Death Penalty Database

Oman

Information current as of: February 5, 2011

General

Official Country Name

Sultanate of Oman (Oman). [1]

Geographical Region

Asia (Western Asia). [2]

Death Penalty Law Status

Retentionist. Oman’s last executions were during 2001. [3]

Methods of Execution

Hanging.
According to the translation of the Penal Code on file with the United Nations, hanging is the method of execution. [4] In practice, however, hanging has not been noted as the method of execution in past reports about pending executions. [5]

Shooting.
According to Amnesty International, death sentences are usually carried out by firing squad. [6]

Comments.
The conflict between the law on file with the United Nations [7] and the actual practice in Oman regarding executions [8] suggests that the law on file might not be fully updated.

References

[1] U.S. Dept. of State, Background Note: Oman, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35834.htm, Sep. 22, 2010.
[2] U.N. World Macro Regions and Components, U.N. Doc. ST/ESA/STAT/SER.R/29, 2000.
[3] Roger Hood & Carolyn Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective, p. 68, Oxford University Press, 4th. Ed., 2008 (Hood & Hoyle reference Amnesty’s Annual Report 2007 on the State of the World’s Human Rights, which we could not access during our research). By 2009, there had been no reported executions since the reporting referenced by Hood & Hoyle. Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, p. 8, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2007, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2008, Apr. 15, 2008. We did not find reports of executions in 2010. See, for instance, Hands off Cain, Oman, http://www.handsoffcain.info/bancadati/schedastato.php?idstato=13000501&idcontinente=23, last accessed Jan. 31, 2011.
[4] Omani Penal Code, art. 40, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[5] Amnesty Intl., Death Penalty, MDE 20/002/2001, May 8, 2001.
[6] Amnesty Intl., Death Penalty, MDE 20/002/2001, May 8, 2001.
[7] Omani Penal Code, art. 40, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[8] Amnesty Intl., Death Penalty, MDE 20/002/2001, May 8, 2001.

Country Details

Language(s)

Arabic. [1]

Population

3,370,000. 3,370,000. [2]

Number of Individuals Currently Under Sentence of Death

While we cannot be absolutely certain, we believe that very few individuals are held under sentence of death in Oman—perhaps 1 or none. Amnesty International reported that, by the end of 2006, only one individual was held under sentence of death, [3] and reported no death sentences or executions in 2007-2009. [4] We found no reports of death sentences in 2010, [5] and the last report of a commutation we found was of Rebecca Thompson’s death sentence in 2005. [6]

Annual Number of Reported Executions

Executions in 2017 to date (last updated on October 18, 2017)

0. [7]

Executions in 2016

0. [8]

Per capita execution rate in 2016

Executions in 2015

2. [9]

Per capita execution rate in 2015

0 executions.

Executions in 2014

0. [10]

Per capita execution rate in 2014

0 executions

Executions in 2013

0. [11]

Per capita execution rate in 2013

0 executions

Executions in 2012

0. [12]

Per capita execution rate in 2012

0 executions

Executions in 2011

0. [13]

Per capita execution rate in 2011

0 executions

Executions in 2010

0. [14]

Executions in 2009

0. [15]

Executions in 2008

0. [16]

Executions in 2007

0. [17]

Year of Last Known Execution

2001. [18]

References

[1] U.S. Dept. of State, Background Note: Oman, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35834.htm, Sep. 22, 2010.
[2] U.S. Dept. of State, Background Note: Oman, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35834.htm, Sep. 22, 2010 (2009 estimate).
[3] Roger Hood & Carolyn Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective, p. 68, Oxford University Press, 4th. Ed., 2008.
[4] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, p. 8, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2007, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2008, Apr. 15, 2008.
[5] And, at least one other group has not noticed death sentences pronounced by Omani courts in 2010. Hands off Cain, Oman: 2010, http://www.handsoffcain.info/bancadati/schedastato.php?idstato=13000501&idcontinente=23, last accessed Jan. 31, 2011.
[6] Amnesty Intl., Further Information on UA 308/04 (MDE 20/001/2004, 11 November 2004) – Imminent Execution, MDE 20/001/2005, Jan. 18, 2005.
[7] DPW Executions and Death Sentences Monitor.
[8] Amnesty International, Death sentences and executions in 2016, ACT 50/5740/2017, Apr. 11, 2017.
[9] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2015, ACT 50/3487/2016, Apr. 6, 2016.
[10] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2014, ACT 50/001/2015, Mar. 31, 2015.
[11] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2013, ACT 50/001/2014, Mar. 26, 2014.
[12] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2012, ACT 50/001/2012, Apr. 9, 2013.
[13] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2011, ACT 50/001/2012, http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ACT50/001/2012/en, Mar. 27, 2012.
[14] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2010, p. 5, ACT 50/001/2011, Mar. 28, 2011.
[15] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010.
[16] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, p. 8, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009.
[17] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2007, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2008, Apr. 15, 2008.
[18] Roger Hood & Carolyn Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective, p. 68, Oxford University Press, 4th. Ed., 2008 (Hood & Hoyle reference Amnesty’s Annual Report 2007 on the State of the World’s Human Rights, which we could not access during our research). By 2009, there had been no reported executions since the reporting referenced by Hood & Hoyle. Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, p. 8, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2007, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2008, Apr. 15, 2008. We did not find reports of executions in 2010. See, for instance, Hands off Cain, Oman, http://www.handsoffcain.info/bancadati/schedastato.php?idstato=13000501&idcontinente=23, last accessed Jan. 31, 2011.

