14, 2018.
[2] U.N. Statistics Division, Standard country or area codes for statistical use (M49), https://unstats.un.org/unsd/methodology/m49/, last accessed Sep. 23, 2019.
[3] Yombi Kep, UN Pushes For PNG To Abolish Death Penalty, Papua New Guinea Post-Courier, https://postcourier.com.pg/un-pushes-png-abolish-death-penalty/, Oct. 12, 2018.
[4] Criminal Code Act of Papua New Guinea, secs. 597, 614, 1974, as updated through to Dec. 13, 2016. The Criminal Code Act 1974 was amended by sections 8 and 9 of the Criminal Code (Amendment) Act 2013 to expand the methods of execution.
[5] Criminal Code Act of Papua New Guinea, secs. 597, 614, 1974, as updated through to Dec. 13, 2016. The Criminal Code Act 1974 was amended by sections 8 and 9 of the Criminal Code (Amendment) Act 2013 to expand the methods of execution.
[6] Criminal Code Act of Papua New Guinea, secs. 597, 614, 1974, as updated through to Dec. 13, 2016. The Criminal Code Act 1974 was amended by sections 8 and 9 of the Criminal Code (Amendment) Act 2013 to expand the methods of execution.
[7] Criminal Code Act of Papua New Guinea, secs. 597, 614, 1974, as updated through to Dec. 13, 2016. The Criminal Code Act 1974 was amended by sections 8 and 9 of the Criminal Code (Amendment) Act 2013 to expand the methods of execution.

Country Details

Language(s)

English, Tok Pisin, Hiri Motu. [1]

Population

8,000,000. [2]

Number of Individuals Currently Under Sentence of Death

16 or 20.

Amnesty International reported that at the end of 2018, there were 20 people on death row in Papua New Guinea. [3] There were nine new death sentences, [4] including eight people that were sentenced for killing seven people in 2004. [5] They were part of a group of 97 villagers who approached a nearby village motivated by fear for sorcery. [6] The remaining 88 people were given a life sentence (one person had previously died). [7] In July 2019, Human Rights Watch reported that 16 people were on death row, so the correct figure is uncertain. [8]

(This question was last updated on September 10, 2019.)

Annual Number of Reported Executions

Executions in 2019 to date (last updated on October 9, 2019)

0. [9]

Executions in 2018

0. [10]

Executions in 2017

0. [11]

Executions in 2016

0. [12]

Executions in 2015

0. [13]

Executions in 2014

0. [14]

Executions in 2013

0. [15]

Executions in 2012

0. [16]

Executions in 2011

0. [17]

Executions in 2010

0. [18]

Executions in 2009

0. [19]

Executions in 2008

0. [20]

Executions in 2007

0. [21]

Year of Last Known Execution

1954. [22]

References

[1] BBC Country Profiles: Papua New Guinea, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-15436981, Jan. 14, 2018.
[2] BBC Country Profiles: Papua New Guinea, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-15436981, Jan. 14, 2018.
[3] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2018, p. 19, ACT 50/9870/2019, Apr. 10, 2019.
[4] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2018, p. 19, ACT 50/9870/2019, Apr. 10, 2019.
[5] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2018, p. 25, ACT 50/9870/2019, Apr. 10, 2019.
[6] RNZ, Eight get death penalty over PNG sorcery killings in 2014, https://www.radionz.co.nz/international/pacific-news/362643/eight-get-death-penalty-over-png-sorcery-killings-in-2014, Jul. 25, 2018.
[7] RNZ, Eight get death penalty over PNG sorcery killings in 2014, https://www.radionz.co.nz/international/pacific-news/362643/eight-get-death-penalty-over-png-sorcery-killings-in-2014, Jul. 25, 2018.
[8] Stephanie McLennan, Papua New Guinea Massacre Doesn’t Justify Death Penalty, https://www.hrw.org/news/2019/07/11/papua-new-guinea-massacre-doesnt-justify-death-penalty, Jul. 11, 2019.
[9] DPW Executions and Death Sentences Monitor.
[10] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions 2018, p. 19, ACT 50/9870/2019, Apr. 10, 2019.
[11] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2017, p. 41, ACT 50/7955/2018, Apr. 12, 2018.
[12] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2016, p. 43, ACT 50/5740/2017, Apr. 11, 2017.
[13] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2015, p. 66, ACT 50/3487/2016, Apr. 6, 2016
[14] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2014, p. 65, ACT 50/001/2015, Mar. 31, 2015
[15] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2013, p. 53, ACT 50/001/2014, Mar. 26, 2014
[16] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2012, p. 51, ACT 50/001/2013, Apr. 10, 2013.
[17] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2011, p. 58, ACT 50/001/2012, Mar. 27, 2012.
[18] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2010, p. 45, ACT 50/001/2011, Mar. 28, 2011.
[19] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, p. 29, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010.
[20] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, pp. 22–23, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009.
[21] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2007, p. 5, ACT 50/001/2008, Apr. 15, 2008.
[22] Yombi Kep, UN Pushes For PNG To Abolish Death Penalty, Papua New Guinea Post-Courier, https://postcourier.com.pg/un-pushes-png-abolish-death-penalty/, Oct. 12, 2018.

