Death Penalty Database

Morocco

Information current as of: April 5, 2011

General

Official Country Name

Kingdom of Morocco (Morocco). [1]

Geographical Region

Africa (Northern Africa). [2]

Death Penalty Law Status

Abolitionist de facto. [3]

Methods of Execution

Shooting. [4]

References

[1] U.S. Dept. of State, Background Note: Morocco, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5431.htm, Jan. 26, 2010.
[2] U.N., World Macro Regions and Components, U.N. Doc. ST/ESA/STAT/SER.R/29, 2000.
[3] Amnesty Intl., Death Penalty: Countries Abolitionist in Practice, http://www.amnesty.org/en/death-penalty/countries-abolitionist-in-practice, last accessed Mar. 17, 2011. Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, La peine de mort: Maroc, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/fiche-pays.php?pays=MAR, last accessed Mar. 17, 2011. La peine de mort dans le monde, La peine de mort: Maroc, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=33, last accessed Mar. 17, 2011.
[4] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 19, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007. Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, Séminaire sur la peine de mort : Rabat, Maroc, p. 6, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/news.php?new=1075, Oct. 11-12, 2008.

Country Details

Language(s)

Arabic. [1]

Population

34,859,364. Western Sahara 385,000. (Jul. 2009 est.) [2]

Number of Individuals Currently Under Sentence of Death

At least 104. According to the Ministry of Justice, there were 125 prisoners on death row in December 2007. [3] In 2008, at least 4 persons were sentenced to death, [4] in 2009, 13 persons were sentenced to death, [5] and in 2010, 4 persons were sentenced to death. [6] The king commuted 14 death sentences in 2008, [7] and 32 death sentences in 2009. [8] There were four death sentences and no executions in 2010. [9] This brings the total to 104.

However, the Moroccan Human Rights Organization (OMDH) and the International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH) reported a higher number of death row inmates – 133 – in late 2007/early 2008. [10] The total number of death-sentenced persons in Morocco could therefore be as high as 112.

Annual Number of Reported Executions

Executions in 2017 to date (last updated on October 18, 2017)

0. [11]

Executions in 2016

0. [12]

Per capita execution rate in 2016

Executions in 2015

0. [13]

Per capita execution rate in 2015

0 executions.

Executions in 2014

0. [14]

Per capita execution rate in 2014

0 executions

Executions in 2013

0. [15]

Per capita execution rate in 2013

0 executions

Executions in 2012

0. [16]

Per capita execution rate in 2012

0 executions

Executions in 2011

0. [17]

Per capita execution rate in 2011

0 executions

Executions in 2010

0. [18]

Executions in 2009

0. [19]

Executions in 2008

0. [20]

Executions in 2007

0. [21]

Year of Last Known Execution

1993. [22]

The last person who was executed in Morocco, in 1993, was a public official, Commissioner Tabit. Tabit was convicted for multiple counts of “indecent assault, rape violence, rape and abduction”, and “barbaric acts and incitement to riot”. [23] The evidence revealed hundreds of victims. He was arrested in February 1993, sentenced in March 1993 and executed on August 9 of the same year. [24]

References

[1] U.S. Dept. of State, Background Note: Morocco, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5431.htm, Jan. 26, 2010.
[2] U.S. Dept. of State, Background Note: Morocco, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5431.htm, Jan. 26, 2010.
[3] Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, Séminaire sur la peine de mort : Rabat, Maroc, p. 12, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/news.php?new=1075, Oct. 11-12, 2008.
[4] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, p. 15, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009.
[5] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010.
[6] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions 2010, p. 43, ACT 50/001/2011, Mar. 28, 2011.
[7] Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, Le Roi accorde sa grâce à 14 condamnés à mort, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/news.php?new=754, Mar. 2, 2007.
[8] La peine de mort dans le monde, La peine de Mort – Maroc, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=33, last accessed Mar. 25, 2011.
[9] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2010, p. 5, ACT 50/001/2011, Mar. 28, 2011.
[10] Human Rights Council, Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review, Summary Prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, in accordance with Paragraph 15(c) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: Morocco, para. 7, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/1/MAR/3, Mar. 11, 2008. Florence Bellivier, La peine de mort au Maroc : l’heure des responsabilités : Mission internationale d’enquête, p. 6, Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l’Homme Rapport de Mission No. 480, http://www.fidh.org/IMG/pdf/Maroc480pdmfr2007.pdf, Oct. 2007.
[11] DPW Executions and Death Sentences Monitor.
[12] Amnesty International, Death sentences and executions in 2016, ACT 50/5740/2017, Apr. 11, 2017.
[13] DPW Executions and Death Sentences Monitor.
[14] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2014, ACT 50/001/2015, Mar. 31, 2015.
[15] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2013, ACT 50/001/2014, Mar. 26, 2014.
[16] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2012, ACT 50/001/2012, Apr. 9, 2013.
[17] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2011, ACT 50/001/2012, http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ACT50/001/2012/en, Mar. 27, 2012.
[18] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2010, p. 5, ACT 50/001/2011, Mar. 28, 2011.
[19] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, p. 18, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010.
[20] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, p. 15, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009.
[21] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2007, ACT 50/001/2008, Apr. 15, 2008.
[22] Amnesty International, Death Penalty: Countries Abolitionist in Practice, http://www.amnesty.org/en/death-penalty/countries-abolitionist-in-practice, last accessed Mar. 17, 2011. Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, La peine de mort: Maroc, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/fiche-pays.php?pays=MAR, last accessed Mar. 17, 2011. La peine de mort dans le monde, La peine de mort: Maroc, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=33, last accessed Mar. 17, 2011.
[23] Nicolas Perron, affiliated with ECPM, External Questionnaire for DPW, DPW Doc. Morocco External Questionnaire-1, Feb. 26, 2011.
[24] K.B.B., La peine de mort pour Mohamed Tabit, Aujourd’hui Le Maroc, http://www.aujourdhui.ma/actualite-details8741.html, Feb. 9, 2002.

Crimes and Offenders Punishable By Death

Crimes Punishable by Death

Aggravated Murder.
Murder of the king [1] or of any member of the royal family, [2] murder of an on-duty public official, [3] murder committed in order to further another crime, [4] planned or premeditated murder, [5] parricide, [6] poisoning, [7] murder through abuse of a child under 15, [8] and abandoning a child under 15 or an incapacitated person with the intent to cause death, [9] are punishable by death.