Crimes and Offenders Punishable By Death

Crimes Punishable by Death

Aggravated Murder.
Murder of an ascendant or descendant, or with cruelty, or in furtherance of another offense, or with planning carries the death penalty. [1] Most aggravated murder is punishable by a maximum sentence of life imprisonment. [2] While murder of a public official is considered an aggravated murder, [3] only murder of a drug enforcement authority during or because of the performance of his duties carries the death penalty. [4]

Other Offenses Resulting in Death.
False accusation or testimony resulting in the conviction and execution of the accused is punishable by death or life imprisonment. [5] Arson resulting in death carries the death penalty. [6] Piracy resulting in death carries the death penalty. [7]

Terrorism-Related Offenses Resulting in Death.
Terrorism resulting in death carries the death penalty: leading an armed group that engages in spreading disorder by killing, if the group assaults the public safety or assaults or resists a State authority charged with security; [8] committing an act which tends to cause a state of panic by means which cause a public threat, resulting in death; [9] hijacking resulting in death; [10] assault upon roads, communications and “other public facilities” resulting in death. [11]

Terrorism-Related Offenses Not Resulting in Death.
Terrorism not resulting in death is punishable by death: leading an armed group that engages in spreading disorder, if the group assaults the public safety or assaults or resists a State authority charged with security; [12] committing an act which tends to cause a state of panic by means which cause a public threat, resulting in the destruction of a “populated building;” [13] hijacking resulting in the partial or total destruction of an aircraft. [14]

Drug Trafficking Resulting in Death.
Assaulting or resisting an authority charged with enforcing the drug laws, resulting in death, carries the death penalty. [15] Murder of such an authority during or because of the performance of his function carries the death penalty. [16]

Drug Trafficking Not Resulting in Death.
Drug trafficking, cultivation, manufacture, or financing the same is punishable by death. “The penalty of death … shall be imposed” when the offender is a recidivist, or is a public servant charged with enforcing drug laws, or uses a minor to commit the offense, or is involved with an international smuggling gang, or exploits legally granted authority or immunity in committing the offense. [17] In considering recidivism, courts “shall” give consideration to foreign convictions. [18]

Treason.
Acts against the internal security carry the death penalty: assault or attempt on the person or life of the Sultan, or on his family members (when endangering their lives); [19] assault to dethrone the Sultan; [20] use of force to overthrow the regime; [21] planning or instigating an armed insurrection (that actually occurs); [22] leading an armed group that engages in spreading disorder, if it assaults the public safety or assaults or resists a State authority charged with security. [23]

Acts against external security carry the death penalty: assisting or fighting for the enemy against the State; [24] successful attempts against territorial integrity, or any violent attempt which results in a killing; [25] undermining the defense; [26] espionage during war or for a hostile state; [27] assaults against foreign heads of state or diplomats, threatening life. [28]

Espionage.
Omani and foreign individuals alike are punished by death for spying during wartime or to benefit a hostile state. [29]

Other Offenses Not Resulting in Death.
- Piracy resulting in the sinking of a vessel carries the death penalty. [30]
- There are reports that piracy not resulting in death or the sinking of a vessel could be punished by death, perhaps under state security laws. [31] These reports involved a case in which a band of armed pirates resisted the Coast Guard and Navy. Although the prosecution sought death, the pirates were sentenced to life imprisonment.
- Leading an armed group that engages in spreading disorder (such as by sabotage, pillage or killing), if it assaults the public safety or assaults or resists a State authority charged with security, is punished by death. [32]
- Aggravated offenses punishable by life imprisonment: Recidivists, ringleaders, those who intentionally become drugged or intoxicated to commit a crime, or those against whom the court finds other aggravating factors (such as base motive) may be punished by death instead of life imprisonment. [33]

Comments.
We used the English version of the Penal Code on file with the United Nations. It contains some amendments through 2000, but we do not know whether the Code is completely current.

