Death Penalty Database

Mali

Information current as of: March 27, 2012

General

Official Country Name

Republic of Mali (Mali). [1]

Geographical Region

Africa (Western Africa). [2]

Death Penalty Law Status

Abolitionist de facto. [3]

Methods of Execution

Shooting.
(by firing-squad). [4]

References

[1] U.S. Dept. of State, Background Note: Mali, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2828.htm, Jan. 3, 2012.
[2] U.N., Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings, http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/m49/m49regin.htm, Sep. 20, 2011.
[3] Roger Hood & Carolyn Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective, p. 411, Oxford University Press, 4th ed., 2008. La Peine de Mort dans le Monde, La peine de mort – Mali, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=37, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012. Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, La peine de mort : Mali, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/fiche-pays.php?pays=MLI, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.
[4] Penal Code of Mali, art. 11, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001. Amnesty Intl., When the State Kills, p. 173, Amnesty Intl. Publications, 1989. La Peine de Mort dans le Monde, La peine de mort – Mali, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=37, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.

Country Details

Language(s)

French. [1]

Population

14,100,000. (2011 est.). [2]

Number of Individuals Currently Under Sentence of Death

0. We believe that as of March 2012 no one is under sentence of death in Mali. In 1997, President Konaré commuted all death sentences to life imprisonment. [3] He was succeeded in 2002 by President Toumani Touré, who opposes the death penalty and as of 2008 was systematically commuting all death sentences that were pronounced. [4] At least 39 individuals were sentenced to death in 2008, [5] 2009, [6] and 2010, [7] but we believe that their sentences were commuted. At least one death sentence was handed down in 2011 against a Tunisian national, Bechnir Simoun, for committing a terrorist attack against the French Embassy in Bamako in January 2011. [8] In December 2011, President Toumani Touré granted him clemency and authorized his extradition to Tunisia. [9] 0 [10]

Annual Number of Reported Executions

Executions in 2017 to date (last updated on December 6, 2017)

0. [11]

Executions in 2016

0. [12]

Per capita execution rate in 2016

Executions in 2015

0. [13]

Per capita execution rate in 2015

0 executions.

Executions in 2014

0. [14]

Per capita execution rate in 2014

0 executions

Executions in 2013

0. [15]

Per capita execution rate in 2013

0 executions

Executions in 2012

0. [16]

Per capita execution rate in 2012

0 executions

Executions in 2011

0. [17]

Per capita execution rate in 2011

0 executions

Executions in 2010

0. [18]

Executions in 2009

0. [19]

Executions in 2008

0. [20]

Executions in 2007

0. [21]

Year of Last Known Execution

1980. [22] Two persons were sentenced to death for murder, armed robbery and other offenses, and were executed by shooting on Aug. 21, 1980. [23]

References

[1] U.S. Dept. of State, Background Note: Mali, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2828.htm, Jan. 3, 2012.
[2] U.S. Dept. of State, Background Note: Mali, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2828.htm, Jan. 3, 2012.
[3] La Peine de Mort dans le Monde, La peine de mort – Mali, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=37, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012. Klèzié, Histoire de la Peine de Mort au Mali : De l’exécution capitale au projet d’abolition, L’Aube, http://www.afribone.com/spip.php?article8659, Nov. 1, 2007. Mali Amnesty Law (Loi portant sur l’amnistie), Law No. 1997-016, Mar. 7, 1997.
[4] Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, La peine de mort en question, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/news.php?new=864, Jan. 28, 2008.
[5] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, p. 19, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009.
[6] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010.
[7] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2010, p. 5, ACT 50/001/2011, Mar. 28, 2011.
[8] Reuters, Mali hands death penalty to French embassy attacker, http://af.reuters.com/article/topNews/idAFJOE7AS07G20111129, Nov. 29, 2011.
[9] La Peine de Mort dans le Monde, La peine de mort – Mali, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=37, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.
[10] DPW Executions and Death Sentences Monitor.
[11] DPW Executions and Death Sentences Monitor.
[12] Amnesty International, Death sentences and executions in 2016, ACT 50/5740/2017, Apr. 11, 2017.
[13] DPW Executions and Death Sentences Monitor.
[14] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2014, ACT 50/001/2015, Mar. 31, 2015.
[15] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2013, ACT 50/001/2014, Mar. 26, 2014.
[16] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2012, ACT 50/001/2012, Apr. 9, 2013.
[17] DPW Executions and Death Sentences Monitor.
[18] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2010, p. 5, ACT 50/001/2011, Mar. 28, 2011.
[19] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010.
[20] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009.
[21] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2007, ACT 50/001/2008, Apr. 15, 2008.
[22] Roger Hood & Carolyn Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective, p. 411, Oxford University Press, 4th ed., 2008. La Peine de Mort dans le Monde, La peine de mort – Mali, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=37, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012. Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, La peine de mort : Mali, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/fiche-pays.php?pays=MLI, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.
[23] La Peine de Mort dans le Monde, La peine de mort – Mali, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=37, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.

Crimes and Offenders Punishable By Death

Crimes Punishable by Death

Aggravated Murder.
Premeditated murder, [1] murder committed in furtherance of another offense, [2] murder committed for ritual purposes [3] or by immolation, [4] parricide [5] and poisoning resulting in death [6] are punishable by death.

Other Offenses Resulting in Death.
Torture committed by a public officer and leading to death is punishable by death. [7]

Terrorism-Related Offenses Resulting in Death.
Hijacking an aircraft resulting in death, [8] damaging any buildings, roads, facilities or vehicles of public utility with explosives and causing death, [9] are punishable by death.

Terrorism-Related Offenses Not Resulting in Death.
Bombing or setting fire to transportation facilities [10] or facilities belonging to the state, [11] placing roadside bombs, [12] and participating in a group that attempted or committed a terrorist attack designed to provoke insurrection, devastation or massacres, [13] are punishable by death.