Other Offenses Resulting in Death.
Systematic abusive treatment of a child under 15 years, leading to that child’s death, is punishable by death when committed by the child’s guardian. [10] Castration without intent to cause death, but leading to death, is punishable by death. [11] Arson of any kind resulting in the death of a person is punishable by death. [12] Kidnapping of a minor resulting in the death of the minor is punishable by death. [13]

Terrorism-Related Offenses Resulting in Death.
A terrorist offense (such as the destruction of roads or buildings, the obstruction of vehicles, or the poisoning of the environment or of water supplies), causing one or more deaths, is punishable by death. [14] Inciting a person to commit a death-eligible terrorism offense is punishable by death. [15]

Terrorism-Related Offenses Not Resulting in Death.
The 2003 anti-terrorism law sets out a list of offenses which are characterized as terrorist offenses if they are committed with terrorist intent. Terrorist intent is defined as the intent to cause a serious breach of public order (“atteinte à l’ordre public”) through intimidation, terror or violence. [16]

Terrorist offenses are punishable by death, even where no deaths are caused, if the underlying offense is punishable by life in prison. [17] These offenses include: hostage-taking in furtherance of another crime, [18] kidnapping a minor for a ransom, [19] counterfeiting money or public bonds, [20] armed robbery, [21] and arson causing permanent injury. [22] This list is not exhaustive, however, given the vagueness of the definition of underlying offenses.

Additionally, inciting a person to commit a death-eligible terrorism offense is punishable by death. [23]

Arson Not Resulting in Death.
Arson of habitually occupied buildings, ships, tents, vehicles or other structures, is punishable by death. [24]

Kidnapping Not Resulting in Death.
Torturing a kidnapped victim is punishable by death. [25] Aiding in the commission of this crime by providing a place for detention or a means of transportation is also punishable by death. [26]

Economic Crimes Not Resulting in Death.
Accepting or offering a bribe in furtherance of a death-eligible crime, [27] and accepting a bribe as a judge or jury member where the bribe leads to a death sentence, [28] are punishable by death.

Treason.
Acts of treason, [29] including incitement to civil war, devastation, massacre and pillaging, [30] are punishable by death. For civilian and military officials to plot together to commit treason against “the internal security of the state” is punishable by death. [31] Incitement or provocation to commit treason is also punishable by death. [32]

Espionage.
Espionage [33] and provocation or incitement to commit espionage [34] are punishable by death.

Military Offenses Not Resulting in Death.
Desertion, [35] disobeying orders to march on the enemy, [36] assaulting a wounded soldier in order to steal from him or her, [37] attempting to destroy buildings or equipment used for military purposes, [38] dereliction of duty in presence of the enemy, [39] self-mutilation in time of war, [40] unlawful capitulation, [41] and plotting against military commanders, [42] are punishable by death.

Escaped prisoners of war who are found carrying weapons are punishable by death. [43]

Other Offenses Not Resulting in Death.
-Repeat offender: an offender who is successively convicted of two offenses that are punishable by life imprisonment is punishable by death. [44]
-Attempt: attempting poisoning, [45] and attempting a death-eligible crime, [46] are punishable by death.
-Torture: committing torture or barbarous acts in the course of committing another crime is punishable by death. [47]
-Perjury: committing perjury leading to a death sentence is punishable by death. [48]
-Abuse of public authority: abuse of authority by a public official, leading to a death-eligible crime, is punishable by death. [49]
-Public health offenses: the Prevention of Crimes Against Public Health Act provides that the death penalty may be imposed for trading in the manufacture of products or substances that are unfit for human consumption and pose a threat to public health. [50]
-Assault on the king: assaulting the king (except where he is completely unharmed) is punishable by death. [51]

Does the country have a mandatory death penalty?

No. The Penal Code provides that upon a finding of mitigating circumstances, courts may sentence the offender to life imprisonment or imprisonment for 20 to 30 years. [52] It is reported that “as a general rule, magistrates show restraint and apply [the mitigation provision] of the penal code.” [53]

For Which Offenses, If Any, Is a Mandatory Death Sentence Imposed?

There is no mandatory death penalty in Morocco. [54]

Crimes For Which Individuals Have Been Executed Since January 2008:

There have been no executions since 1993. [55]

Categories of Offenders Excluded From the Death Penalty:

Individuals Below Age 18 At Time of Crime.
Persons aged less than 18 years at the time of commission of the offense are considered partially irresponsible, [56] and cannot be sentenced to death. [57] The maximum sentence that a minor can receive is 10 to 20 years’ imprisonment. [58] Domestic law is in conformity with Morocco’s international obligations: Morocco is party to the ICCPR [59] and the Convention on the Rights of the Child, [60] which prohibit the execution of individuals for crimes committed while under the age of 18.

Pregnant Women.
A pregnant woman who is condemned to death may only be executed 40 days after she has given birth. [61] This is in conformity with Morocco’s obligations as a party to the ICCPR, [62] which prohibits the execution of pregnant women.

Intellectually Disabled.
Persons who are medically diagnosed with mental disabilities so severe that they are not responsible for their actions may not be convicted of a criminal offense. They are committed to psychiatric institutions. [63]

Mentally Ill.
Courts must recognize the diminished criminal responsibility of defendants affected by a mental illness at the time of commission of the crime. The defendant may be committed to the care of a psychiatric institution for the duration of the illness. [64]

If a defendant is mentally-ill when the charges against him come to trial, he will be committed to a psychiatric institution for the duration of the illness. The trial on the charges must be suspended until he is capable of presenting a defense. [65]