We did not find the military penal law; and we suspect that an act related to arms and ammunition (which we did not find) is act largely regulating sales and possession.

Does the country have a mandatory death penalty?

No. Although the penal law provides for the death penalty using mandatory language in numerous cases, Article 111 of the Penal Code permits a judge to sentence an offender to 7-15 years’ imprisonment or life imprisonment instead of the death penalty when the judge finds “mitigating reasons.” [34] Roger Hood & Carolyn Hoyle do not report that the death penalty is mandatory for any crime in Oman. [35] The International Harm Reduction Association correctly identifies mandatory language for aggravated drug trafficking offenses, [36] but does not account for the fact that Decree No. 17 of 1999 (on drug control) was promulgated under the Penal Code and contains no article excepting the application of Article 111 of the Penal Code. While we cannot be absolutely certain of the state of the law, our reading of the law is that there is no mandatory death penalty in Oman.

According to a 2000 memo by Amnesty International, courts may consider a payment of diyat (blood money) to the victims’ kin in determining whether to pronounce a sentence of death for murder. [37] Amnesty’s observation that the courts usually pronounce a reduced sentence if kin accept diyat is probably accurate given Oman’s Shari’a law tradition; however, Amnesty should not be interpreted to imply that the death penalty is mandatory absent acceptance of diyat. The offenders in question were sentenced to death for murdering three owners of a jewelry store in order to further a robbery, one of the few aggravated murder offenses punishable by death in Oman. [38]

For Which Offenses, If Any, Is a Mandatory Death Sentence Imposed?

Our reading of the law is that there is no mandatory death penalty in Oman because courts are permitted to avoid the death penalty for “mitigating reasons.” [39] In 2008, Hood & Hoyle did not report that the death penalty is mandatory in Oman. [40]

Crimes For Which Individuals Have Been Executed Since January 2008:

The last executions in Oman occurred during 2001. [41]

Categories of Offenders Excluded From the Death Penalty:

Individuals Below Age 18 At Time of Crime.
The maximum penalty for an individual convicted of committing a death-eligible offense prior to attaining the age of 18 is 10 years’ imprisonment. [42]

Pregnant Women.
Death sentences against pregnant women are stayed and, upon live birth, commuted to life imprisonment. [43]

Women With Small Children.
Death sentences against pregnant women are stayed and, upon live birth, commuted to life imprisonment. [44]

Intellectually Disabled.
“Any person with a mental hereditary or acquired disability” shall benefit from a mitigating excuse, and the maximum punishment for a capital offense will be temporary imprisonment of at least one year. [45]

Mentally Ill.
“Any person with a mental hereditary or acquired disability” shall benefit from a mitigating excuse, and the maximum punishment for a capital offense will be temporary imprisonment of at least one year. [46] “A person who commits a crime while in a state of lunacy having deprived him of consciousness or will shall not be punished.” [47]

Comments.
We used the English copy of the Penal Code on file with the United Nations, but it may be out of date.