Crimes and Offenders Punishable By Death

Crimes Punishable by Death

Murder.
Willful murder—defined as unlawfully killing a person intending to cause his or another person’s death—is punishable by death. [1] The death penalty may only be imposed in the absence of sufficient mitigating or extenuating circumstances. [2] In these cases, premeditation must be proved. [3] Intentionally killing a person due to an accusation of that person practicing sorcery caries the death penalty as an act of willful murder. [4]

Treason.
The punishment for treason is death. [5]

Rape Not Resulting in Death.
Aggravated rape carries the death penalty. [6] Rape is considered aggravated when the accused is armed with a weapon, when perpetrated by more than one person, if it causes grievous bodily harm, or if the victim is a child under 10 years of age. [7]

Robbery Not Resulting in Death.
Robbery is punishable by death if the accused is armed with a dangerous or offensive weapon or instrument; or is in company with one or more other persons; or immediately before or immediately after the time of the robbery harms any person. [8]

Other Offenses Resulting in Death.
Piracy may be punished with the death penalty if acts of assault of any person on board or of belonging to the ship, with the intention to cause death, occur. The death penalty may also be applied where a person is wounded, or a perpetrator unlawfully commits any act that may endanger any person’s life. Further, attempted piracy with personal violence or with the intention to commit these acts may receive the death penalty. [9]

Comments.
According to Ume v. State, the death penalty may be imposed as a matter of discretion and only after a judge has factually determined that an aggravated offence was committed, as well as in cases in which mitigating factors or extenuating circumstances do not result in leniency. [10]

Does the country have a mandatory death penalty?

No.

Under section 19 of the Criminal Code, a person may be sentenced to life imprisonment or any lesser term instead of the death penalty unless specifically prohibited by law. [11] Further, none of the death-eligible offenses specifically prohibits courts from exercising that discretion. [12] In its decision in Ume v. State in 2006, Papua New Guinea’s Supreme Court outlined the history of the death penalty in Papua New Guinea and explained that the death penalty is the maximum penalty for any death-eligible offense, and may not be applied without full consideration of aggravating and mitigating factors and the circumstances of the offense. [13]

For Which Offenses, If Any, Is a Mandatory Death Sentence Imposed?

Under section 19 of the Criminal Code, courts have broad discretion to assign a penalty lesser than death, and none of the death-eligible offenses specifically prohibit a court’s exercise of that discretion. [14] In Ume v. State, Papua New Guinea’s Supreme Court outlined the legislative history behind the abolishment of the mandatory death penalty in Papua New Guinea. [15]

Crimes For Which Individuals Have Been Executed Since January 2008:

No one has been executed since 1954. [16]

Categories of Offenders Excluded From the Death Penalty:

Individuals Below Age 18 At Time of Crime.
We did not find a law that excludes individuals below the age of 18 at the time of committing an offense from execution. Nevertheless, the constitution of Papua New Guinea requires courts to consider an array of international instruments and customary law in determining whether a law comports with proper regard for the rights and dignity of individuals. [17] Papua New Guinea has ratified the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Covenant on the Rights of the Child, which prohibit State parties from imposing death sentences on people under 18. [18]

Pregnant Women.
If a woman sentenced to death is pregnant, she may apply for a stay of execution until after the pregnancy is over. [19]

Mentally Ill.
A person “in such a state of mental disease or natural mental infirmity” that he is unable to understand his actions or unable to control his actions is not criminally liable, [20] and a person who commits an offense due to a delusion is held liable only insofar as the delusion would support criminal liability if it were true. [21]

Intellectually Disabled.
A person “in such a state of mental disease or natural mental infirmity” that he is unable to understand his actions or unable to control his actions is not criminally liable. [22] It is possible that this definition could include intellectual disability. A Supreme Court opinion from 2006 further suggests that “sophistication” and mental capacity beyond mere sanity could be a consideration in sentencing. [23]