References

[1] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 163, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[2] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 165, 167, 168, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[3] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 267, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[4] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 392, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[5] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 393-395, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[6] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 396, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[7] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 398, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[8] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 408, 410 in conjunction with arts. 461, 463, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[9] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 459, 463, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[10] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 411, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[11] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 412, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[12] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 584, 581-583, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[13] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 474 in conjunction with arts. 471-473, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[14] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 218.3, 588, 590-591, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[15] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 218.5, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[16] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 218-1, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[17] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 218-1, 218-7, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[18] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 437, 218-1, 218-7, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[19] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 473, 218-1, 218-7, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[20] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 334, 218-1, 218-7, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[21] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 507, 218-1, 218-7, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[22] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 584, 588, 218-1, 218-7, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[23] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 218.5, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[24] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 580, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[25] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 438, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[26] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 439, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[27] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 252, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[28] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 253, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[29] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 181-182, 190, 202, 203, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007. Morocco Code of Military Justice, arts. 185-187, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-56-270, Nov. 10, 1956.
[30] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 201, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[31] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 235, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[32] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 186, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[33] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 185, 190, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007. Morocco Code of Military Justice, art. 186, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-56-270, Nov. 10, 1956.
[34] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 186, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[35] Morocco Code of Military Justice, arts. 144, 145, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-56-270, Nov. 10, 1956.
[36] Morocco Code of Military Justice, art. 153, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-56-270, Nov. 10, 1956.
[37] Morocco Code of Military Justice, art. 164, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-56-270, Nov. 10, 1956.
[38] Morocco Code of Military Justice, arts. 170, 171, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-56-270, Nov. 10, 1956.
[39] Morocco Code of Military Justice, arts. 175, 177, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-56-270, Nov. 10, 1956.
[40] Morocco Code of Military Justice, art. 179, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-56-270, Nov. 10, 1956.
[41] Morocco Code of Military Justice, arts. 181, 182, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-56-270, Nov. 10, 1956.
[42] Morocco Code of Military Justice, art. 184, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-56-270, Nov. 10, 1956.
[43] Morocco Code of Military Justice, art. 183, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-56-270, Nov. 10, 1956.
[44] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 154-155, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[45] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 398, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[46] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 114,promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[47] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 399, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[48] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 369, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[49] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 259, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[50] U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Human Rights, Status of the International Covenants on Human Rights: Question of the death penalty: Report of the Secretary-General submitted pursuant to Commission resolution 2003/67, Annex II, p. 21, para. 9, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/2004/86, Jan. 23, 2004.
[51] Penal Code of Morocco, arts. 163-164, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[52] Morocco Penal Code, arts. 146-147, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[53] Caroline Sculier, Towards a Universal Moratorium on the Use of the Death Penalty, Strategies, Arguments and Perspectives, World Coalition Against the Death Penalty, pp. 15-16, http://www.worldcoalition.org/modules/wfdownloads/singlefile.php?cid=55&lid=328, Feb. 2010.
[54] Morocco Penal Code, arts. 146-147, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[55] Amnesty International, Death Penalty: Countries Abolitionist in Practice, http://www.amnesty.org/en/death-penalty/countries-abolitionist-in-practice, last accessed Mar. 17, 2011. Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, La peine de mort: Maroc, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/fiche-pays.php?pays=MAR, last accessed Mar. 17, 2011. La peine de mort dans le monde, La peine de mort: Maroc, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=33, last accessed Mar. 17, 2011.
[56] Morocco Penal Code, art. 139, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[57] U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Human Rights, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: Status of the International Covenants on Human Rights: The question of the death penalty: Report of the Secretary-General, Annex II, p. 19, para. 10, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/2006/83, Feb. 10, 2006. Nicolas Perron, affiliated with ECPM, External Questionnaire for DPW, DPW Doc. Morocco External Questionnaire-1, Feb. 26, 2011.
[58] U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Human Rights, Status of the International Covenants on Human Rights: Question of the death penalty: Report of the Secretary-General submitted pursuant to Commission resolution 2002/77, Annex II, p. 24, para. 19, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/2003/106, Jan. 30, 2003.
[59] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Mar. 17, 2011.
[60] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1577 U.N.T.S. 3,

http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=UNTSONLINE&tabid=2&mtdsg_no=IV-11&chapter=4&lang=en#Participants, last accessed Mar. 17, 2011.

[61] Penal Code of Morocco, art. 21, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[62] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Mar. 17, 2011.
[63] Morocco Penal Code, arts. 75-77, 134, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007. U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Human Rights, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: Status of the International Covenants on Human Rights: The question of the death penalty: Report of the Secretary-General, Annex II, p. 19, para. 10, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/2006/83, Feb. 10, 2006.
[64] Morocco Penal Code, arts. 78, 135, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[65] Morocco Penal Code, arts. 78, 79, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007. U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Human Rights, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: Status of the International Covenants on Human Rights: The question of the death penalty: Report of the Secretary-General, Annex II, p. 20, para. 10, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/2006/83, Feb. 10, 2006.

International Commitments

ICCPR

Party?

Yes. [1]

Date of Accession

May 3, 1979. [2]

Signed?

Yes. [3]

Date of Signature

Jan. 19, 1977. [4]

First Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, Recognizing Jurisdiction of the Human Rights Committee

Party?

No. [5]

Date of Accession

Not Applicable.

Signed?

No. [6]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, Toward the Abolition of the Death Penalty

Party?

No. [7]

Date of Accession

Not Applicable.

Signed?

No. [8]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

American Convention on Human Rights

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

Death Penalty Protocol to the ACHR

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR)

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

Protocol to the ACHPR on the Rights of Women in Africa

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

Arab Charter on Human Rights

Party?

No. [9]

Date of Accession

Not Applicable.

Signed?

Yes. [10]

Date of Signature

December 27, 2004. [11]

2016 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [12]

Vote

Abstained. [13]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

No. [14]

2014 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [15]

Vote

Abstained. [16]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

No. [17]

2012 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [18]

Vote

Abstained. [19]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

No. [20]

2010 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [21]

Vote

Abstained. [22]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

No. [23]

2008 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [24]

Vote

Abstained. [25]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

No. [26]

2007 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [27]

Vote

Abstained. [28]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

No. [29]

References

[1] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Aug. 20, 2010.
[2] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Aug. 20, 2010.
[3] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Aug. 20, 2010.
[4] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Aug. 20, 2010.
[5] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-5&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Aug. 20, 2010.
[6] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-5&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Aug. 20, 2010.
[7] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Second Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, 1642 U.N.T.S. 414, Dec. 15, 1989, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-12&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Aug. 20, 2010.
[8] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Second Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, 1642 U.N.T.S. 414, Dec. 15, 1989, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-12&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Aug. 20, 2010.
[9] Arab League, Statement of Signatures and Ratifications of the Arab Charter of Human Rights, http://www.lasportal.org/wps/wcm/connect/498481804a04776ea1d7bd526698d42c/%D8%AC%D8%AF%D9%88%D9%84+%D8%AA%D8%B5%D8%AF%D9%8A%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AF%D9%88%D9%84+%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%89+%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%8A%D8%AB%D8%A7%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%B1%D8%A8%D9%8A+%D9%84%D8%AD%D9%82%D9%88%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A5%D9%86%D8%B3%D8%A7%D9%86.pdf?MOD=AJPERES (translated from Arabic by DPW), last accessed Apr. 7, 2014.
[10] Arab League, Statement of Signatures and Ratifications of the Arab Charter of Human Rights, http://www.lasportal.org/wps/wcm/connect/498481804a04776ea1d7bd526698d42c/%D8%AC%D8%AF%D9%88%D9%84+%D8%AA%D8%B5%D8%AF%D9%8A%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AF%D9%88%D9%84+%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%89+%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%8A%D8%AB%D8%A7%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%B1%D8%A8%D9%8A+%D9%84%D8%AD%D9%82%D9%88%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A5%D9%86%D8%B3%D8%A7%D9%86.pdf?MOD=AJPERES (translated from Arabic by DPW), last accessed Apr. 7, 2014.
[11] Arab League, Statement of Signatures and Ratifications of the Arab Charter of Human Rights, http://www.lasportal.org/wps/wcm/connect/498481804a04776ea1d7bd526698d42c/%D8%AC%D8%AF%D9%88%D9%84+%D8%AA%D8%B5%D8%AF%D9%8A%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AF%D9%88%D9%84+%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%89+%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%8A%D8%AB%D8%A7%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%B1%D8%A8%D9%8A+%D9%84%D8%AD%D9%82%D9%88%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A5%D9%86%D8%B3%D8%A7%D9%86.pdf?MOD=AJPERES (translated from Arabic by DPW), last accessed Apr. 7, 2014.
[12] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Promotion and protection of human rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 54-71 U.N. Doc. A/71/484/Add.2, Dec. 6, 2016.
[13] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Promotion and protection of human rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 54-71 U.N. Doc. A/71/484/Add.2, Dec. 6, 2016.
[14] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Note Verbale dated 7 September 2017, U.N. Doc. A/71/1047, Sep. 13, 2017.
[15] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 141, 144, U.N. Doc. A/69/488/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2014.
[16] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, 73rd Plenary Meeting, pp. 17-18, U.N. Doc. A/69/PV.73, Dec. 18, 2014.
[17] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, Note Verbale dated 28 July 2015, U.N. Doc. A/69/993, Jul. 29, 2015.
[18] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 95-96, U.N. Doc. A/67/457/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2012.
[19] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, 60th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16-17, U.N. Doc. A/67/PV.60, Dec. 20, 2012.
[20] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, Note Verbale dated 16 April 2013, U.N. Doc. A/67/841, Apr. 23, 2013.
[21] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, p. 5, U.N. Doc. A/65/456/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2010.
[22] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, 71st Plenary Meeting, pp. 18-19, U.N. Doc. A/65/PV.71, Dec. 21, 2010.
[23] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, Note Verbale dated 11 March 2011, U.N. Doc. A/65/779, Mar. 11, 2011.
[24] U.N.G.A., 63rd session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, U.N. Doc. A/63/430/Add.2, Dec. 4, 2008.
[25] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, 70th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16- 17, U.N. Doc. A/63/PV.70, Dec. 18, 2008.
[26] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, Note Verbale dated 10 February 2009, U.N. Doc. A/63/716, Feb. 12, 2009.
[27] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, U.N. Doc. A/62/439/Add.2, Dec. 5, 2007.
[28] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, 76th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16- 17, U.N. Doc. A/62/PV.76, Dec. 18, 2007.
[29] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, Note Verbale dated 11 January 2008, U.N. Doc. A/62/658, Feb. 2, 2008.