References

[1] Omani Penal Code, art. 237, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[2] Omani Penal Code, art. 235-236, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[3] Omani Penal Code, art. 236, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[4] Omani Law on the Control of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, art. 57, E/NL 28 of 2000, enabled by Royal Decree No. 17 of 1999.
[5] Omani Penal Code, art. 182, 184, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[6] Omani Penal Code, arts. 270-272, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[7] Omani Penal Code, art. 285, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[8] Omani Penal Code, art. 131, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[9] Omani Penal Code, art. 132, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[10] Omani Penal Code, art. 136, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[11] Omani Penal Code, arts. 275-276, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[12] Omani Penal Code, art. 131, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[13] Omani Penal Code, art. 132, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[14] Omani Penal Code, art. 136, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[15] Omani Law on the Control of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, art. 56, E/NL 28 of 2000, enabled by Royal Decree No. 17 of 1999.
[16] Omani Law on the Control of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, art. 57, E/NL 28 of 2000, enabled by Royal Decree No. 17 of 1999.
[17] Omani Law on the Control of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, art. 43, E/NL 28 of 2000, enabled by Royal Decree No. 17 of 1999.
[18] Omani Law on the Control of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, art. 72, E/NL 28 of 2000, enabled by Royal Decree No. 17 of 1999.
[19] Omani Penal Code, art. 123, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[20] Omani Penal Code, art. 124, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[21] Omani Penal Code, art. 127, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[22] Omani Penal Code, art. 129, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[23] Omani Penal Code, art. 131, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[24] Omani Penal Code, arts. 140-142, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[25] Omani Penal Code, art. 143, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[26] Omani Penal Code, arts. 144-145, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[27] Omani Penal Code, art. 147, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[28] Omani Penal Code, arts. 149, 151, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[29] Omani Penal Code, art. 147, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[30] Omani Penal Code, art. 285, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[31] Sunil K. Vaidya, Oman Court Sentences Somalian Pirates to Life Imprisonment, Gulfnews.com, http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/oman/oman-court-sentences-somalian-pirates-to-life-imprisonment-1.722934, Dec. 4, 2010.
[32] Omani Penal Code, art. 131, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[33] Omani Penal Code, art. 113-114, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[34] Omani Penal Code, art. 111, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000 (see “mitigating reasons” as opposed to “mitigating excuses”).
[35] See, for example, their list of countries applying the mandatory death penalty. Roger Hood & Carolyn Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective, p. 279, Oxford University Press, 4th ed., 2008.
[36] Patrick Gallahue and Rick Lines, The Death Penalty for Drug Offenses: Global Overview 2010, p. 17, fn. 102, International Harm Reduction Association, 2010.
[37] Amnesty Intl., Death Penalty, MDE 20/01/00, Nov. 9, 2000.
[38] Omani Penal Code, art. 235-237, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[39] Omani Penal Code, art. 111, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000 (see “mitigating reasons” as opposed to “mitigating excuses”).
[40] See, for example, their list of countries applying the mandatory death penalty. Roger Hood & Carolyn Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective, p. 279, Oxford University Press, 4th ed., 2008.
[41] Roger Hood & Carolyn Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective, p. 68, Oxford University Press, 4th. Ed., 2008 (Hood & Hoyle reference Amnesty’s Annual Report 2007 on the State of the World’s Human Rights, which we could not access during our research). By 2009, there had been no reported executions since the reporting referenced by Hood & Hoyle. Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, p. 8, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2007, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2008, Apr. 15, 2008. We did not find reports of executions in 2010. See, for instance, Hands off Cain, Oman, http://www.handsoffcain.info/bancadati/schedastato.php?idstato=13000501&idcontinente=23, last accessed Feb.1, 2011.
[42] Omani Penal Code, art. 107, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[43] Omani Penal Code, art. 41, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[44] Omani Penal Code, art. 41, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[45] Omani Penal Code, art. 110(1) cum. 109, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[46] Omani Penal Code, art. 110(1) cum. 109, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[47] Omani Penal Code, art. 101, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.

International Commitments

ICCPR

Party?

No. [1]

Date of Accession

Not Applicable.

Signed?

No. [2]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

First Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, Recognizing Jurisdiction of the Human Rights Committee

Party?

No. [3]

Date of Accession

Not Applicable.

Signed?

No. [4]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, Toward the Abolition of the Death Penalty

Party?

No. [5]

Date of Accession

Not Applicable.

Signed?

No. [6]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

American Convention on Human Rights

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

Death Penalty Protocol to the ACHR

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR)

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

Protocol to the ACHPR on the Rights of Women in Africa

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

Arab Charter on Human Rights

Party?

No. [7]

Date of Accession

Not Applicable.

Signed?

No. [8]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

2016 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [9]

Vote

Against. [10]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [11]

2014 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [12]

Vote

Against. [13]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [14]

2012 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [15]

Vote

Against. [16]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [17]

2010 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [18]

Vote

Abstained. [19]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [20]

2008 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [21]

Vote

Abstained. [22]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

No. [23]

2007 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [24]

Vote

Against. [25]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [26]