References

[1] Criminal Code Act of Papua New Guinea, sec. 299(2), 1974, as updated through to Dec. 13, 2016.
[2] Ume v. State, paras. 51–67, SCRA 10 of 1997, Supreme Ct. of Justice, May 19, 2006.
[3] Mange Matui, Trial Practice and Criminal Procedure in Papua New Guinea, pp. 193–194, UPNG Press and Bookshop, 2017.
[4] Criminal Code Act of Papua New Guinea, sec. 299A(1), 1974, as updated through to Dec. 13, 2016. The Criminal Code Act 1974 was amended by Section 1 of the Criminal Code (Amendment) Act 2013 to add section 299(A) on the willful murder of a person on account of accusation of sorcery.
[5] Criminal Code Act of Papua New Guinea, sec. 37, 1974, as updated through to Dec. 13, 2016.
[6] Criminal Code Act of Papua New Guinea, sec. 347C, 1974, as updated through to Dec. 13, 2016. The Criminal Code Act 1974 was amended by Section 2 of the Criminal Code (Amendment) Act 2013 to add section 347C on aggravated rape.
[7] Criminal Code Act of Papua New Guinea, sec. 347C, 1974, as updated through to Dec. 13, 2016. The Criminal Code Act 1974 was amended by Section 2 of the Criminal Code (Amendment) Act 2013 to add section 347C on aggravated rape.
[8] Criminal Code Act of Papua New Guinea, sec. 386(2), 1974, as updated through to Dec. 13, 2016. The Criminal Code Act 1974 was amended by Section 7 of the Criminal Code (Amendment) Act 2013 to introduce the death penalty as punishment for aggravated robbery (a crime previously punished with life in prison).
[9] Criminal Code Act of Papua New Guinea, secs. 81–82, 1974, as updated through to Dec. 13, 2016.
[10] Kerry Ann Akers, The Global Capital Punishment Litigation Landscape, p. 243, The International Library of Essays on Capital Punishment, Volume I: Justice and Legal Issues, Routledge, Peter Hodgkinson, 2016.
[11] Criminal Code Act of Papua New Guinea, sec. 19, 1974, as updated through to Dec. 13, 2016.
[12] Criminal Code Act of Papua New Guinea, secs. 19, 37, 81–82, 299, 598, ns. 7 & 8, 1974, as updated through to Dec. 13, 2016.
[13] Ume v. State, paras. 39–40, SCRA 10 of 1997, Supreme Ct. of Justice, May 19, 2006.
[14] Criminal Code Act of Papua New Guinea, secs. 19, 37, 81–82, 299, 598, ns. 7 & 8, 1974, as updated through to Dec. 13, 2016.
[15] Ume v. State, paras. 8–39, SCRA 10 of 1997, Supreme Ct. of Justice, May 19, 2006.
[16] Yombi Kep, UN Pushes For PNG To Abolish Death Penalty, Papua New Guinea Post-Courier, https://postcourier.com.pg/un-pushes-png-abolish-death-penalty/, Oct. 12, 2018.
[17] Constitution of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, sec. 39, Sep. 16, 1975, as updated through to 2016. In practice, this is a meaningful provision in Papua New Guinea—for example, see Ume v. State, paras. 51–67, SCRA 10 of 1997, Supreme Ct. of Justice, May 19, 2006.
[18] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Sep. 23, 2019; Status, Declarations, and Reservations, CRC, 1577 U.N.T.S. 3, Nov. 20, 1989, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-11&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Sep. 23, 2019.
[19] Criminal Code Act of Papua New Guinea, sec. 599, 1974, as updated through to Dec. 13, 2016.
[20] Criminal Code Act of Papua New Guinea, sec. 28(1), 1974, as updated through to Dec. 13, 2016.
[21] Criminal Code Act of Papua New Guinea, sec. 28, 1974, as updated through to Dec. 13, 2016.
[22] Criminal Code Act of Papua New Guinea, sec. 28(1), 1974, as updated through to Dec. 13, 2016.
[23] Ume v. State, para. 74, SCRA 10 of 1997, Supreme Ct. of Justice, May 19, 2006.

International Commitments

ICCPR

Party?

Yes. [1]

Date of Accession

Jul. 21, 2008. [2]

Signed?

No. [3]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

First Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, Recognizing Jurisdiction of the Human Rights Committee

Party?

No. [4]

Date of Accession

Not Applicable.

Signed?

No. [5]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, Toward the Abolition of the Death Penalty

Party?

No. [6]

Date of Accession

Not Applicable.

Signed?

No. [7]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

American Convention on Human Rights

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

Death Penalty Protocol to the ACHR

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR)

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

Protocol to the ACHPR on the Rights of Women in Africa

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

Arab Charter on Human Rights

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

2018 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [8]

Vote

Against. [9]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

2016 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [10]

Vote

Against. [11]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [12]

2014 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [13]

Vote

Against. [14]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

No. [15]

2012 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [16]

Vote

Abstained. [17]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [18]

2010 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [19]

Vote

Against. [20]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [21]

2008 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [22]

Vote

Abstained. [23]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [24]

2007 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [25]

Vote

Against. [26]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [27]

References

[1] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Sep. 10, 2019.
[2] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Sep. 10, 2019.
[3] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Sep. 10, 2019.
[4] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-5&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Sep. 10, 2019.
[5] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-5&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Sep. 10, 2019.
[6] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Second Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, 1642 U.N.T.S. 414, Dec. 15, 1989, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-12&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Sep. 10, 2019.
[7] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Second Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, 1642 U.N.T.S. 414, Dec. 15, 1989, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-12&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Sep. 10, 2019.
[8] U.N.G.A. 73rd session, Promotion and protection of human rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, para. 135, U.N. Doc. A/73/589/Add.2, Dec. 4, 2018.
[9] U.N.G.A. 73rd session, 55th plenary meeting, p. 31, U.N. Doc. A/73/PV.55, Dec. 17, 2018.
[10] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Promotion and protection of human rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 54-71 U.N. Doc. A/71/484/Add.2, Dec. 6, 2016.
[11] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Promotion and protection of human rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 54-71 U.N. Doc. A/71/484/Add.2, Dec. 6, 2016.
[12] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Note Verbale dated 7 September 2017, U.N. Doc. A/71/1047, Sep. 13, 2017.
[13] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 141, 144, U.N. Doc. A/69/488/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2014.
[14] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, 73rd Plenary Meeting, pp. 17-18, U.N. Doc. A/69/PV.73, Dec. 18, 2014.
[15] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, Note Verbale dated 28 July 2015, U.N. Doc. A/69/993, Jul. 29, 2015.
[16] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 95-96, U.N. Doc. A/67/457/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2012.
[17] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, 60th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16-17, U.N. Doc. A/67/PV.60, Dec. 20, 2012.
[18] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, Note Verbale dated 16 April 2013, U.N. Doc. A/67/841, Apr. 23, 2013.
[19] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, p. 5, U.N. Doc. A/65/456/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2010.
[20] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, 71st Plenary Meeting, pp. 18-19, U.N. Doc. A/65/PV.71, Dec. 21, 2010.
[21] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, Note Verbale dated 11 March 2011, U.N. Doc. A/65/779, Mar. 11, 2011.
[22] U.N.G.A., 63rd session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, U.N. Doc. A/63/430/Add.2, Dec. 4, 2008.
[23] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, 70th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16-17, U.N. Doc. A/63/PV.70, Dec. 18, 2008.
[24] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, Note Verbale dated 10 February 2009, U.N. Doc. A/63/716, Feb. 12, 2009.
[25] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, pp. 3-4, U.N. Doc. A/62/439/Add.2, Dec. 5, 2007.
[26] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, 76th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16- 17, U.N. Doc. A/62/PV.76, Dec. 18, 2007.
[27] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, Note Verbale dated 11 January 2008, U.N. Doc. A/62/658, Feb. 2, 2008.