Death Penalty In Law

Does the country’s constitution make reference to capital punishment?

No. The constitution makes no reference to the right to life or to the death penalty. [1]

Does the country’s constitution make reference to international law?

The Preamble of the Moroccan Constitution states that Morocco adheres to the principles, rights and obligations arising from the charters of international organizations and reaffirms its determination to abide by universally recognized human rights. [2]

While the Constitution does not enshrine the superior authority of international treaties over domestic law, a number of recent statutes explicitly recognize the primacy of international norms over internal law - for instance the 2003 Code of Criminal Procedure, the law regulating the practice of the legal profession, and the Nationality Code. Moreover, the Moroccan government stated in its 2008 report to the Human Rights Council that Moroccan courts were likely to accelerate the trend of applying provisions of international conventions in domestic cases, as a consequence of “the new focus of the training course for judges, which has been expanded to include human rights modules and to reflect the content of international treaties”. [3]

Have there been any significant changes in the application of the death penalty over the last several years?

The public debate on abolition in Morocco is one of the most advanced in the region. An unofficial moratorium has been in place since the last execution took place in 1993.

The reigning king, King Mohamed VI, who came to power in 1999, has never signed an execution order. [4] He regularly issues blanket amnesties, commuting death sentences to life imprisonment in celebration of national holidays or royal events. In 2005, on the 50th anniversary of Morocco’s independence, he commuted 25 death sentences. [5] In 2008, at his daughter’s birth, he commuted 14 death sentences. [6] In July 2009, on the tenth anniversary of his coronation, he commuted 32 death sentences. [7]

While the abolition of the death penalty has gained political momentum in the last decade, death sentences continue to be issued. Twelve days after the Casablanca terrorist attacks of May 2003, an anti-terrorism law greatly expanding the number of death-eligible offenses was introduced. By 2008, at least 18 people had been sentenced to death under the new legislation, 16 of whom were sentenced in the immediate aftermath of the attacks, between July and September 2003. [8] Amnesty International reported concern that some of those sentenced to death “were allegedly subject to grossly unfair trial procedures”. [9] Ammesty also deplored “the lack of a sufficiently precise definition of terrorism, in violation … of the principle of legality”. In Amnesty’s assessment, this “broad definition of terrorism could be subject to widely differing and arbitrary interpretations, creating the potential for abuse”. [10]

However, there have been indications of increasing political mobilization in favor of abolition. In December 2004, the Ministry for Justice organized an important colloquium on criminal policy reform. The colloquium concluded that the number of death-eligible offenses should progressively be reduced, and recommended that unanimity be required in order for judges to issue a death sentence. On May 26, 2006, the Democratic Forces Front party (Front des Forces Démocratiques) introduced an abolition bill before the parliamentary assembly, and the Minister of Justice publicly declared his support for the bill. [11] A few Islamic political groups opposed the bill on religious grounds. [12]

The Minister of Justice declared to the International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH) in January 2007 that it was preparing a significant reform of the Penal Code that would result in a substantially reduced number of death-eligible offenses. [13] The draft Penal Code, according to unofficial sources, reduces the number of death-eligible crimes to just 11 (these offenses would include attempted murder of the King and the royal family, treason, certain terrorism offenses leading to death, certain aggravated forms of murder such as parricide and infanticide, the use of torture in committing a crime, aggravated kidnapping, perjury, repeat offenses, and the manufacturing of dangerous foods). [14]

In the past decade, a number of high profile, government-sponsored human rights organizations have also publicly taken a position against the death penalty. The Equity and Reconciliation Commission (Instance Equité et Réconciliation), created by the king in 2003 to investigate human rights abuses committed during the previous four decades, recommended in its final November 2006 report that the death penalty be abolished and that Morocco ratify the Second Optional Protocol of the ICCPR. [15] The Conseil consultatif des droits de l’homme (Consultative Council for Human Rights or CCHR), a governmental human rights body, has also taken an abolitionist stance on numerous occasions, particularly at the 3rd World Congress Against the Death Penalty, and at the national seminar on the death penalty organized by Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort (ECPM) in Rabat in 2008. [16] We note that in March 2011, in response to the wave of popular demonstrations that took place earlier that year, King Mohamed VI created a new independent governmental human rights body, the Conseil national des droits de l'Homme (CNDH) (National Council for Human Rights), which replaces the CCHR. The status and degree of independence of the CNDH are as yet uncertain, but in theory it will be able to demand legal investigations into human rights abuses. [17]

Since January 2011, with the help of European Union funding, ECPM has been developing capacity-building programs for abolitionist groups in Morocco. These programs aim at supporting fact-finding missions (such as prison visits, death penalty databases, etc.) and the publication of reference books on the death penalty. [18]

Is there currently an official moratorium on executions within the country?

There is no official moratorium, but there has been an internationally-acknowledged unofficial moratorium since 1994. [19]

Have there been any significant published cases concerning the death penalty in national courts?

As of March 2011, we were unable to locate any significant published cases concerning the death penalty.

Where can one locate or access judicial decisions regarding the death penalty?

The Moroccan Ministry of Justice maintains a free online legal database in Arabic and French (http://adala.justice.gov.ma/FR/home.aspx), where users can search legislation and judicial decisions by topic and by keyword. As of March 2011, the criminal law section of the database did not contain any judicial decisions, but there were indications that the site was still under construction.