Robbery Not Resulting in Death.
Gang robbery, armed robbery, and robbery committed with violence or in a state of intoxication are punishable by death. [14]

Arson Not Resulting in Death.
Setting fire to occupied or usually occupied buildings, boats or vehicles, is punishable by death. [15] Setting fire to a state building or destroying it with explosives is punishable by death. [16]

Kidnapping Not Resulting in Death.
Unlawful arrest, kidnapping and hostage-taking are punishable by death when the victim is tortured. [17]

Treason.
Committing treason in the service of a foreign power, [18] conspiring or attempting to overthrow the government, [19] conspiring against state security as a public employee [20] or as part of an armed group, [21] conspiring against military commanders in time of war, [22] illegally taking command of public forces, [23] and attempting to provoke insurrection, civil war, devastation or massacres, [24] are punishable by death.

Espionage.
Espionage by foreign nationals is punishable by death. [25]

Military Offenses Not Resulting in Death.
The 1995 Military Justice Code of Mali provides that desertion before the enemy, [26] cowardice or dereliction of duty, [27] insubordination in time of war, [28] and instigation of a mutiny in time of war [29] are punishable by death.

War crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide.
Crimes against humanity [30] and genocide [31] are punishable by death.

Other Offenses Not Resulting in Death.
- Assaulting on-duty state employees with the intention of causing death is punishable by death. [32]
- Poisoning [33] or mass poisoning of water supplies, [34] whether or not they result in death, are punishable by death.
- Committing torture or barbarous acts in the course of a serious offense is punishable by death. [35]
- Attempting a death-eligible crime is punishable by death. [36]

Does the country have a mandatory death penalty?

No. Article 18 of the Penal Code provides that if there are mitigating circumstances, the sentencing court may replace the death penalty with a sentence ranging from 5 years to life imprisonment. [37]

Article 18 further provides that mitigating circumstances cannot benefit a defendant who committed a crime in a state of intoxication. [38] It is unclear whether this precludes consideration of any mitigating factors for such defendants, or whether this merely prohibits considering intoxication alone as a mitigating factor.

For Which Offenses, If Any, Is a Mandatory Death Sentence Imposed?

None. Article 18 of the Penal Code provides that if there are mitigating circumstances, the sentencing court may replace the death penalty with a sentence ranging from 5 years to life imprisonment. [39]

We have been unable to ascertain, however, whether defendants who commit an offense in a state of intoxication are excluded from the scope of Article 18 (see previous question).

Crimes For Which Individuals Have Been Executed Since January 2008:

No individual has been executed since 1980. [40]

Categories of Offenders Excluded From the Death Penalty:

Individuals Below Age 18 At Time of Crime.
Under the Penal Code, the age of criminal responsibility is 18 years at the time of commission of the offense. [41] Persons who commit a death-eligible crime before the age of 18 may be sentenced to a maximum of 20 years’ imprisonment. [42]

Under the 1995 Military Justice Code, military courts with jurisdiction over juveniles are bound by the sentencing limitations of ordinary criminal law. [43]

Moreover, Mali is a party to the ICCPR [44] and to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, [45] which prohibit the execution of individuals for crimes committed while under the age of 18.

Pregnant Women.
Under Article 11 of the Penal Code, a pregnant woman may only be executed after giving birth and weaning her child. [46] Additionally, Mali is party to the ICCPR, [47] which prohibits the execution of pregnant women.

Women With Small Children.
Under Article 11 of the Penal Code, a nursing woman shall be executed only after she has weaned her child. [48]

Mentally Ill.
Under Article 28 of the Penal Code, no crime is constituted where the accused was mentally insane at the time the offense was committed. [49]

References

[1] Penal Code of Mali, arts. 199, 200, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[2] Penal Code of Mali, art. 201, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[3] Penal Code of Mali, art. 201, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[4] Penal Code of Mali, art. 201, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[5] Penal Code of Mali, arts. 199, 200, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[6] Penal Code of Mali, arts. 199, 200, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[7] Penal Code of Mali, art. 209, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[8] Penal Code of Mali, art. 308, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[9] Penal Code of Mali, art. 307, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[10] Penal Code of Mali, art. 311, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[11] Penal Code of Mali, art. 51(1), Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[12] Penal Code of Mali, arts. 3, 307, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[13] Penal Code of Mali, arts. 47, 52, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[14] Penal Code of Mali, art. 253, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[15] Penal Code of Mali, art. 305, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[16] Penal Code of Mali, art. 51.1°, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[17] Penal Code of Mali, arts. 237, 238, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[18] Penal Code of Mali, arts. 33, 34, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001. Code of Military Justice of Mali, art. 129, Law No. 95-042/AN-RM, Apr. 20, 1995.
[19] Penal Code of Mali, arts. 45, 50, 52, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[20] Penal Code of Mali, arts. 77-80, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[21] Penal Code of Mali, art. 51, 2° & 3°, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[22] Code of Military Justice of Mali, art. 130, Law No. 95-042/AN-RM, Apr. 20, 1995.
[23] Penal Code of Mali, arts. 48, 49, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[24] Penal Code of Mali, arts. 47, 52, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[25] Penal Code of Mali, arts. 33-35, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[26] Code of Military Justice of Mali, arts. 117, 118, Law No. 95-042/AN-RM, Apr. 20, 1995.
[27] Code of Military Justice of Mali, arts. 127, 129, 176, 177, Law No. 95-042/AN-RM, Apr. 20, 1995.
[28] Code of Military Justice of Mali, arts. 154, 171, Law No. 95-042/AN-RM, Apr. 20, 1995.
[29] Code of Military Justice of Mali, art. 150, Law No. 95-042/AN-RM, Apr. 20, 1995.
[30] Penal Code of Mali, arts. 29, 32, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[31] Penal Code of Mali, arts. 30, 32, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[32] Penal Code of Mali, art. 153, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[33] Penal Code of Mali, arts. 199, 200, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[34] Penal Code of Mali, art. 314, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[35] Penal Code of Mali, art. 200, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[36] Penal Code of Mali, art. 3, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[37] Penal Code of Mali, art. 18, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[38] Penal Code of Mali, art. 18, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[39] Penal Code of Mali, art. 18, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[40] Roger Hood & Carolyn Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective, p. 411, Oxford University Press, 4th ed., 2008. La Peine de Mort dans le Monde, La peine de mort – Mali, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=37, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012. Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, La peine de mort : Mali, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/fiche-pays.php?pays=MLI, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.
[41] Penal Code of Mali, art. 26, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001. Child Protection Code of Mali (Ordonnance portant code de protection de l’enfant), arts. 95-96, Ordinance No. 02-062/P-RM, Jun. 5, 2002.
[42] Child Protection Code of Mali (Ordonnance portant code de protection de l’enfant), art. 169, Ordinance No. 02-062/P-RM, Jun. 5, 2002.
[43] Code of Military Justice of Mali, arts. 185-186, Law. No. 95-042/AN-RM, Apr. 1995.
[44] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.
[45] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1577 U.N.T.S. 3, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=UNTSONLINE&tabid=2&mtdsg_no=IV-11&chapter=4&lang=en#Participants, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.
[46] Penal Code of Mali, art. 11, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[47] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.
[48] Penal Code of Mali, art. 11, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.
[49] Penal Code of Mali, art. 28, Law No. 01-079, Aug. 20, 2001.