Death Penalty In Law

Does the country’s constitution make reference to capital punishment?

The Constitution states that no person shall be deprived of life “except in execution of a sentence of a court following his conviction of an offence for which the penalty of death is prescribed by law.” [1] Additionally, the Constitution specifies that while capital punishment does not contravene the prohibition of inhuman treatment “the manner or the circumstances of the killing may contravene it.” [2]

Does the country’s constitution make reference to international law?

The Constitution specifies that courts determining whether a law may be applied “in a democratic society that has a proper regard for the rights and dignity of mankind” may look to a number of specific international instruments as well as foreign and international courts, customary law, and other international influences. [3] Essentially, a court determining whether a law is arbitrary or inhuman must consider relevant conventions, jurisprudence and jurisdictions worldwide. [4]

Have there been any significant changes in the application of the death penalty over the last several years?

Papua New Guinea has instituted changes to the legal framework governing the application of the death penalty, specifically expanding execution methods and offenses that are death-eligible. [5] Even though there has not been an execution since 1954, in 2013, Papua New Guinea amended its Criminal Code Act to include additional methods of execution. [6] In addition to hanging, methods of execution include lethal injection, the administration of anesthetic and deprivation of oxygen, death by firing squad, or electrocution. [7] Papua New Guinea has also instituted legislative changes to the offenses that carry the death penalty. In 2013, the government reinstated laws on the death penalty and included sorcery-related murder, aggravated rape, and robbery with violence in its list of crimes that could incur the death penalty. [8] In February 2015, the Cabinet announced that it had introduced new guidelines for implementation. [9]

These changes were made in the aftermath of several high-profile crimes. In 2013, an American academic—who was in Papua New Guinea conducting research on birds—was gang-raped by nine men armed with rifles and knives while walking with her husband and a guide on Kakar Island [10] and, in the same year, an Australian man was killed and a Filipino woman was gang-raped after their home in the highlands was broken into. [11] The extension of the death penalty received attention and condemnation from the United Nations and Amnesty International. [12]

Papua New Guinea maintains its attachment to the death penalty on the international level, consistently voting against or abstaining from the U.N. General Assembly resolution calling for a moratorium on the use of the death penalty. [13]

(This question was last updated on September 10, 2019).

Is there currently an official moratorium on executions within the country?

No, there is no official moratorium on executions in Papua New Guinea. [14]

Have there been any significant published cases concerning the death penalty in national courts?

While it may be unlikely that Ume v. State, decided in 2006, represents a change in jurisprudence in Papua New Guinea, this case outlines a century of legislative and common law development and is the seminal case regarding judicial discretion in Papua New Guinea. In Ume, the Court reduced the death sentences of petitioners; these sentences had been pronounced by a trial court judge who had failed to make adequate factual determinations regarding aggravating factors and who had “completely shut his mind to the existence of any mitigating factors.” [15] The court outlined the legislative history of the death penalty in Papua New Guinea, illustrating that the death penalty in Papua New Guinea is beyond question a discretionary penalty. [16] Because the legislature had not outlined a framework for which cases warrant a death penalty, the Court considered other jurisdictions where a discretionary death penalty exists; the Court determined that the death penalty can apply only for seriously aggravated offenses where mitigating factors or extenuating circumstances are insufficient to suggest leniency is appropriate in light of the gravity of the offense. [17]

In the 2013 case of Erebebe v. State, the Papua New Guinea Supreme Court of Justice found that a nine-year process that might result in a sentence of death—when petitioners were previously sentenced to life imprisonment—did not contravene the Constitutional guarantee of freedom from inhuman treatment. The Court considered the case of Pratt & Morgan v. The Attorney General for Jamaica, [18] which created a presumption that carrying out an execution more than five years after sentencing would be inhuman or degrading punishment. [19] The Court acknowledged, “it is undoubtedly true that the prisoners will have been suffering considerable anguish over the last nine years knowing that the Public Prosecutor seeks that they be sentenced to death.” [20] Nevertheless, the Court distinguished this case from Pratt saying: 1) that the prisoners were not under sentence of death during the nine years, but that a death sentence “has only been a likelihood” for nine years [21] and 2) that petitioners’ mental anguish was not comparable to jurisdictions were executions were taking place. [22]

Where can one locate or access judicial decisions regarding the death penalty?

Judgments of the National Court, decisions on appeal before the Supreme Court, and the decisions of other courts can be accessed at http://www.paclii.org/countries/pg.html.

What is the clemency process?

Consideration of clemency begins after conviction. The Advisory Committee on the Power of Mercy consists of a lawyer, a medical practitioner with psychiatric experience, a member of Parliament, a religious minister, and a person with experience in community work. [23] At least one of the Committee must be a woman. [24] The Committee investigates a sentencing decision and provides majority and dissenting reports to the National Executive Council, which makes recommendations to the Head of State. [25] The Head of State must exercise the power of mercy in accordance with the advice of the Council. [26]

Are jury trials provided for defendants charged with capital offenses?