Moroccan case law can also be researched in Arabic and French on the website of the Cabinet Bassamat law firm at: http://www.jurisprudence.ma/. Judicial decisions are continuously being added to the database. As of March 2011, it did not contain any decisions relating to the death penalty.

The website Artemis (http://www.artemis.ma/Front/Bases/Visiteur.aspx) offers a searchable database, available for a fee, of approximately 8,000 Moroccan judicial decisions.

What is the clemency process?

The Minister of Justice must be informed by the office of the Public Prosecutor as soon as a death sentence is pronounced. [20] Clemency pleas are automatically introduced by the office of the Public Prosecutor and no person sentenced to death may be executed before his or her clemency request has been denied. [21] Pursuant to the Constitution and to the Penal Code, the prerogative of clemency is exercised by the King. [22] The King receives an advisory opinion prepared by the clemency committee (commission des grâces). [23] The clemency committee is composed of the Minister of Justice, the head of the royal office, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, the chief prosecutor, the director for criminal matters and clemency, and the director of prisons. [24]

Are jury trials provided for defendants charged with capital offenses?

No. Juries are not used in Morocco. [25] Death sentences are issued by judges. A criminal policy reform colloquium organized by the Ministry of Justice in 2004 recommended that a unanimous bench be required in order for a death sentence to be issued. [26]

Brief Description of Appellate Process

As of March 25, 2011, we were not able to locate the Code of Criminal Procedure and based our research on secondary sources.

The Minister of Justice must be informed as soon as a death sentenced is rendered. [27] Questions of law may be appealed to the Court of Appeal. The death-sentenced defendant must be informed that he has 8 days from the date of the sentence to submit an appeal. [28]

The Court of Appeal’s sentence may be further appealed on questions of law to the Supreme Court [29] within 8 days. [30] Appeals to the Supreme Court are infrequent. [31]

References

[1] Constitution of the Kingdom of Morocco, Sep. 13, 1996.
[2] Constitution of the Kingdom of Morocco, Preamble, Sep. 13, 1996.
[3] Human Rights Council, Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review, National Report Submitted in Accordance with Paragraph 15(a) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: Morocco, paras. 27, 23, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/1/MAR/1, Mar. 11, 2008.
[4] Nicolas Perron, affiliated with ECPM, External Questionnaire for DPW, DPW Doc. Morocco External Questionnaire-1, Feb. 26, 2011.
[5] Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, Maroc/ 25 condamnés à mort grâciés par le roi, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/news.php?new=424, Nov. 18, 2005.
[6] Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, Le Roi accorde sa grâce à 14 condamnés à mort, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/news.php?new=754, Mar. 2, 2007.
[7] La peine de mort dans le monde, La peine de Mort – Maroc, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=33, last accessed Mar. 25, 2011.
[8] Mounia Wissinger, Maroc / Au couloir de Kenitra, Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/article.php?art=241, Jun. 21, 2005. U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review, Summary Prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, in accordance with Paragraph 15(c) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: Morocco, para. 8, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/1/MAR/3, Mar. 11, 2008.
[9] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review, Summary Prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, in accordance with Paragraph 15(c) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: Morocco, para. 8, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/1/MAR/3, Mar. 11, 2008.
[10] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review, Summary Prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, in accordance with Paragraph 15(c) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: Morocco, para. 39, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/1/MAR/3, Mar. 11, 2008.
[11] Florence Bellivier, La peine de mort au Maroc : l’heure des responsabilités : Mission internationale d’enquête, p. 7, Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l’Homme, Rapport de Mission No. 480, http://www.fidh.org/IMG/pdf/Maroc480pdmfr2007.pdf, Oct. 2007.
[12] Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, Maroc/ Vers l’abolition, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/news.php?new=534, Oct. 4, 2006.
[13] Florence Bellivier, La peine de mort au Maroc : l’heure des responsabilités : Mission internationale d’enquête, p. 7, Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l’Homme, Rapport de Mission No. 480, http://www.fidh.org/IMG/pdf/Maroc480pdmfr2007.pdf, Oct. 2007.
[14] Nicolas Perron, affiliated with ECPM, External Questionnaire for DPW, DPW Doc. Morocco External Questionnaire-1, Feb. 26, 2011. Sandra Babcock, affiliated with DPW, Notes taken at the Conference on the Death Penalty held in Rabat in Oct. 2008, DPW Morroco Doc. No. 1, Oct. 2008.
[15] Florence Bellivier, La peine de mort au Maroc : l’heure des responsabilités : Mission internationale d’enquête, p. 7, Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l’Homme, Rapport de Mission No. 480, http://www.fidh.org/IMG/pdf/Maroc480pdmfr2007.pdf, Oct. 2007. Agence Mondiale d’Information – AFP, Maroc: le roi crée un nouvel organisme chargé des droits de l'Homme, http://www.peinedemort.org/document.php?choix=5008, Mar. 4, 2011.
[16] Nicolas Perron, affiliated with ECPM, External Questionnaire for DPW, DPW Doc. Morocco External Questionnaire-1, Feb. 26, 2011.
[17] Agence Mondiale d’Information – AFP, Maroc: le roi crée un nouvel organisme chargé des droits de l'Homme, http://www.peinedemort.org/document.php?choix=5008, Mar. 4, 2011.
[18] Nicolas Perron, affiliated with ECPM, External Questionnaire for DPW, DPW Doc. Morocco External Questionnaire-1, Feb. 26, 2011.
[19] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Universal Periodic Review: Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Morocco, para. 45, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/8/22, May 22, 2008. U.N. ICCPR Human Rights Committee, Consideration of Reports Submitted by State Parties under Article 40 of the Covenant, Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee: Morocco, para. 5, U.N. Doc. CCPR/CO/82/MAR, Dec. 1, 2004.
[20] Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, Séminaire sur la peine de mort : Rabat, Maroc, p. 29, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/news.php?new=1075, Oct. 11-12, 2008.
[21] Morocco Code of Military Justice, art. 120, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-56-270, Nov. 10, 1956. Mounia Wissinger, Maroc / Au couloir de Kenitra, Ensemble Contre La Peine de Mort, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/article.php?art=241, Jun. 21, 2005.
[22] Constitution of the Kingdom of Morocco, art. 34, Sep. 13, 1996. Morocco Penal Code, art. 53, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-59-413, Nov. 26, 1962, as amended through 2007.
[23] Morocco Royal Decree on Clemency, arts. 9, 12, Dahir No. 1-57-387, Feb. 6, 1958.
[24] Morocco Royal Decree on Clemency, art. 10, Dahir No. 1-57-387, Feb. 6, 1958.
[25] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Practices: Morocco, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136075.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[26] Florence Bellivier, La peine de mort au Maroc : l’heure des responsabilités : Mission internationale d’enquête, p. 7, Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l’Homme, Rapport de Mission No. 480, http://www.fidh.org/IMG/pdf/Maroc480pdmfr2007.pdf, Oct. 2007.
[27] Nicolas Perron, affiliated with ECPM, External Questionnaire for DPW, DPW Doc. Morocco External Questionnaire-1, Feb. 26, 2011.
[28] U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Human Rights, Status of the International Covenants on Human Rights: Question of the death penalty: Report of the Secretary-General submitted pursuant to Commission resolution 2002/77, Annex II, p. 24, para. 19, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/2003/106, Jan. 30, 2003.
[29] Morocco Royal Decree on the Supreme Court, art. 1, Dahir No. 1-57-223, Sep. 27, 1957.
[30] Morocco Royal Decree on the Supreme Court, art. 40, Dahir No. 1-57-223, Sep. 27, 1957.
[31] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Practices: Morocco, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136075.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.