References

[1] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en , last accessed Jan. 31, 2011.
[2] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en ,last accessed Jan. 31, 2011.
[3] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-5&chapter=4&lang=en , last accessed Jan. 31, 2011.
[4] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-5&chapter=4&lang=en , last accessed Jan. 31, 2011.
[5] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Second Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, 1642 U.N.T.S. 414, Dec. 15, 1989, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-12&chapter=4&lang=en , last accessed Jan. 31, 2011.
[6] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Second Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, 1642 U.N.T.S. 414, Dec. 15, 1989, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-12&chapter=4&lang=en , last accessed Jan. 31, 2011.
[7] Arab League, Statement of Signatures and Ratifications of the Arab Charter of Human Rights, http://www.lasportal.org/wps/wcm/connect/498481804a04776ea1d7bd526698d42c/%D8%AC%D8%AF%D9%88%D9%84+%D8%AA%D8%B5%D8%AF%D9%8A%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AF%D9%88%D9%84+%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%89+%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%8A%D8%AB%D8%A7%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%B1%D8%A8%D9%8A+%D9%84%D8%AD%D9%82%D9%88%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A5%D9%86%D8%B3%D8%A7%D9%86.pdf?MOD=AJPERES (translated from Arabic by DPW), last accessed Apr. 7, 2014.
[8] Arab League, Statement of Signatures and Ratifications of the Arab Charter of Human Rights, http://www.lasportal.org/wps/wcm/connect/498481804a04776ea1d7bd526698d42c/%D8%AC%D8%AF%D9%88%D9%84+%D8%AA%D8%B5%D8%AF%D9%8A%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AF%D9%88%D9%84+%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%89+%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%8A%D8%AB%D8%A7%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%B1%D8%A8%D9%8A+%D9%84%D8%AD%D9%82%D9%88%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A5%D9%86%D8%B3%D8%A7%D9%86.pdf?MOD=AJPERES (translated from Arabic by DPW), last accessed Apr. 7, 2014.
[9] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Promotion and protection of human rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 54-71 U.N. Doc. A/71/484/Add.2, Dec. 6, 2016.
[10] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Promotion and protection of human rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 54-71 U.N. Doc. A/71/484/Add.2, Dec. 6, 2016.
[11] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Note Verbale dated 7 September 2017, U.N. Doc. A/71/1047, Sep. 13, 2017.
[12] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 141, 144, U.N. Doc. A/69/488/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2014.
[13] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, 73rd Plenary Meeting, pp. 17-18, U.N. Doc. A/69/PV.73, Dec. 18, 2014.
[14] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, Note Verbale dated 28 July 2015, U.N. Doc. A/69/993, Jul. 29, 2015.
[15] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 95-96, U.N. Doc. A/67/457/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2012.
[16] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, 60th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16-17, U.N. Doc. A/67/PV.60, Dec. 20, 2012.
[17] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, Note Verbale dated 16 April 2013, U.N. Doc. A/67/841, Apr. 23, 2013.
[18] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, p. 5, U.N. Doc. A/65/456/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2010.
[19] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, 71st Plenary Meeting, pp. 18-19, U.N. Doc. A/65/PV.71, Dec. 21, 2010.
[20] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, Note Verbale dated 11 March 2011, U.N. Doc. A/65/779, Mar. 11, 2011.
[21] U.N.G.A., 63rd session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, U.N. Doc. A/63/430/Add.2, Dec. 4, 2008.
[22] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, 70th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16-17, U.N. Doc. A/63/PV.70, Dec. 18, 2008.
[23] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, Note Verbale dated 10 February 2009, U.N. Doc. A/63/716, Feb. 12, 2009.
[24] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, U.N. Doc. A/62/439/Add.2, Dec. 5, 2007.
[25] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, 76th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16-17, U.N. Doc. A/62/PV.76, Dec. 18, 2007.
[26] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, Note Verbale dated 11 January 2008, U.N. Doc. A/62/658, Feb. 2, 2008.

Death Penalty In Law

Does the country’s constitution make reference to capital punishment?

Oman does not have a constitution. Its Basic Statute does not expressly discuss capital punishment or a right to life. However, it does contain provisions that directly relate to capital punishment. Article 2 provides that “Islamic Shari’a is the basis for legislation,” and Article 21 provides that “[n]o crime or punishment is cognisable as such except by virtue of a Law, and there shall be no punishment except for acts subsequent to the Law coming into force wherein such acts are provided for.” [1] These provisions imply that Shari’a serves as a constitutional limit on legislation and that laws must be codified in order to be applied.

Does the country’s constitution make reference to international law?

Oman does not have a constitution. Oman’s Basic Statute does not explicitly discuss human rights agreements, but does provide that “[n]o authority in the State shall issue directives, regulations or decisions that contradict the provisions of the applicable Laws and decrees, or international treaties and agreements which are part of the Law of the Land.” [2] This suggests that ratified agreements published in the Official Gazette have the force of law. [3]

Have there been any significant changes in the application of the death penalty over the last several years?