International Commitments

ICCPR

Party?

Yes. [1]

Date of Accession

Jul. 16, 1974. [2]

Signed?

No. [3]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

First Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, Recognizing Jurisdiction of the Human Rights Committee

Party?

Yes. [4]

Date of Accession

Oct. 24, 2001. [5]

Signed?

No. [6]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, Toward the Abolition of the Death Penalty

Party?

No. [7]

Date of Accession

Not Applicable.

Signed?

No. [8]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

American Convention on Human Rights

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

Death Penalty Protocol to the ACHR

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR)

Party?

Yes. [9]

Date of Accession

Dec. 21, 1981. [10]

Signed?

Yes. [11]

Date of Signature

Nov. 13, 1981. [12]

Protocol to the ACHPR on the Rights of Women in Africa

Party?

Yes. [13]

Date of Accession

Jan. 13, 2005. [14]

Signed?

Yes. [15]

Date of Signature

Dec. 9, 2003. [16]

African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child

Party?

Yes. [17]

Date of Accession

Jun. 3, 1998. [18]

Signed?

Yes. [19]

Date of Signature

Feb. 28, 1996. [20]

Arab Charter on Human Rights

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

2016 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [21]

Vote

In Favor. [22]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

No. [23]

2014 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [24]

Vote

In Favor. [25]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

No. [26]

2012 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

Yes. [27]

Vote

In Favor. [28]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

No. [29]

2010 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

Yes. [30]

Vote

In Favor. [31]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

No. [32]

2008 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

Yes. [33]

Vote

In Favor. [34]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

No. [35]

2007 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

Yes. [36]

Vote

In Favor. [37]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

No. [38]

References

[1] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.
[2] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.
[3] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.
[4] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-5&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.
[5] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-5&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.
[6] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-5&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.
[7] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Second Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, 1642 U.N.T.S. 414, Dec. 15, 1989, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-12&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.
[8] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Second Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, 1642 U.N.T.S. 414, Dec. 15, 1989, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-12&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.
[9] African Union, List of countries which have signed, ratified/acceded to the African Charter of Human and People’s Rights, Doc. 0002, http://au.int/en/sites/default/files/African_Charter_on_Human_and_Peoples_Rights.pdf, Aug. 2, 2011.
[10] African Union, List of countries which have signed, ratified/acceded to the African Charter of Human and People’s Rights, Doc. 0002, http://au.int/en/sites/default/files/African_Charter_on_Human_and_Peoples_Rights.pdf, Aug. 2, 2011.
[11] African Union, List of countries which have signed, ratified/acceded to the African Charter of Human and People’s Rights, Doc. 0002, http://au.int/en/sites/default/files/African_Charter_on_Human_and_Peoples_Rights.pdf, Aug. 2, 2011.
[12] African Union, List of countries which have signed, ratified/acceded to the African Charter of Human and People’s Rights, Doc. 0002, http://au.int/en/sites/default/files/African_Charter_on_Human_and_Peoples_Rights.pdf, Aug. 2, 2011.
[13] African Union, List of countries which have signed, ratified/acceded to the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, Doc. 0025, http://www.au.int/en/sites/default/files/999Rights_of_Women.pdf, Feb. 14, 2011.
[14] African Union, List of countries which have signed, ratified/acceded to the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, Doc. 0025, http://www.au.int/en/sites/default/files/999Rights_of_Women.pdf, Feb. 14, 2011.
[15] African Union, List of countries which have signed, ratified/acceded to the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, Doc. 0025, http://www.au.int/en/sites/default/files/999Rights_of_Women.pdf, Feb. 14, 2011.
[16] African Union, List of countries which have signed, ratified/acceded to the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, Doc. 0025, http://www.au.int/en/sites/default/files/999Rights_of_Women.pdf, Feb. 14, 2011.
[17] African Union, Signatories, Accessions, and Ratifications, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, Doc. 0003, http://www.au.int/en/sites/default/files/96Welfare_of_the_Child.pdf, Jan. 27, 2011.
[18] African Union, Signatories, Accessions, and Ratifications, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, Doc. 0003, http://www.au.int/en/sites/default/files/96Welfare_of_the_Child.pdf, Jan. 27, 2011.
[19] African Union, Signatories, Accessions, and Ratifications, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, Doc. 0003, http://www.au.int/en/sites/default/files/96Welfare_of_the_Child.pdf, Jan. 27, 2011.
[20] African Union, Signatories, Accessions, and Ratifications, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, Doc. 0003, http://www.au.int/en/sites/default/files/96Welfare_of_the_Child.pdf, Jan. 27, 2011.
[21] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Promotion and protection of human rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 54-71 U.N. Doc. A/71/484/Add.2, Dec. 6, 2016.
[22] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Promotion and protection of human rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 54-71 U.N. Doc. A/71/484/Add.2, Dec. 6, 2016.
[23] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Note Verbale dated 7 September 2017, U.N. Doc. A/71/1047, Sep. 13, 2017.
[24] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 141, 144, U.N. Doc. A/69/488/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2014.
[25] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, 73rd Plenary Meeting, pp. 17-18, U.N. Doc. A/69/PV.73, Dec. 18, 2014.
[26] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, Note Verbale dated 28 July 2015, U.N. Doc. A/69/993, Jul. 29, 2015.
[27] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 95-96, U.N. Doc. A/67/457/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2012.
[28] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, 60th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16-17, U.N. Doc. A/67/PV.60, Dec. 20, 2012.
[29] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, Note Verbale dated 16 April 2013, U.N. Doc. A/67/841, Apr. 23, 2013.
[30] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, pp. 5-6, U.N. Doc. A/65/456/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2010.
[31] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, 71st Plenary Meeting, pp. 18-19, U.N. Doc. A/65/PV.71, Dec. 21, 2010.
[32] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, Note Verbale dated 11 March 2011, U.N. Doc. A/65/779, Mar. 11, 2011.
[33] U.N.G.A., 63rd session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, U.N. Doc. A/63/430/Add.2, Dec. 4, 2008.
[34] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, 70th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16- 17, U.N. Doc. A/63/PV.70, Dec. 18, 2008.
[35] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, Note Verbale dated 10 February 2009, U.N. Doc. A/63/716, Feb. 12, 2009.
[36] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, U.N. Doc. A/62/439/Add.2, Dec. 5, 2007.
[37] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, 76th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16- 17, U.N. Doc. A/62/PV.76, Dec. 18, 2007.
[38] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, Note Verbale dated 11 January 2008, U.N. Doc. A/62/658, Feb. 2, 2008.