Death Penalty In Practice

Where Are Death-Sentenced Prisoners incarcerated?

Men who are sentenced to death are incarcerated at the Kenitra Central Prison, a few kilometers North of Rabat. There are no dedicated facilities for death-sentenced women, who are incarcerated together with other detainees in prisons across the country. [1]

Description of Prison Conditions

Moroccan law provides a special detention regime for death row inmates. [2] Immediately after sentencing, death-sentenced prisoners are transferred to specially designated facilities. [3] To the greatest extent possible, they must be detained in individual cells. Their mental health must be closely monitored in order to prevent them from attempting escape, suicide, or violence against others. If granted permission by a doctor and a social worker, they may work. [4] They have the right to receive family visits, and be provided food by their families. [5] The law prohibits revealing to a death row inmate that his judicial appeal on the law [pourvoi en cassation] has been denied, purportedly in order to spare him emotional suffering. [6]

In practice, prison conditions for death row inmates are a far cry from the legislative scheme described above. International NGOs have not been authorized to visit Kenitra Prison for the past few years. [7] The last major study on death row conditions, conducted in April 2005 by the Observatory of Moroccan Prisons (Observatoire marocain des prisons), concluded that death row inmates lived in unacceptable conditions. The OMP’s findings were confirmed by interviews conducted by members of the NGO Al-Nassir. These interviews revealed :
- punitive expeditions in which prison guards beat death row prisoners;
- that death row inmates received sufficient food, but had insufficient medical care and no access at all to psychiatric services;
- that books were forbidden, and that no libraries existed for death row inmates, even for those who had undertaken a course of study; [8]
- that while Kenitra had been designed to house inmates in individual cells, overcrowding had led to 2 or 3 prisoners sharing each cell. [9]
Al-Nassir found that death row inmates could receive family visits once a week, without limit as to the number of visitors. Visitors were subjected to thorough body searches. [10] The OMP’s report concluded that living conditions on death row had led to 2 suicides. [11]

In addition to these findings on death row detention conditions, a number of reports indicate that prison conditions in the country as a whole are “in a disastrous state”. [12] Extreme overcrowding, malnutrition, infectious diseases, lack of hygiene and medical care and “dangerous behaviors of various kinds such as drugs, sexual abuse, corruption and violence” were reported. Women are held separately from men and suffer from less overcrowding. [13]

Are there any known foreign nationals currently under sentence of death?

As of March 2011, there were no known foreigners on death row in Morocco. [14]

What are the nationalities of the known foreign nationals on death row?

As of March 2011, there were no known foreigners on death row in Morocco. [15]

Are there any known women currently under sentence of death?

As of March 2011, we were unable to locate any current official data on this question. In 2007, the Ministry of Justice informed the International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH) that there were 5 women on death row. [16] In 2011, unofficial sources indicated that between 7 and 10 women were currently under sentence of death. [17]

Are there any reports of individuals currently under sentence of death who may have been under the age of 18 at the time the crime was committed?

Under Moroccan law, persons aged less than 18 at the time the crime was committed may not be sentenced to death. [18] As of February 2011, there were no reports of minors on death row. [19]

Comments regarding the racial/ethnic composition on death row

As of March 2011, we were unable to locate any information regarding the racial/ethnic composition of death row.

However, numerous human rights organizations have documented that Sahrawhi activists are singled out for prosecution on politically motivated charges in the context of the long-running self-determination conflict in Western Sahara. [20] State violence, including assault and torture, has reportedly been exercised against Sahrawi activists in detention. [21] In 2008, Amnesty International noted “the sharp rise in reported cases of torture or ill-treatment in the context of ‘counter-terrorism’ in Morocco/Western Sahara”. Amnesty also reported that death sentences have been handed down against alleged terrorists in trials that failed to meet international standards of fairness: “scores have been sentenced to long prison sentences and over a dozen to the death penalty on the basis of evidence reportedly extracted by torture or ill-treatment.” [22] Such incidents are in violation of Moroccan law, which prohibits discrimination within the prison system. [23] Amnesty International reports that allegations of torture and ill-treatment either are not properly investigated, or do not result in the perpetrators being prosecuted. [24]

Are there lawyers available for indigent defendants facing capital trials?

In theory, yes. Moroccan law provides that all defendants have the right to be represented by a lawyer. [25] If a defendant charged with a death-eligible offense cannot afford one, a court-appointed lawyer must be provided. [26]

In practice, according to the U.S. Department of State, defendants facing capital punishment do not always obtain effective legal representation. Attorneys are not always appointed, and when they are, they are not always appointed in a timely fashion, and they are poorly paid. These conditions often result in inadequate representation. [27]

Are there lawyers available for indigent prisoners on appeal?

In theory, yes. Moroccan law provides that all defendants have the right to be represented by a lawyer. [28] If a defendant charged with a death-eligible offense cannot afford one, a court-appointed lawyer must be provided. [29]

In practice, according to the U.S. Department of State, defendants facing capital punishment do not always obtain effective legal representation. Attorneys are not always appointed, and when they are, they are not always appointed in a timely fashion, and they are poorly paid. These conditions often result in inadequate representation. [30]

Comments on Quality of Legal Representation

Legal representation of defendants facing the death penalty is not always adequate. According to the U.S. Department of State, legal aid attorneys are not always appointed, and when they are, they are not always appointed in a timely fashion, and they are poorly paid. These conditions often result in inadequate representation. [31]

During the wave of terrorism trials that followed the 2003 Casablanca attacks, a single lawyer represented 10 defendants for whom the death penalty was sought. All 10 were sentenced to death. [32]

Other Comments on Criminal Justice System

According to the U.S. Department of State, numerous reports indicate that, while Moroccan law provides for an independent judiciary, in practice courts were not fully independent, especially in cases dealing with the monarchy, religion and the Western Sahara. The judiciary is reported to be inefficient and corruptible, and did not consistently base decisions on new laws. [33]

The consequence of a biased judiciary is unfair trials. Human Rights Watch affirms that “in cases with a political colour, courts routinely denied defendants fair trials, ignoring requests for medical examinations lodged by defendants who claim to have been tortured, refusing to summon exculpatory witnesses, and convicting defendants solely on the basis of apparently coerced confessions.” [34] According to the U.S. Department of State, in criminal cases, judges sometimes delay or prevent access to adverse government evidence, or deny requests to question witnesses or present mitigating testimony. [35]