Papua New Guinea does not have juries. [27] Judges conduct trials. [28]

Brief Description of Appellate Process

Capital offenses are tried before the National Court, as it has original jurisdiction over indictable offences. [29] Appeals are from the National Court to the Supreme Court on questions of law, mixed law and fact, and with the Supreme Court’s leave, fact. [30] In criminal cases, appeals are allowed against conviction on a question of law or mixed law and fact. [31] Appeals against a criminal conviction are further allowed on a question of fact or on any ground that the Supreme Court deems sufficient, but only with the Supreme Court’s permission, or with the National Court’s certificate that the case is fit for appeal. [32] A person can also appeal a criminal sentence, unless the sentence is fixed by law. [33] The Supreme Court may set aside a conviction if it is “unsafe or unsatisfactory,” was decided with a wrong determination on a question of law, or if the trial had “material irregularities.” [34] On an appeal against a sentence, the Supreme Court can substitute a more or less severe sentence, or dismiss the appeal. [35] The Public Prosecutor can appeal to the Supreme Court against a trial or appeal sentencing decision of the National Court, and the Supreme Court may vary the sentence from the lower court. [36]

A person must initiate an appeal within 40 days after the date of conviction. [37] For a conviction involving the death penalty, the sentence shall not be carried out until after 40 days after conviction if an appeal is not filed, until after the appeal is determined, or where the application for leave to appeal is refused. [38] An acquittal is not appealable by the prosecutor, who may only appeal to the Supreme Court for an advisory opinion on a point of law. [39] The Supreme Court may, in special cases, impose a new sentence if it thinks proper and warranted. [40]

References

[1] Constitution of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, art. 35, Sep. 16, 1975, as updated through to 2016.
[2] Constitution of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, arts. 35–36, Sep. 16, 1975, as updated through to 2016 (we take “the manner or the circumstances of the killing” to refer to the specific application of capital punishment).
[3] Constitution of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, art. 39, Sep. 16, 1975, as updated through to 2016.
[4] Constitution of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, art. 39, Sep. 16, 1975, as updated through to 2016.
[5] Betheli O’Carroll, Human Rights concerns with PNG reinstating the death penalty, Regarding Rights, http://asiapacific.anu.edu.au/regarding-rights/2014/09/26/human-rights-concerns-with-png-reinstating-the-death-penalty/, Sep. 26, 2014.
[6] Criminal Code Act of Papua New Guinea, secs. 597, 614, 1974, as updated through to Dec. 13, 2016. The Criminal Code Act 1974 was amended by sections 8 and 9 of the Criminal Code (Amendment) Act 2013 to expand the methods of execution.
[7] Criminal Code Act of Papua New Guinea, secs. 597, 614, 1974, as updated through to Dec. 13, 2016. The Criminal Code Act 1974 was amended by sections 8 and 9 of the Criminal Code (Amendment) Act 2013 to expand the methods of execution.
[8] UN News, UN human rights office regrets Papua New Guinea’s decision to resume death penalty, https://news.un.org/en/story/2013/05/441052#.VNUU6WPVvTp, May 31, 2013. Criminal Code Act of Papua New Guinea, secs. 299A(1), 347C, 386(2), 1974, as updated through to Dec. 13, 2016. The Criminal Code Act 1974 was amended by Sections 1, 2, and 7 of the Criminal Code (Amendment) Act 2013 to include sorcery-related murder, aggravated rape, and aggravated robbery, respectively, as death-eligible offenses.
[9] Global Legal Monitor, Library of Congress, Papua New Guinea: Cabinet Approves Guidelines for Implementation of the Death Penalty, http://www.loc.gov/law/foreign-news/article/papua-new-guinea-cabinet-approves-guidelines-for-implementation-of-the-death-penalty/, Feb. 11, 2015.
[10] ABC, US woman gang-raped in PNG, https://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-04-21/an-us-academic-gang-raped-in-png/4642150, Apr. 21, 2013.
[11] Liam Fox, Australian murdered, woman gang-raped in PNG, ABC, https://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-04-16/australian-murdered-in-png/4631984, Apr. 16, 2013.
[12] Rob Taylor, Papua New Guinea reinstates death penalty after gruesome sorcery killings, rapes, Reuters, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-png-deathpenalty/papua-new-guinea-reinstates-death-penalty-after-gruesome-sorcery-killings-rapes-idUSBRE94S04R20130529, May 29, 2013.
[13] Death Penalty Worldwide, Papua New Guinea, Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution, 2007–2018, http://www.deathpenaltyworldwide.org/country-search-post.cfm?1-0-m=Papua+New+Guinea&145-143chk=on&137-135chk=on&130-128chk=on&116-120chk=on&72-70chk=on&75-118chk=on&78-119chk=on, last accessed Sep. 13, 2019.
[14] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Papua New Guinea, paras. 45, 96, 104.80, 104.81, 104.83, 104.85, 104.87, 104.89, 104.90, 104.91, U.N. Doc. A.HRC/33/10, Jul. 13, 2016.
[15] Ume v. State, para. 74, SCRA 10 of 1997, Supreme Court of Justice, May 19, 2006.
[16] Ume v. State, paras. 8-39, SCRA 10 of 1997, Supreme Court of Justice, May 19, 2006.
[17] Ume v. State, paras. 43-45, 51-67, 74-77, SCRA 10 of 1997, Supreme Court of Justice, May 19, 2006.
[18] Pratt & Morgan v. Jamaica, Appeal No. 10 of 1993, Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, Nov. 2, 1993.
[19] Erebebe v. State, para. 32, SCRA 70 of 2003, Supreme Ct. of Justice, May 2, 2013.
[20] Erebebe v. State, para. 24, SCRA 70 of 2003, Supreme Ct. of Justice, May 2, 2013.
[21] Erebebe v. State, para. 40, SCRA 70 of 2003, Supreme Ct. of Justice, May 2, 2013.
[22] Erebebe v. State, para. 40, SCRA 70 of 2003, Supreme Ct. of Justice, May 2, 2013.
[23] Organic Law on the Advisory Committee on the Power of Mercy, art. 1, Sep. 16, 1975.
[24] Organic Law on the Advisory Committee on the Power of Mercy, art. 1, Sep. 16, 1975.
[25] Constitution of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, arts. 151–152, Sep. 16, 1975, as updated through to 2016.
[26] Constitution of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, arts. 151–152, Sep. 16, 1975, as updated through to 2016.
[27] Australian Government, Dept. of Foreign Affairs and Trade, DFAT Country Information Report Papua New Guinea, p. 24, para. 5.12, https://dfat.gov.au/about-us/publications/Documents/country-information-report-papua-new-guinea.pdf, Feb. 10, 2017.
[28] Australian Government, Dept. of Foreign Affairs and Trade, DFAT Country Information Report Papua New Guinea, p. 24, para. 5.12, https://dfat.gov.au/about-us/publications/Documents/country-information-report-papua-new-guinea.pdf, Feb. 10, 2017.
[29] Mange Matui, Trial Practice and Criminal Procedure in Papua New Guinea, pp. 11–12, UPNG Press and Bookshop, 2017. Constitution of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, arts. 155(3), 166, Sep. 16, 1975, as updated through to 2016. Criminal Code Act of Papua New Guinea, sec. 420, Schedule 2, 1974, as updated through to Dec. 13, 2016.
[30] Papua New Guinea Supreme Court Act, sec. 4, 1975.
[31] Papua New Guinea Supreme Court Act, sec. 22(a)–(b), 1975.
[32] Papua New Guinea Supreme Court Act, sec. 22(c), 1975.
[33] Papua New Guinea Supreme Court Act, sec. 22(d), 1975.
[34] Papua New Guinea Supreme Court Act, sec. 23, 1975.
[35] Papua New Guinea Supreme Court Act, sec. 23, 1975.
[36] Papua New Guinea Supreme Court Act, sec. 24, 1975. For example, in the 2013 case of Erebebe v. State, the Papua New Guinea Supreme Court of Justice allowed a prosecutor’s cross-appeal and substituted a sentence of life imprisonment for a sentence of death. Erebebe v. State, SCRA 70 of 2003, Supreme Ct. of Justice, May 2, 2013.
[37] Papua New Guinea Supreme Court Act, sec. 29(1)–(2), 1975.
[38] Papua New Guinea Supreme Court Act, sec. 29(3), 1975.
[39] Papua New Guinea Supreme Court Act, secs. 25–26, 1975.
[40] Papua New Guinea Supreme Court Act, sec. 27, 1975. Erebebe v. State, SCRA 70 of 2003, Supreme Ct. of Justice, 2013. Mange Matui, p. 173, Trial Practice and Criminal Procedure in Papua New Guinea, UPNG Press and Bookshop, 2017.