Death Penalty In Law

Does the country’s constitution make reference to capital punishment?

Article 1 of the Constitution states that the human person is sacred and inviolable and that everyone has the right to life, without providing for any exceptions, [1] implying that capital punishment could be unconstitutional.

Does the country’s constitution make reference to international law?

Proper ratification of treaties requires the approval of Mali’s Constitutional Court, which determines the consistency of the treaty obligations with the Constitution. Properly ratified treaties take precedence over legislation. [2]

Have there been any significant changes in the application of the death penalty over the last several years?

The last executions in Mali took place in August 1980, when two persons sentenced to death for murder, armed robbery and other offenses were executed by shooting. [3] In 1997, President Konaré commuted all death sentences to life imprisonment. [4] In May 2002, the government issued a decree suspending executions for two years, in order to create an opportunity for national debate about the death penalty. [5]

In 2004, the official moratorium was lifted, and courts still pronounce death sentences, but reports indicate that since 2008, President Toumani Touré, who opposes the death penalty, systematically commutes death sentences when courts hand them down. [6] Touré committed himself to abolishing the death penalty in Mali during a speech in September 2007. [7]

The Cabinet (Conseil des Ministres) first introduced an abolition bill (replacing the death sentence with life imprisonment) before the National Assembly in October 2007. [8] The bill was met with fierce opposition by Islamic groups and the opposition party, the National Union for Renaissance (Union Nationale pour la Renaissance). Under the leadership of Modibo Sangaré, the UNPR demonstrated in May 2008 to denounce the abolition bill as the result of Western “manipulation.” [9] Religious leaders rejected abolition as “fundamentally opposed” to religious rules and expressed the fear that it would pave the way to anarchy and social instability. [10] A former leader of the national bar association (Ordre des Avocats), Kassoum Tapo, criticized these religious objections for being irrelevant: the death penalty in Mali is a civil penalty and does not result from the application of sharia law. [11]

Opposition to the abolition bill has caused the parliamentary debate and vote to be postponed several times, [12] most recently in December 2010, when the abolition bill was tabled for the parliamentary session of April 2011. [13] By the end of our research, no outcome of the abolition debate was reported, and we assume that the bill is still pending in the National Assembly.

Meanwhile, it seems that executions continue to be suspended through the exercise of executive clemency. On November 28, 2011, a Tunisian national, Bechnir Simoun, was sentenced to death for the terrorist attack against the French Embassy in Bamako in January 2011. On December 15, 2011, President Toumani Touré granted him clemency and authorized his extradition to Tunisia for further judicial proceedings. [14]

Is there currently an official moratorium on executions within the country?

There may be an official moratorium on executions. On May 16, 2002, President Konaré’s government issued a decree suspending executions for a period of two years. [15] It was not renewed in 2004 but during a September 2007 speech, President Touré committed himself to abolishing the death penalty in Mali. [16] Reports indicate that President Touré systematically commutes all death sentences imposed by courts to life imprisonment. [17] Additionally, a draft bill on abolition was introduced into the National Assembly by the government in October 2007. Its debate has been postponed several times as a result of internal opposition. [18]

Have there been any significant published cases concerning the death penalty in national courts?

As of March 7, 2012 we did not find any significant published cases concerning the death penalty in Mali courts. Reports indicate that in Mali few legal opinions are published. [19]

Where can one locate or access judicial decisions regarding the death penalty?

Reports indicate that in Mali few legal opinions are published. [20] It is possible that decisions may become available through websites such as http://www.justicemali.org/.

What is the clemency process?

Under Article 45 of the Constitution, the President has the prerogative of mercy. [21] The President also proposes amnesty laws. [22] Reports indicate that the President currently uses this prerogative to systematically commute all death sentences imposed by courts. [23]

A death sentence is always subject to an appeal for clemency, which must be introduced by the public prosecutor. [24] No execution may take place until clemency has been denied. [25] The President exercises the prerogative of mercy by issuing a decree after receiving advice from the National Clemency Commission (Commission nationale de grâce), whose members are determined by the Council of Ministers. [26]

Are jury trials provided for defendants charged with capital offenses?