Human Rights Watch also reports a systematic pattern of human rights abuses in the application of the 2003 anti-terrorism legislation, especially in the form of torture and illegal detention. [36]

References

[1] Florence Bellivier, La peine de mort au Maroc : l’heure des responsabilités : Mission internationale d’enquête, p. 6, Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l’Homme Rapport de Mission No. 480, http://www.fidh.org/IMG/pdf/Maroc480pdmfr2007.pdf, Oct. 2007. Mounia Wissinger, Maroc / Au couloir de Kenitra, Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/article.php?art=241, Jun. 21, 2005.
[2] Morocco Decree Implementing the Law on the Organization of Penitentiary Institutions, arts. 142-145, Law No. 23-98 promulgated by Dahir of Aug. 25, 1999, Jan. 4, 2001.
[3] Morocco Decree Implementing the Law on the Organization of Penitentiary Institutions, art. 142, Law No. 23-98 promulgated by Dahir of Aug. 25, 1999, Jan. 4, 2001.
[4] Morocco Decree Implementing the Law on the Organization of Penitentiary Institutions, art. 143, Law No. 23-98 promulgated by Dahir of Aug. 25, 1999, Jan. 4, 2001.
[5] Morocco Decree Implementing the Law on the Organization of Penitentiary Institutions, art. 144, Law No. 23-98 promulgated by Dahir of Aug. 25, 1999, Jan. 4, 2001.
[6] Morocco Decree Implementing the Law on the Organization of Penitentiary Institutions, art. 145, Law No. 23-98 promulgated by Dahir of Aug. 25, 1999, Jan. 4, 2001. Nicolas Perron, affiliated with ECPM, External Questionnaire for DPW, DPW Doc. Morocco External Questionnaire-1, Feb. 26, 2011.
[7] Florence Bellivier, La peine de mort au Maroc : l’heure des responsabilités : Mission internationale d’enquête, p. 6, Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l’Homme Rapport de Mission No. 480, http://www.fidh.org/IMG/pdf/Maroc480pdmfr2007.pdf, Oct. 2007. Nicolas Perron, affiliated with ECPM, External Questionnaire for DPW, DPW Doc. Morocco External Questionnaire-1, Feb. 26, 2011.
[8] Florence Bellivier, La peine de mort au Maroc : l’heure des responsabilités : Mission internationale d’enquête, pp. 8-9, Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l’Homme,
- Rapport de Mission No. 480, http://www.fidh.org/IMG/pdf/Maroc480pdmfr2007.pdf, Oct. 2007.

[9] Mounia Wissinger, Maroc / Au couloir de Kenitra, Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/article.php?art=241, Jun. 21, 2005.
[10] Florence Bellivier, La peine de mort au Maroc : l’heure des responsabilités : Mission internationale d’enquête, p. 9, Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l’Homme,
Rapport de Mission No. 480, http://www.fidh.org/IMG/pdf/Maroc480pdmfr2007.pdf, Oct. 2007.

[11] Florence Bellivier, La peine de mort au Maroc : l’heure des responsabilités : Mission internationale d’enquête, p. 8, Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l’Homme,
Rapport de Mission No. 480, http://www.fidh.org/IMG/pdf/Maroc480pdmfr2007.pdf, Oct. 2007.

[12] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review, Summary Prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, in accordance with Paragraph 15(c) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: Morocco, para. 16, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/1/MAR/3, Mar. 11, 2008.
[13] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review, Summary Prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, in accordance with Paragraph 15(c) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: Morocco, para. 16, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/1/MAR/3, Mar. 11, 2008. U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Practices: Morocco, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136075.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[14] Nicolas Perron, affiliated with ECPM, External Questionnaire for DPW, DPW Doc. Morocco External Questionnaire-1, Feb. 26, 2011.
[15] Nicolas Perron, affiliated with ECPM, External Questionnaire for DPW, DPW Doc. Morocco External Questionnaire-1, Feb. 26, 2011.
[16] Florence Bellivier, La peine de mort au Maroc : l’heure des responsabilités : Mission internationale d’enquête, p. 6, Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l’Homme, Rapport de Mission No. 480, http://www.fidh.org/IMG/pdf/Maroc480pdmfr2007.pdf, Oct. 2007.
[17] Nicolas Perron, affiliated with ECPM, External Questionnaire for DPW, DPW Doc. Morocco External Questionnaire-1, Feb. 26, 2011.
[18] U.N. ECOSOC Commission on Human Rights, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: Status of the International Covenants on Human Rights: The question of the death penalty: Report of the Secretary-General, Annex II, p. 19, para. 10, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/2006/83, Feb. 10, 2006. Nicolas Perron, affiliated with ECPM, External Questionnaire for DPW, DPW Doc. Morocco External Questionnaire-1, Feb. 26, 2011.
[19] Nicolas Perron, affiliated with ECPM, External Questionnaire for DPW, DPW Doc. Morocco External Questionnaire-1, Feb. 26, 2011.
[20] Amnesty Intl., Amnesty International Report 2010: The State of the World’s Human Rights, p. 232, http://thereport.amnesty.org/en, 2010. Human Rights Watch, Human Rights in Western Sahara and in the Tindouf Refugee Camps, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2008/12/19/human-rights-western-sahara-and-tindouf-refugee-camps-0, Dec. 19, 2008. Human Rights Watch, Morocco/Western Sahara: Dissidents in Prison, Unfair Trials, http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2011/01/24/moroccowestern-sahara-dissidents-prison-unfair-trials, Jan. 24, 2011.
[21] Amnesty Intl., Amnesty International Report 2010: The State of the World’s Human Rights, p. 232, http://thereport.amnesty.org/en, last accessed Mar. 25, 2011. U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review, Summary Prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, in accordance with Paragraph 15(c) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: Morocco, para. 11, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/1/MAR/3, Mar. 11, 2008.
[22] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review, Summary Prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, in accordance with Paragraph 15(c) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: Morocco, para. 11, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/1/MAR/3, Mar. 11, 2008.
[23] Morocco Law on the Organization of Penitentiary Institutions, art. 51, Law. No. 23-98, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-99-200, Aug. 25, 1999.
[24] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review, Summary Prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, in accordance with Paragraph 15(c) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: Morocco, para. 12, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/1/MAR/3, Mar. 11, 2008.
[25] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Practices: Morocco, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136075.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[26] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Practices: Morocco, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136075.htm, Mar. 11, 2010. Morocco Code of Military Justice, art. 56, promulgated by Dahir No. 1-56-270, Nov. 10, 1956.
[27] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Practices: Morocco, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136075.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[28] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Practices: Morocco, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136075.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[29] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Practices: Morocco, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136075.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[30] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Practices: Morocco, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136075.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[31] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Practices: Morocco, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136075.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[32] Mounia Wissinger, Maroc / Au couloir de Kenitra, Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/article.php?art=241, Jun. 21, 2005.
[33] U.S. State Department, 2009 Human Rights Practices: Morocco, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136075.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[34] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review, Summary Prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, in accordance with Paragraph 15(c) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: Morocco, para. 19, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/1/MAR/3, Mar. 11, 2008.
[35] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Practices: Morocco, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136075.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[36] Human Rights Watch, Morocco: “Stop Looking for your Son”: Illegal Detentions Under the Counterterrorism Law, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/10/25/morocco-stop-looking-your-son-0, Oct. 25, 2010.