The last reported executions in Oman occurred during 2001, [4] and our research indicates that death sentences are pronounced rarely—and not at all over the last few years [5] — and that only one person is held under sentence of death. [6] The Sultanate promulgated new anti-drug laws (providing for the death penalty) in 1999 and 2000, [7] but we were unable to confirm whether individuals sentenced to death under those laws [8] have been executed. In 2008, Oman abstained from voting on the U.N. Moratorium Resolution, [9] and did not sign the Note Verbale. [10]

Over the past decade, Oman has instituted a civil court system and may have improved access to appeals in capital cases. In 1999, Oman instituted a civil court system. [11] U.S. Department of State reports from around that time describe the reform as instituting a full civil law system, including courts of appeal with a separate penal division for criminal matters. Previously, under a 1984 decree felonies were adjudicated by a panel and “all rulings of the felony panel were final except for those in which the defendant was sentenced to death.” [12] By 2006, the Department no longer discussed the system in place under the 1984 decree. [13] In 2000, Amnesty International reported that individuals facing death sentences in Oman were not permitted to appeal their sentences, and that “appeal” was simply an automatic review by a legal committee and the Sultan. [14] That may have been the nature of the 1984 system, but we believe that by 2006 a civil court system with appellate review followed by cassation was in place. [15] We did not find the 1999 law.

Is there currently an official moratorium on executions within the country?

We found no report of an official moratorium on executions. In 2008, Oman abstained from voting on the U.N. Moratorium Resolution, [16] and did not sign the Note Verbale. [17]

Have there been any significant published cases concerning the death penalty in national courts?

During our research we did not find any significant cases; death sentences are rarely pronounced in Oman. In 2010, prosecutors attempted to obtain death sentences against 12 Somali pirates who allegedly planned to hold Omani fisherman for ransom, and who fired upon the Coast Guard and a naval vessel. The courts pronounced a sentence of life imprisonment, the first such sentence for an act of piracy by a foreigner, but did not apply the death penalty, [18] although a penal provision allowing an aggravated sentence exists. [19] The court’s restraint in response to piracy could be seen as significant.

Where can one locate or access judicial decisions regarding the death penalty?

During our research we did not determine where it is possible to access judicial decisions.

What is the clemency process?

In cases involving murder, courts may commute a sentence if the family of the victim pardons the offender, usually for a payment of diyat (blood money). [20] The Sultan has the constitutional power to pardon any sentence. [21] The death penalty cannot be executed except by Royal Decree upon a final judgment, and the Sultan may pardon or commute any sentence. [22]

Are jury trials provided for defendants charged with capital offenses?

No—Oman’s legal traditions derive from Shari’a and Civil law, [23] and favor full factual review by higher courts rather than fact-finding by a jury as preferable in assuring a fair trial.

Brief Description of Appellate Process

In 1999, Oman instituted a civil court system. [24] U.S. Department of State reports from around that time describe the reform as instituting a full civil law system, including courts of appeal with a separate penal division for criminal matters. Previously, under a 1984 decree felonies were adjudicated by a panel and “all rulings of the felony panel were final except for those in which the defendant was sentenced to death,” [25] and “appeal” of a sentence of death may simply have been an automatic review by a legal committee and the Sultan. [26] By 2006, the Department no longer discussed the system in place under the 1984 decree. [27]

We believe that by 2006 a civil court system with appellate review followed by cassation by the Supreme Court was in place. [28] A report written for the Hauser Global Law School Program loosely corroborates this. [29] We did not find the 1999 law.