Serious crimes are handled by the Courts of Assizes, [27] where juries are used along with professional judges (the Court of Assizes is composed of four jurors and 3 professional judges). [28] While guilt is determined by a simple majority, Article 346 of the Penal Procedure Code requires a supermajority of 5 out of 7 for a death sentence to be pronounced. [29]

Brief Description of Appellate Process

Criminal cases for the most serious offenses, such as capital cases, are tried in the Court of Assizes. [30] A defendant may appeal from the judgment of the Court of Assizes to the Supreme Court sitting as a Court of Cassation (a court where only errors of law are considered). [31] The Court of Cassation may not make fact-based determinations on appeal, [32] but it can remand a case back to the Court of Assizes, attended by other judges and another jury, if the original Court of assizes made an error of law. [33]

References

[1] Constitution of Mali, art. 1, Feb. 25, 1992. An unofficial English version of the Constitution of Mali is available at http://confinder.richmond.edu/admin/docs/Mali.pdf, but the translation might not be completely accurate.
[2] Constitution of Mali, arts. 90, 116, Feb. 25, 1992.
[3] Amnesty Intl., Death Penalty: Countries Abolitionist in Practice, http://www.amnesty.org/en/death-penalty/countries-abolitionist-in-practice, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012. Roger Hood & Carolyn Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective, p. 411, Oxford University Press, 4th ed., 2008. Amnesty Intl., When the State Kills, p. 173, Amnesty Intl. Publications, 1989. Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, La peine de mort : Mali, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/fiche-pays.php?pays=MLI, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012. La Peine de Mort dans le Monde, La peine de mort – Mali, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=37, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.
[4] La Peine de Mort dans le Monde, La peine de mort – Mali, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=37, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012. Klèzié, Histoire de la Peine de Mort au Mali : De l’exécution capitale au projet d’abolition, L’Aube, http://www.afribone.com/spip.php?article8659, Nov. 1, 2007. Mali Amnesty Law (Loi portant sur l’amnistie), No. 1997-016, Mar. 7, 1997.
[5] Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, La peine de mort : Mali, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/fiche-pays.php?pays=MLI, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012. Alhousseiny Diabate & Mohamedine Ag Akly, Le Mali: les traditions (islam), le droit moderne et le concept de la peine de mort, p. 2, http://www.abolition.fr/Upload/documents//Diabate.pdf, 2004.
[6] Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, La peine de mort en question, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/news.php?new=864, Jan. 28, 2008.
[7] Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, La peine de mort en question, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/news.php?new=864, Jan. 28, 2008.
[8] La Peine de Mort dans le Monde, Extraits du Communiqué du Conseil des Ministres du mercredi 17 octobre 2007, http://www.peinedemort.org/document.php?choix=2614, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012. La Peine de Mort dans le Monde, La peine de mort – Mali, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=37, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.
[9] Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, La peine de mort en question, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/news.php?new=864, Jan. 28, 2008. Constance Johnson, Mali : Proposal to End Death Penalty Meets Opposition, http://www.loc.gov/lawweb/servlet/lloc_news?disp3_l20540397_text, May 2, 2008.
[10] IRIN, Mali : Religious leaders oppose abolition of death penalty, http://www.irinnews.org/printreport.aspx?reportid=78693, Jun. 11, 2008.
[11] Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, La peine de mort en question, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/news.php?new=864, Jan. 28, 2008.
[12] La Peine de Mort dans le Monde, La peine de mort – Mali, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=37, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012. Amnesty Intl., Death Penalty News, p. 2, ACT 53 /002 /2008, http://www.amnesty.org/fr/library/asset/ACT53/002/2008/en/d1ddd1a4-0b05-11dd-badf-1352a91852c5/act530022008eng.pdf, Apr. 11, 2008. Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, La peine de mort en question, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/news.php?new=864, Jan. 28, 2008. Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, Bientôt l’abolition pour Bamako ?, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/news.php?new=1388, Jul. 21, 2010.
[13] La Peine de Mort dans le Monde, La peine de mort – Mali, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=37, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012. Amnesty International, Annual Report 2011 : Mali, http://www.amnesty.org/en/region/mali/report-2011, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.
[14] U.S. Dept. of State, Background Note: Mali, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2828.htm, Jan. 3, 2012.
[15] La Peine de Mort dans le Monde, La peine de mort – Mali, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=37, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.
[16] Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, La peine de mort : Mali, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/fiche-pays.php?pays=MLI, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012. Alhousseiny Diabate & Mohamedine Ag Akly, Le Mali: les traditions (islam), le droit moderne et le concept de la peine de mort, pp. 2, 6, http://www.abolition.fr/Upload/documents//Diabate.pdf, 2004.
[17] Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, La peine de mort en question, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/news.php?new=864, Jan. 28, 2008.
[18] Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, La peine de mort en question, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/news.php?new=864, Jan. 28, 2008.
[19] La Peine de Mort dans le Monde, La peine de mort – Mali, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=37, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012. La Peine de Mort dans le Monde, Extraits du Communiqué du Conseil des Ministres du mercredi 17 octobre 2007, http://www.peinedemort.org/document.php?choix=2614, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.
[20] Servaas Feiertag, Guide to Legal Research in Mali, GlobaLex, http://www.nyulawglobal.com/globalex/Mali1.htm#_The_Judicial_Power, Jul., 2008.
[21] Servaas Feiertag, Guide to Legal Research in Mali, GlobaLex, http://www.nyulawglobal.com/globalex/Mali1.htm#_The_Judicial_Power, Jul., 2008.
[22] Constitution of Mali, art. 45, Feb. 25, 1992.
[23] Constitution of Mali, art. 45, Feb. 25, 1992.
[24] Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, La peine de mort en question, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/news.php?new=864, Jan. 28, 2008.
[25] Clemency Law of Mali, art. 4, No. 82-117/AN-RM, Dec. 23, 1982. Code of Military Justice of Mali, art. 74, Law No. 95-042/AN-RM, Apr. 20, 1995.
[26] Clemency Law of Mali, art. 4, No. 82-117/AN-RM, Dec. 23, 1982.
[27] Clemency Law of Mali, art. 6, No. 82-117/AN-RM, Dec. 23, 1982.
[28] Penal Procedure Code of Mali, art. 213, Law No. 01-080, Aug. 20, 2001.
[29] Penal Procedure Code of Mali, art. 260, Law No. 01-080, Aug. 20, 2001. Law on the Reorganization of the Judiciary (Loi portant réorganisation judiciaire), art. 19, No. 88-39/AN-RM, Apr. 5, 1988. Servaas Feiertag, Guide to Legal Research in Mali, GlobaLex, http://www.nyulawglobal.com/globalex/Mali1.htm#_The_Judicial_Power, Jul., 2008.
[30] Penal Procedure Code of Mali, art. 346, Law No. 01-080, Aug. 20, 2001.
[31] Penal Procedure Code of Mali, art. 213, Law No. 01-080, Aug. 20, 2001.
[32] Penal Procedure Code of Mali, art. 505, Law No. 01-080, Aug. 20, 2001.
[33] Institute for Security Studies, Mali Criminalité et Justice Criminelle, L’Initiative Africaine Pour La Sécurité Humaine, Monograph No. 162, Jun. 1, 2009. Servaas Feiertag, Guide to Legal Research in Mali, GlobaLex, http://www.nyulawglobal.com/globalex/Mali1.htm#_The_Judicial_Power, Jul., 2008.
[34] Penal Procedure Code of Mali, art. 537, Law No. 01-080, Aug. 20, 2001.