Death Penalty In Practice

Where Are Death-Sentenced Prisoners incarcerated?

There are reports that death row prisoners are housed in Kerevat prison in East New Britain or at Bomana Prison in Port Moresby. [1]

(This question was last updated on April 8, 2019.)

Description of Prison Conditions

We were unable to ascertain whether death row prisoners are separated from the general prison population. General prison conditions in Papua New Guinea are substandard. Sanitation levels are insufficient, and food rations are scarce. [2] Food shortages caused prison officers at Boram Prison in East Sepik to release 25 prisoners to forage for food in 2018. [3] Problems with ventilation and lighting were also reported in multiple prisons. [4] The International Committee of the Red Cross has been involved in distributing hygiene kits, blankets, and recreational items to police lock ups and prisons. [5] Conditions in Bomana, Papua New Guinea’s largest prison, have reportedly improved under new management since 2017, and there have been reportedly no incidents between prisoners and guards, sanitation is better, and rehabilitation programs have been put in place. [6]

In 2018, prisons faced overcrowding due to lack of court sessions, slow-paced investigations, and restrictions on bail for some crimes. This also may be due to prison closure, such as in Wabag, Enga Province, which was a result of a local land dispute. [7] In January 2019, the prison population, including those in pre-trial detention and on remand, was 5,087. [8] Thirty-five percent of prisoners were pre-trial detainees and remand prisoners, 4.9% were women, and 3.7% were minors, while 0.4% were foreigners. The official prison system capacity was set at 4,366, and prisoners were about 116.5% overcrowded. [9]

Pre-trial detainees and convicted prisoners were held in the same prisons but kept in separated cells. Escape attempts by pre-trial detainees were common, in part due to delays in trial processing. For example, during five prison breaks in 2017–2018, 120 prisoners escaped, and nine escapees were fatally shot, though officers apparently did not face disciplinary procedures. [10] In 2017, corrections service officers shot and killed 17 men who attempted to breakout from Buimo jail, in Lae, while in 2016, 12 were killed as approximately 90 men raided Buimo. [11]