References

[1] The Basic Statute of the Sultanate of Oman, arts. 2, 21, Royal Decree No. 101, Nov. 6, 1996.
[2] The Basic Statute of the Sultanate of Oman, art. 80, Royal Decree No. 101, Nov. 6, 1996.
[3] The Basic Statute of the Sultanate of Oman, art. 74, Royal Decree No. 101, Nov. 6, 1996.
[4] Roger Hood & Carolyn Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective, p. 68, Oxford University Press, 4th. Ed., 2008 (Hood & Hoyle reference Amnesty’s Annual Report 2007 on the State of the World’s Human Rights, which we could not access during our research). By 2009, there had been no reported executions since the reporting referenced by Hood & Hoyle. Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, p. 8, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2007, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2008, Apr. 15, 2008. We did not find reports of executions in 2010. See, for instance, Hands off Cain, Oman, http://www.handsoffcain.info/bancadati/schedastato.php?idstato=13000501&idcontinente=23, last accessed Feb. 1, 2011.
[5] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, p. 8, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2007, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2008, Apr. 15, 2008; Hands off Cain, Oman, http://www.handsoffcain.info/bancadati/schedastato.php?idstato=13000501&idcontinente=23, last accessed Feb. 1, 2011.
[6] Roger Hood & Carolyn Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective, p. 68, Oxford University Press, 4th. Ed., 2008.
[7] Omani Law on the Control of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, E/NL 28 of 2000, enabled by Royal Decree No. 17 of 1999.
[8] Amnesty Intl., Death Penalty, MDE 20/002/2001, May 8, 2001.
[9] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, 70th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16- 17, U.N. Doc. A/63/PV.70, Dec. 18, 2008.
[10] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, Note Verbale dated 10 February 2009, U.N. Doc. A/63/716, Feb. 12, 2009.
[11] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Summary prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in accordance with paragraph 15 (c) of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 5/1: Oman, para. 13, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/10/OMN/3, Nov. 8, 2010.
[12] U.S. Dept. of State, 2002 Human Rights Report: Oman, Denial of Fair Public Trial, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2002/18285.htm, Mar. 31, 2002.
[13] U.S. Dept. of State, 2005 Human Rights Report: Oman, Denial of Fair Public Trial, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61696.htm, March 8, 2006.
[14] Amnesty Intl., Death Penalty, MDE 20/002/2001, May 8, 2001.
[15] U.S. Dept. of State, 2005 Human Rights Report: Oman, Denial of Fair Public Trial, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61696.htm, March 8, 2006.
[16] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, 70th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16- 17, U.N. Doc. A/63/PV.70, Dec. 18, 2008.
[17] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, Note Verbale dated 10 February 2009, U.N. Doc. A/63/716, Feb. 12, 2009.
[18] Sunil K. Vaidya, Oman Court Sentences Somalian Pirates to Life Imprisonment, Gulfnews.com, http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/oman/oman-court-sentences-somalian-pirates-to-life-imprisonment-1.722934, Dec. 4, 2010.
[19] Omani Penal Code, art. 113-114, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[20] Amnesty Intl., Death Penalty, MDE 20/002/2001, May 8, 2001.
[21] The Basic Statute of the Sultanate of Oman, art. 42, Royal Decree No. 101, Nov. 6, 1996.
[22] Omani Penal Code, art. 40, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[23] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Oman, Denial of Fair Public Trial, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136077.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[24] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Summary prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in accordance with paragraph 15 (c) of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 5/1: Oman, para. 13, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/10/OMN/3, Nov. 8, 2010.
[25] U.S. Dept. of State, 2002 Human Rights Report: Oman, Denial of Fair Public Trial, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2002/18285.htm, Mar. 31, 2002.
[26] Amnesty Intl., Death Penalty, MDE 20/002/2001, May 8, 2001.
[27] U.S. Dept. of State, 2005 Human Rights Report: Oman, Denial of Fair Public Trial, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61696.htm, March 8, 2006.
[28] U.S. Dept. of State, 2005 Human Rights Report: Oman, Denial of Fair Public Trial, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61696.htm, March 8, 2006.
[29] Khalil Mechantaf, The Legal System and Research in the Sultanate of Oman, GlobaLex, http://www.nyulawglobal.org/Globalex/Oman.htm, Jul. 2010.

Death Penalty In Practice

Where Are Death-Sentenced Prisoners incarcerated?

Our research suggests there is at most one individual held under sentence of death in Oman. [1] The International Centre for Prison Studies at King’s College, London records two adult prisons in Oman, [2] but we did not determine where these prisons are.

Description of Prison Conditions

Are there any known foreign nationals currently under sentence of death?

We did not find any confirmed reports of foreigners currently or recently held under sentence of death.

What are the nationalities of the known foreign nationals on death row?

We did not find any confirmed reports of foreigners currently or recently held under sentence of death.

Are there any known women currently under sentence of death?

We did not find any confirmed reports of women currently held under sentence of death.

Are there any reports of individuals currently under sentence of death who may have been under the age of 18 at the time the crime was committed?

We did not find any reports of individuals held under sentence of death for crimes committed prior to attaining the age of 18. Oman’s law prohibits this practice. [3]

Comments regarding the racial/ethnic composition on death row

Our research suggests there is at most one individual held under sentence of death in Oman; [4] we do not know the identity of that person.

Are there lawyers available for indigent defendants facing capital trials?

According to the U.S. Department of State, courts provide public attorneys to indigent detainees and offer legal defense for defendants facing prison terms of three years or more. [5]

Are there lawyers available for indigent prisoners on appeal?

According to the U.S. Department of State, courts provide public attorneys to indigent detainees and offer legal defense for defendants facing prison terms of three years or more. The right to appellate review is guaranteed for any sentence greater than three months’ imprisonment, [6] but we do not know whether the right to an attorney is also guaranteed.