Death Penalty In Practice

Where Are Death-Sentenced Prisoners incarcerated?

The Institute for Security Studies does not mention any specific prisons or facilities where persons are held under sentence of death. [1]

We believe that as of March 2012 no one is under sentence of death in Mali. In 1997, President Konaré commuted all death sentences to life imprisonment. [2] He was succeeded in 2002 by President Toumani Touré, who opposes the death penalty and as of 2008 was systematically commuting all death sentences that were pronounced. [3] At least 39 individuals were sentenced to death in 2008, [4] 2009, [5] and 2010, [6] but we believe that their sentences were commuted. At least one death sentence was handed down in 2011 against a Tunisian national, Bechnir Simoun, for committing a terrorist attack against the French Embassy in Bamako in January 2011. [7] In December 2011, President Toumani Touré granted him clemency. [8]

Description of Prison Conditions

We believe that as of March 2012 no one is under sentence of death in Mali. President Toumani Touré opposes the death penalty and as of 2008 was systematically commuting all death sentences that were pronounced. [9] At least 39 individuals were sentenced to death in 2008, [10] 2009, [11] and 2010, [12] but we believe that their sentences were commuted. At least one death sentence was handed down in 2011 against a Tunisian national, Bechnir Simoun, for committing a terrorist attack against the French Embassy in Bamako in January 2011. [13] In December 2011, President Toumani Touré granted him clemency. [14]

However, individuals who face a life sentence after their death sentence has been commuted may face seriously inadequate living conditions. Overpopulation, [15] poor access to medical facilities [16] and insufficient food supplies [17] are among the most serious problems faced by detainees.

Are there any known foreign nationals currently under sentence of death?

We believe that as of March 2012 no one is under sentence of death in Mali. President Toumani Touré opposes the death penalty and as of 2008 was systematically commuting all death sentences that were pronounced. [18] At least one death sentence was handed down in 2011 against a Tunisian national, Bechnir Simoun, for committing a terrorist attack against the French Embassy in Bamako in January 2011. [19] In December 2011, President Toumani Touré granted him clemency. [20]

What are the nationalities of the known foreign nationals on death row?

We believe that as of March 2012, no-one is under sentence of death in Mali.

Are there any known women currently under sentence of death?

We believe that as of March 2012 no one is under sentence of death in Mali. President Toumani Touré opposes the death penalty and as of 2008 was systematically commuting all death sentences that were pronounced. [21] At least one death sentence was handed down in 2011 against a Tunisian national, Bechnir Simoun, for committing a terrorist attack against the French Embassy in Bamako in January 2011. [22] In December 2011, President Toumani Touré granted him clemency. [23]

Are there any reports of individuals currently under sentence of death who may have been under the age of 18 at the time the crime was committed?

We believe that as of March 2012 no one is under sentence of death in Mali. In 1997, President Konaré commuted all death sentences to life imprisonment. [24] He was succeeded in 2002 by President Toumani Touré, who opposes the death penalty and as of 2008 was systematically commuting all death sentences that were pronounced. [25] At least 40 individuals were sentenced to death in 2008, [26] 2009, [27] 2010, [28] and 2011, [29] but we believe that their sentences were commuted.

Comments regarding the racial/ethnic composition on death row

We believe that as of March 2012 no one is under sentence of death in Mali. In 1997, President Konaré commuted all death sentences to life imprisonment. [30] He was succeeded in 2002 by President Toumani Touré, who opposes the death penalty and as of 2008 was systematically commuting all death sentences that were pronounced. [31] At least 40 individuals were sentenced to death in 2008, [32] 2009, [33] 2010, [34] and 2011, [35] but we believe that their sentences were commuted.

However, we note that corruption in the judiciary leads to discrimination between poor and wealthy defendants. [36] Thus, the practice of commuting death sentences to life imprisonment may not address any unfairness in the awarding of death sentences, because poor defendants could still face vastly disproportionate punishment compared to wealthy defendants (who may receive lighter judicial sentences compared to a poor person’s commuted life imprisonment sentence).

Are there lawyers available for indigent defendants facing capital trials?

The law requires that any person prosecuted before a Court of Assizes be represented by counsel. [37] However, the organization Avocats Sans Frontières France reports that the legal aid system is not operational, a reality which has been acknowledged by the Ministry of Justice. [38] The very small number of lawyers in the country, especially outside the cities of Bamako and Mopti, often prevents access to legal representation. [39] In recent years, reports have indicated that there are less than 275 lawyers in Mali, almost all of them settled in the capital. [40] As a consequence, indigent defendants outside Bamako do not have access to a lawyer to represent them. [41]

Note: By the conclusion of our research, we were unable to obtain a copy of Mali’s 2001 legal aid law. [42]

Are there lawyers available for indigent prisoners on appeal?