Juveniles are kept in separate accommodations and four facilities are dedicated to juveniles. The Roman Catholic Church operates three juvenile reception centers for minors awaiting arraignment before they posted bail, though authorities apparently hold juveniles with adults in police detention centers and sometimes refused detainees access to juvenile court officers. Males and female inmates were reportedly held separately, though facilities for separation are sometimes lacking in rural areas. [12]

Papua New Guinea permits human rights monitors and journalists to visit its prisons: in 2018, it allowed the International Committee of the Red Cross and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to visit its prisons. [13] It also mandates its own Ombudsman Commission to visit prisons, but it has been reported that Commission does not have adequate resources to carry out its monitoring mandate. [14]

Are there any known foreign nationals currently under sentence of death?

We did not find any reports of foreign nationals on death row. In January 2019, approximately 0.4% of the prison population, around 20 inmates, were foreign nationals. [15]

What are the nationalities of the known foreign nationals on death row?

We did not find reports of foreign nationals held under sentence of death in Papua New Guinea.

Are there any known women currently under sentence of death?

In January 2019, approximately 4.9% of the prison population, totaling 5,087, were women. [16] We were unable to confirm if there are women under sentence of death.

Are there any reports of individuals currently under sentence of death who may have been under the age of 18 at the time the crime was committed?

We did not find any reports of individuals currently under sentence of death who may have been under the age of 18 at the time the crime. In January 2019, approximately 3.7% of the prison population, totaling 5,087, were under 18. [17]

Comments regarding the racial/ethnic composition on death row

We did not find any reports regarding ethnic disparities on death row, although there is some potential for cultural disparity. Papua New Guinea is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, [18] with approximately 850 known spoken languages. [19] While tribal/group conflict-based killing is outlawed, courts consider the reality of this situation in sentencing decisions involving group violence. [20]

Are there lawyers available for indigent defendants facing capital trials?

Indigent individuals facing charges punishable by over two years’ imprisonment are provided attorneys by the Public Solicitor’s Office (the Public Defender). [21]

Are there lawyers available for indigent prisoners on appeal?

The Constitution mandates that indigent individuals are provided attorneys by the Public Solicitor’s Office (the Public Defender) for appeals regarding an offense punishable by over two years’ imprisonment. [22]

Comments on Quality of Legal Representation

We found no comments on the quality of legal representation.

Other Comments on Criminal Justice System

Police officers reportedly beat detainees and engage in other abusive behavior, which occurs during arrests, interrogation, and pre-trail detention, especially against young detainees. [23] Police have also reportedly raped and sexually abused detained women. [24]

Pre-trial detention reportedly lasts for years, due to slow police investigations, corruption, and interference, as well as shortages of judges and travel funds for court sittings in circuit courts. [25]

References

[1] The National, 8 on death row, https://www.thenational.com.pg/8-death-row/, Feb. 9, 2018.
[2] U.S. Dept. of State, Papua New Guinea 2018 Human Rights Report Papua New Guinea, pp. 2–3, https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/PAPUA-NEW-GUINEA-2018.pdf, Apr. 20, 2018.
[3] Radio New Zealand, PNG prisoners released to find food, https://www.radionz.co.nz/international/pacific-news/358604/png-prisoners-released-to-find-food, May 31, 2018.
[4] U.S. Dept. of State, Papua New Guinea 2018 Human Rights Report, p. 3, https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/PAPUA-NEW-GUINEA-2018.pdf, Apr. 20, 2018.
[5] ICRC, Papua New Guinea Operational Highlights 2018, https://www.icrc.org/en/document/papua-new-guinea-operational-highlights-2018, 2018.
[6] U.S. Dept. of State, Papua New Guinea 2018 Human Rights Report, p. 3, https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/PAPUA-NEW-GUINEA-2018.pdf, Apr. 20, 2018.
[7] U.S. Dept. of State, Papua New Guinea 2018 Human Rights Report, pp. 2–3, https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/PAPUA-NEW-GUINEA-2018.pdf, Apr. 20, 2018.
[8] World Prison Brief, Papua New Guinea, http://www.prisonstudies.org/country/papua-new-guinea, Jan. 7, 2019.
[9] World Prison Brief, Papua New Guinea, http://www.prisonstudies.org/country/papua-new-guinea, Jan. 7, 2019.
[10] U.S. Dept. of State, Papua New Guinea 2018 Human Rights Report, pp. 2–3, https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/PAPUA-NEW-GUINEA-2018.pdf, Apr. 20, 2018.
[11] ABC, Conditions for guards and detainees in PNG prisons in condition after shooting at Buimo jail, https://www.abc.net.au/radio-australia/programs/pacificbeat/conditions-for-guards-and-detainees-in-png-prisons/8530496, May 16, 2017.
[12] World Prison Brief, Papua New Guinea, http://www.prisonstudies.org/country/papua-new-guinea, Jan. 7, 2019.
[13] U.S. Dept. of State, Papua New Guinea 2018 Human Rights Report, pp. 3–4, https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/PAPUA-NEW-GUINEA-2018.pdf, Apr. 20, 2018.
[14] U.S. Dept. of State, Papua New Guinea 2018 Human Rights Report, p. 3, https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/PAPUA-NEW-GUINEA-2018.pdf, Apr. 20, 2018.
[15] World Prison Brief, Papua New Guinea, http://www.prisonstudies.org/country/papua-new-guinea, Jan. 7, 2019.
[16] World Prison Brief, Papua New Guinea, http://www.prisonstudies.org/country/papua-new-guinea, Jan. 7, 2019.
[17] World Prison Brief, Papua New Guinea, http://www.prisonstudies.org/country/papua-new-guinea, Jan. 7, 2019.
[18] Papua New Guinea, Minority Rights International, https://minorityrights.org/country/papua-new-guinea/, last accessed Sep. 23, 2019.
[19] About Papua New Guinea, UNICEF, https://www.unicef.org/png/overview_4605.htm, last accessed Sep. 23, 2019.
[20] Ume v. State, SCRA 10 of 1997, Supreme Ct. of Justice, May 19, 2006.
[21] Australian Government, Dept. of Foreign Affairs and Trade, DFAT Country Information Report Papua New Guinea, p. 24, para. 5.12, https://dfat.gov.au/about-us/publications/Documents/country-information-report-papua-new-guinea.pdf, Feb. 10, 2017.
[22] Constitution of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, art. 177(2), Sep. 16, 1975, as updated through to 2016. Independent Office of the Public Solicitor, Office Profile, http://www.paclii.org/pg/ops/Docs/Brochure%20-%20Office%20Profile.pdf, 2007. Australian Government, Dept. of Foreign Affairs and Trade, DFAT Country Information Report Papua New Guinea, p. 24, para. 5.12, https://dfat.gov.au/about-us/publications/Documents/country-information-report-papua-new-guinea.pdf, Feb. 10, 2017.
[23] U.S. Dept. Of State, Papua New Guinea 2018 Human Rights Report, pp. 2, 17, https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/PAPUA-NEW-GUINEA-2018.pdf, Apr. 20, 2018.
[24] U.S. Dept. Of State, Papua New Guinea 2018 Human Rights Report, pp. 2, 17, https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/PAPUA-NEW-GUINEA-2018.pdf, Apr. 20, 2018.
[25] U.S. Dept. Of State, Papua New Guinea 2018 Human Rights Report, p. 6, https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/PAPUA-NEW-GUINEA-2018.pdf, Apr. 20, 2018.