Comments on Quality of Legal Representation

We did not find comments on the quality of legal representation. The completion of the civil court system is still fairly new; [7] but attorneys have successfully defended unsympathetic defendants against serious charges not involving killing. [8]

Other Comments on Criminal Justice System

Oman’s transition to a civil court system is still fairly new. [9] The Tawasul Global Connections Center submitted a report for the upcoming Universal Periodic Review of human rights in Oman suggesting that the judiciary was not fully prepared for the transition, was not always aware of the impact of international agreements on the legal evaluation of cases or the right to litigate. The TGCC recommended training on human rights and the “impact of international obligations on national laws” for Omani judges. [10] The Omani Society for Writers and Literati submitted a report recommending that the prosecutorial power be separated from the executive, that pre-trial detention without judicial approval be shortened, and that a committee be established to review the fairness of trials. The OSWL was concerned that prosecutors are not independent because they are supervised by the inspector general for police and customs, lawyers are not independent because the Ministry of Justice is responsible for granting and withdrawing licenses, and defendants who do not speak Arabic are denied interpreters. The OSWL concluded that these factors undermine independence of the criminal justice system and the fairness of trials. [11]

References

[1] Roger Hood & Carolyn Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective, p. 68, Oxford University Press, 4th. Ed., 2008;Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, p. 8, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2007, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2008, Apr. 15, 2008. And, at least one other group has not noticed death sentences pronounced by Omani courts in 2010. Hands off Cain, Oman, http://www.handsoffcain.info/bancadati/schedastato.php?idstato=13000501&idcontinente=23, last accessed Feb. 4, 2011.
[2] International Centre for Prison Studies, World Prison Brief: Oman, http://www.kcl.ac.uk/depsta/law/research/icps/worldbrief/wpb_country.php?country=181, last accessed Feb. 4, 2011.
[3] Omani Penal Code, art. 107, Royal Decree No. 7174 of 1974, as amended by Royal Decree No. 4 of 2000.
[4] Roger Hood & Carolyn Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective, p. 68, Oxford University Press, 4th. Ed., 2008; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, p. 8, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2007, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2008, Apr. 15, 2008. And, at least one other group has not noticed death sentences pronounced by Omani courts in 2010. Hands off Cain, Oman, http://www.handsoffcain.info/bancadati/schedastato.php?idstato=13000501&idcontinente=23, last accessed Feb. 4, 2011.
[5] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Oman, Denial of Fair Public Trial, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136077.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[6] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Oman, Denial of Fair Public Trial, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136077.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[7] U.S. Dept. of State, 2005 Human Rights Report: Oman, Denial of Fair Public Trial, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61696.htm, March 8, 2006.
[8] Sunil K. Vaidya, Oman Court Sentences Somalian Pirates to Life Imprisonment, Gulfnews.com, http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/oman/oman-court-sentences-somalian-pirates-to-life-imprisonment-1.722934, Dec. 4, 2010.
[9] U.S. Dept. of State, 2005 Human Rights Report: Oman, Denial of Fair Public Trial, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61696.htm, March 8, 2006.
[10] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Summary prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in accordance with paragraph 15 (c) of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 5/1: Oman, para. 13, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/10/OMN/3, Nov. 8, 2010.
[11] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Summary prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in accordance with paragraph 15 (c) of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 5/1: Oman, paras. 11-12, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/10/OMN/3, Nov. 8, 2010.

Decisions of International Human Rights Bodies

Decisions of Human Rights Committee

Because Oman is not a party to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, [1] the Human Rights Committee does not issue concluding observations or decisions on petitions concerning Oman.

Decisions of Other Human Rights Bodies

The Human Rights Council’s Universal Periodic Review of Oman is scheduled for January 2011: http://www.upr-info.org/-Oman-.html.

References

[1] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en , last accessed Feb. 5, 2011.

Additional Sources and Contacts

Direct member(s) of World Coalition Against the Death Penalty

None.

Other non-governmental organizations and individuals engaged in advocacy surrounding the death penalty

Reprieve
PO Box 72054
London EC3P 3BZ
United Kingdom
Tel 020 7553 8140
Fax 020 7553 8189
info@reprieve.org.uk
http://www.reprieve.org.uk

Helpful Reports and Publications

None.

Additional notes regarding this country

Before the end of 2011, Oman could be considered a de facto abolitionist state. [1]

References

[1] Roger Hood & Carolyn Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective, p. 68, Oxford University Press, 4th. Ed., 2008 (Hood & Hoyle reference Amnesty’s Annual Report 2007 on the State of the World’s Human Rights, which we could not access during our research). By 2009, there had been no reported executions since the reporting referenced by Hood & Hoyle. Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, p. 8, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2007, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2008, Apr. 15, 2008. We did not find reports of executions in 2010. See, for instance, Hands off Cain, Oman, http://www.handsoffcain.info/bancadati/schedastato.php?idstato=13000501&idcontinente=23, last accessed Feb. 4, 2011.

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