Article 12 of the 2006 Decree on legal aid provides for legal aid on appeal. [43] However, Avocats Sans Frontières France reports that the legal aid system is not operational and that the situation has been acknowledged by the Ministry of Justice. [44] The very small number of lawyers often prevents access to legal representation. [45] In recent years, reports have indicated that there are less than 275 lawyers in the whole country and almost all of them are settled in the capital. [46] As a consequence, indigent defendants outside Bamako do not have access to a lawyer to represent them. [47]

Comments on Quality of Legal Representation

The very small number of lawyers in the country often prevents access to legal representation. [48] In recent years, reports have indicated that there are less than 275 lawyers in the whole country and almost all of them are settled in the capital. [49] As a consequence, indigent defendants outside the main cities of Bamako and Mopti do not have access to a lawyer to represent them. [50]

Other Comments on Criminal Justice System

The judiciary faces interference by the executive, staff and equipment shortages and case overloads, and inadequate salaries. This has led to a lack of independence, impartiality and quality, and to widespread corruption. [51] Lengthy pretrial detention is also an issue – approximately 67 percent of the prison population consisted of persons awaiting trial in 2010. [52]

References

[1] Institute for Security Studies, Mali Criminalité et Justice Criminelle, L’Initiative Africaine Pour La Sécurité Humaine, Monograph No. 162, Jun. 1, 2009.
[2] La Peine de Mort dans le Monde, La peine de mort – Mali, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=37, last accessed Jan. 22, 2011Mar. 7, 2012. Klèzié, Histoire de la Peine de Mort au Mali : De l’exécution capitale au projet d’abolition, L’Aube, http://www.afribone.com/spip.php?article8659, http://www.maliweb.net/category.php?NID=23633, Nov. 1, 2007. Mali Amnesty Law (Loi portant sur l’amnistie), Law No. 1997-016, Mar. 7, 1997.
[3] Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, La peine de mort en question, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/news.php?new=864, Jan. 28, 2008.
[4] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, p. 19, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009.
[5] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010.
[6] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2010, p. 5, ACT 50/001/2011, Mar. 28, 2011.
[7] Reuters, Mali hands death penalty to French embassy attacker, http://af.reuters.com/article/topNews/idAFJOE7AS07G20111129, Nov. 29, 2011.
[8] La Peine de Mort dans le Monde, La peine de mort – Mali, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=37, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.
[9] Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, La peine de mort en question, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/news.php?new=864, Jan. 28, 2008.
[10] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, p. 19, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009.
[11] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010.
[12] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2010, p. 5, ACT 50/001/2011, Mar. 28, 2011.
[13] Reuters, Mali hands death penalty to French embassy attacker, http://af.reuters.com/article/topNews/idAFJOE7AS07G20111129, Nov. 29, 2011.
[14] La Peine de Mort dans le Monde, La peine de mort – Mali, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=37, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.
[15] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Universal Periodic Review Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review Mali, pp. 7-8, para. 23, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/8/50, Jun. 13, 2008. U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Mali, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135964.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[16] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Universal Periodic Review Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review Mali, pp. 7-8, para. 23, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/8/50, Jun. 13, 2008. U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Mali, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135964.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[17] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Mali, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135964.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[18] Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, La peine de mort en question, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/news.php?new=864, Jan. 28, 2008.
[19] Reuters, Mali hands death penalty to French embassy attacker, http://af.reuters.com/article/topNews/idAFJOE7AS07G20111129, Nov. 29, 2011.
[20] La Peine de Mort dans le Monde, La peine de mort – Mali, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=37, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.
[21] Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, La peine de mort en question, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/news.php?new=864, Jan. 28, 2008.
[22] Reuters, Mali hands death penalty to French embassy attacker, http://af.reuters.com/article/topNews/idAFJOE7AS07G20111129, Nov. 29, 2011.
[23] La Peine de Mort dans le Monde, La peine de mort – Mali, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=37, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.
[24] La Peine de Mort dans le Monde, La peine de mort – Mali, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=37, last accessed Jan. 22, 2011Mar. 7, 2012. Klèzié, Histoire de la Peine de Mort au Mali : De l’exécution capitale au projet d’abolition, L’Aube, http://www.afribone.com/spip.php?article8659, http://www.maliweb.net/category.php?NID=23633, Nov. 1, 2007. Mali Amnesty Law (Loi portant sur l’amnistie), Law No. 1997-016, Mar. 7, 1997.
[25] Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, La peine de mort en question, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/news.php?new=864, Jan. 28, 2008.
[26] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, p. 19, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009.
[27] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010.
[28] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2010, p. 5, ACT 50/001/2011, Mar. 28, 2011.
[29] Reuters, Mali hands death penalty to French embassy attacker, http://af.reuters.com/article/topNews/idAFJOE7AS07G20111129, Nov. 29, 2011. La Peine de Mort dans le Monde, La peine de mort – Mali, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=37, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.
[30] La Peine de Mort dans le Monde, La peine de mort – Mali, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=37, last accessed Jan. 22, 2011Mar. 7, 2012. Klèzié, Histoire de la Peine de Mort au Mali : De l’exécution capitale au projet d’abolition, L’Aube, http://www.afribone.com/spip.php?article8659, http://www.maliweb.net/category.php?NID=23633, Nov. 1, 2007. Mali Amnesty Law (Loi portant sur l’amnistie), Law No. 1997-016, Mar. 7, 1997.
[31] Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, La peine de mort en question, http://www.abolition.fr/ecpm/french/news.php?new=864, Jan. 28, 2008.
[32] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, p. 19, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009.
[33] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010.
[34] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2010, p. 5, ACT 50/001/2011, Mar. 28, 2011.
[35] Reuters, Mali hands death penalty to French embassy attacker, http://af.reuters.com/article/topNews/idAFJOE7AS07G20111129, Nov. 29, 2011. La Peine de Mort dans le Monde, La peine de mort – Mali, http://www.peinedemort.org/National/pays.php?pays=37, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.
[36] Institute for Security Studies, Mali Criminalité et Justice Criminelle, L’Initiative Africaine Pour La Sécurité Humaine, Monograph No. 162, Jun. 1, 2009.
[37] Decree on Legal Aid (Décret fixant les modalités d’application de la loi relative à l’assistance judiciaire), arts. 14, 15, No. 06-426/P-RM, Oct. 6, 2006. Penal Procedure Code of Mali, art. 278, Law No. 01-080, Aug. 20, 2001.
[38] Avocats Sans Frontières France, Actualités du projet Mali: La situation du Mali, last accessed Feb. 27, 2011, copy available upon request.
[39] U.S. Dept. of State, 2010 Human Rights Report: Mali, http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/af/154357.htm, Apr. 8, 2011.
[40] Avocats Sans Frontières France, Actualités du projet Mali: La situation du Mali, last accessed Feb. 27, 2011, copy available upon request.
[41] Avocats Sans Frontières France, Actualités du projet Mali: La situation du Mali, last accessed Feb. 27, 2011, copy available upon request.
[42] Legal Aid Law (Loi relative à l’assistance judiciaire), No.01- 082, Aug. 24, 2001.
[43] Decree on Legal Aid (Décret fixant les modalités d’application de la loi relative à l’assistance judiciaire), art. 12, No. 06-426/P-RM, Oct. 6, 2006.
[44] Avocats Sans Frontières France, Actualités du projet Mali: La situation du Mali, last accessed Feb. 27, 2011, copy available upon request.
[45] U.S. Dept. of State, 2010 Human Rights Report: Mali, http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/af/154357.htm, Apr. 8, 2011.
[46] Avocats Sans Frontières France, Actualités du projet Mali: La situation du Mali, last accessed Feb. 27, 2011, copy available upon request.
[47] Avocats Sans Frontières France, Actualités du projet Mali: La situation du Mali, last accessed Feb. 27, 2011, copy available upon request.
[48] U.S. Dept. of State, 2010 Human Rights Report: Mali, http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/af/154357.htm, Apr. 8, 2011.
[49] Avocats Sans Frontières France, Actualités du projet Mali: La situation du Mali, last accessed Feb. 27, 2011, copy available upon request.
[50] U.S. Dept. of State, 2010 Human Rights Report: Mali, http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/af/154357.htm, Apr. 8, 2011.
[51] Servaas Feiertag, Guide to Legal Research in Mali, GlobaLex, http://www.nyulawglobal.com/globalex/Mali1.htm#_The_Judicial_Power, Jul., 2008. U.S. Dept. of State, 2010 Human Rights Report: Mali, http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/af/154357.htm, Apr. 8, 2011. Institute for Security Studies, Mali Criminalité et Justice Criminelle, L’Initiative Africaine Pour La Sécurité Humaine, Monograph No. 162, Jun. 1, 2009.
[52] U.S. Dept. of State, 2010 Human Rights Report: Mali, http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/af/154357.htm, Apr. 8, 2011.