Decisions of International Human Rights Bodies

Decisions of Human Rights Committee

Papua New Guinea acceded to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights on July 21, 2008, [1] but it has not yet submitted its first state report, due since 2009. [2]

Decisions of Other Human Rights Bodies

The U.N. Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions visited Papua New Guinea in March 2014. [3] Papua New Guinea had not acceded to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights’ Second Optional Protocol, and its lack of support for the General Assembly resolution on establishing a moratorium on the death penalty was noted. [4] The Special Rapporteur praised the separation of men and women in correctional institutions, that juveniles were generally separated from adults but could interact with them during the day, and that persons under sentence of death at the Bomama prison were housed with other inmates. [5] The Special Rapporteur recommended that the death penalty be abolished and that the government ratify the Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR. [6]

In 2016, Papua New Guinea underwent its second Universal Periodic Review under the auspices of the United Nations Human Rights Council. The Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review adopted a report that included concerns over the government’s intent to start imposing the death penalty as a result of high levels of in-country violence, [7] though the de facto moratorium on the death penalty was noted. [8] Several countries recommended that Papua New Guinea ratify the Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, maintain the de facto moratorium, confirm that executions would not be resumed, and take steps to implement a de jure moratorium and repeal the death penalty. [9] Papua New Guinea noted, rather than accepted, all recommendations related to the death penalty. [10]

(This question was last updated on April 10, 2019.)

References

[1] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Sep. 10, 2019.
[2] U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Reporting status for Papua New Guinea, https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/countries.aspx?CountryCode=PNG&Lang=EN, last accessed Sep. 10, 2019.
[3] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, Christof Heyns, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/29/37/Add.1, Mar. 30, 2015.
[4] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, Christof Heyns, para. 10, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/29/37/Add.1, Mar. 30, 2015.
[5] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, Christof Heyns, para. 58, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/29/37/Add.1, Mar. 30, 2015.
[6] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, Christof Heyns, para. 85, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/29/37/Add.1, Mar. 30, 2015.
[7] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Papua New Guinea, paras. 52, 84, U.N. Doc. A.HRC/33/10, Jul. 13, 2016.
[8] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Papua New Guinea, paras. 45, 96, U.N. Doc. A.HRC/33/10, Jul. 13, 2016.
[9] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Papua New Guinea, paras. 104.3, 104.4, 104.80–104.91, U.N. Doc. A.HRC/33/10, Jul. 13, 2016.
[10] UPR Info, Database of Recommendations, Search results for Papua New Guinea recommendations on the issue of the death penalty for 2nd Cycle UPR review, https://s.upr-info.org/2KMy1EB, last accessed Sep. 23, 2019.

Additional Sources and Contacts

Direct member(s) of World Coalition Against the Death Penalty

None.

Other non-governmental organizations and individuals engaged in advocacy surrounding the death penalty

None.

Helpful Reports and Publications

Australian Government, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, DFAT Country Information Report Papua New Guinea, https://dfat.gov.au/about-us/publications/Documents/country-information-report-papua-new-guinea.pdf, Feb. 10, 2017.

Human Rights Watch, Papua New Guinea Events of 2018, https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2019/country-chapters/papua-new-guinea, 2019.

Mange Matui, Trial Practice and Criminal Procedure in Papua New Guinea, UPNG Press and Bookshop, 2017.

Additional notes regarding this country

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