Decisions of International Human Rights Bodies

Decisions of Human Rights Committee

In 2004, the Human Rights Committee recommended in its final conclusions that Morocco “reduce to a minimum the number of offences punishable by the death penalty with a view to abolishing capital punishment” and “commute the sentences of all persons sentenced to death”. The Committee also noted with concern that although no executions had taken place for many years, and although a significant number of death sentences had been commuted, the number of death-eligible offenses had increased since the previous periodic review. [1]

Decisions of Other Human Rights Bodies

At Morocco’s last Universal Periodic Review, conducted in 2008, Italy noted with approval that no executions had been carried out since 1993. No other state commented on the death penalty. [2]

References

[1] U.N. ICCPR Human Rights Committee, Consideration of Reports Submitted by State Parties under Article 40 of the Covenant, Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee: Morocco, para. 11, U.N. Doc. CCPR/CO/82/MAR, Dec. 1, 2004.
[2] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Universal Periodic Review: Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Morocco, para. 45, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/8/22, May 22, 2008.

Additional Sources and Contacts

Direct member(s) of World Coalition Against the Death Penalty

Association Marocaine des Droits Humains (AMDH) (Moroccan Human Rights Association)
Mr. Ben Abdesselam Abdel-Ilah
Appt N°1, Imm 6, Rue Aguensous, Av. Hassan II, Les Orangers (Près de Auto-Hall)
BP 1740 RP Rabat, Maroc
Tel: +212 5377 309 61
Fax: +212 5377 388 51
lilahbena@yahoo.fr
http://www.amdh.org.ma/

Association Marocaine des Droits Humains (AMDH) (Moroccan Human Rights Association)
Mr. Abdellah Mouseddad
Appt N°1, Imm 6, Rue Aguensous, Av. Hassan II, Les Orangers (Près de Auto-Hall)
BP 1740 RP Rabat, Maroc
Tel: +212 5377 309 61
Fax: +212 5377 388 51
amouseddad@yahoo.fr

Bayt Al Hikma
Mrs. Khadija Rouissi
President
Résidence Al Irfane 1 Imm.6 Appt.10, rue Mohamed Regragui, Agdal Riad
1000 Rabat, Maroc
Tel: +212 661163562
khadijarouissi@baytalhikma.org.ma
http://baytalhikma.wordpress.com

Bayt Al Hikma
Mrs. Maia Boureile
Chef de Projet
Résidence Al Irfane 1 Imm.6 Appt.10, rue Mohamed Regragui, Agdal Riad
1000 Rabat, Maroc
Tel: +212 666275003 baytalhikma@baytalhikma.org.ma
www.baytalhikma.org.ma

Centre marocain des droits de l'Homme (CMDH) (Morroccan Center for Human Rights)
Mr. Rachid Chriaa
Secrétaire général du CMDH (Secretary General for the CMDH)
403, Hay Ennahda 2, EX 3- Rabat
BO 1804 Rabat R.O., Maroc
Tel: +212 666 14 19 73, +212 668 68 11 38, +212 537 63 10 93
Fax: +212 537 67 97 92, +212 537 26 15 79
rachidchrii@yahoo.fr

Coalition marocaine contre la peine de mort
Mr. Abdellah Mouseddad
Représentant de l'OMP - AMDH
Maroc
Fax: +212 522249752
amouseddad@yahoo.fr

Coalition marocaine contre la peine de mort
Mr. Chafchaouni Abdeslam
Attaché pédagogique, professeur de philosophie
6 bis, rue Khadija Bent-Khouiled
Casablanca, Maroc
Fax: +212 522487033
chafchaouniabdeslam@gmail.com

Coalition marocaine contre la peine de mort
Abderrahim Jamai
Coordinateur - OMP
Maroc
cabinetjamai@gmail.com

Forum Marocain pour la Vérité et la Justice (Moroccan Forum for Truth and Justice)
Mr. Driss Oumhand
6 bis, rue Khadija Bent-Khouiled
Casablanca, Maroc
Tel: +212 522 48 70 33, +212 660 29 34 87, +212 610 32 04 79
Fax: +212 522 48 28 45
oumhandatlas@gmail.com

Observatoire Marocain des Prisons
Mr. Abderrahim Jamai
Secrétaire général
10 rue des Batignolles - Quartier Belvédère
Casablanca, Maroc
Tel: +212 522 24 97 52
Fax: +212 522 24 97 52
cabinetjamai@gmail.com

Observatoire Marocain des Prisons
Mr. Abdellah Mouseddad
10 rue des Batignolles - Quartier Belvédère
Casablanca, Maroc
Tel: +212 022 24 97 52
Fax: +212 022 24 97 52
amouseddad@yahoo.fr

Observatoire Marocain des Prisons
Mr. Jawal Skalli
Directeur Exécutif
10 rue des Batignolles - Quartier Belvédère
Casablanca, Maroc
Tel: +212 522 24 97 52
Fax: +212 522 24 97 52

Organisation Marocaine des Droits Humains
Mr. Mostafa Znaidi
8, rue Ouargha, résidence Volubilis, Appt 1, Agdal
1000 Rabat, Maroc
Tel: +212 67 77 +60, +212 5227 30 49
mznaidi2@gmail.com
www.omdh.org

Other non-governmental organizations and individuals engaged in advocacy surrounding the death penalty

Reprieve
PO Box 72054
London EC3P 3BZ
United Kingdom
Tel 020 7553 8140
Fax 020 7553 8189
info@reprieve.org.uk
http://www.reprieve.org.uk

Helpful Reports and Publications

Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, Séminaire sur la peine de mort : Rabat, Maroc, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/news.php?new=1075, Oct. 11-12, 2008.

Florence Bellivier, La peine de mort au Maroc : l’heure des responsabilités : Mission internationale d’enquête, Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l’Homme, Rapport de Mission No. 480, http://www.fidh.org/IMG/pdf/Maroc480pdmfr2007.pdf, Oct. 2007.

Additional notes regarding this country

There has been a long-standing conflict over the status of the Western Sahara. DPW’s treatment of Morocco and the Western Sahara in a single questionnaire does not in any way constitute a recognition of Morocco’s claims of sovereignty over the territory. Rather, it is an acknowledgment that some of our essential research data is made available (for instance, by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch) for both Morocco and the Western Sahara without distinction. Our project does not, at this stage, encompass research into criminal justice as it is practiced in the Western Sahara. According to the U.S. Department of State, the Moroccan Penal Code is in effect in the Moroccan-controlled areas of the territory. [1]

References

[1] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Western Sahara, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136076.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.

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