Decisions of International Human Rights Bodies

Decisions of Human Rights Committee

The last Observations of the Human Rights Committee regarding Mali date back to 2003. The Committee then welcomed “the moratorium on the application of the death penalty in force in Mali since 1979, and the current trend towards the abolition of capital punishment.” [1]

Decisions of Other Human Rights Bodies

The Human Rights Council in its 2008 Universal Periodic Review of human rights recommended that Mali adopt pending legislation abolishing the death penalty, [2] bring the conditions of imprisonment up to international standards, [3] reduce overcrowding and assure access to adequate medical treatment in prisons, [4] and take measures to strengthen the independence of the judiciary and eliminate judicial corruption. [5] Mali supported the recommendation that it promptly adopt the bill abolishing the death penalty. [6]

References

[1] U.N. ICCPR, Consideration Of Reports Submitted By States Parties Under Article 40 Of The Covenant, Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee, Mali, p. 2, para. 5, U.N. Doc. CCPR/CO/77/MLI, Apr. 16, 2003.
[2] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Universal Periodic Review Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review Mali, p. 16, para. 16, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/8/50, Jun. 13, 2008.
[3] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Universal Periodic Review Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review Mali, p. 16, para. 20, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/8/50, Jun. 13, 2008.
[4] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Universal Periodic Review Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review Mali, p. 16, para. 19, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/8/50, Jun. 13, 2008.
[5] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Universal Periodic Review Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review Mali, p. 16, para. 20, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/8/50, Jun. 13, 2008.
[6] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Universal Periodic Review Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review Mali, p. 16, para. 56(16), U.N. Doc. A/HRC/8/50, Jun. 13, 2008.

Additional Sources and Contacts

Direct member(s) of World Coalition Against the Death Penalty

None.

Other non-governmental organizations and individuals engaged in advocacy surrounding the death penalty

Association Malienne Des Droits De L'homme (AMDH)
Me. Brahima KONE, Président
BP 3129 Bamako
amdh@malinet.ml
Tél : +223 22 34 62 ou + 223 643 57 64
Fax : +223 22 93 77

Amnesty Mali
Immeuble Soya Bathily
Route de l'aéroport Kalabancoura rue 24
Bamako BP E 3885
amnesty.mali@ikatelnet.net
http://www.amnestymali.net

Reprieve
PO Box 72054
London EC3P 3BZ
United Kingdom
Tel 020 7553 8140
Fax 020 7553 8189
info@reprieve.org.uk
http://www.reprieve.org.uk

Helpful Reports and Publications

Alhousseiny Diabate & Mohamedine Ag Akly, Le Mali: les traditions (islam), le droit moderne et le concept de la peine de mort, Ensemble Contre la Peine de Mort, http://www.abolition.fr/Upload/documents//Diabate.pdf, 2004, last accessed Mar. 7, 2012.

Institute for Security Studies, Mali Criminalité et Justice Criminelle, L’Initiative Africaine Pour La Sécurité Humaine, Monograph No. 162, Jun. 1, 2009.

Servaas Feiertag, Guide to Legal Research in Mali, GlobaLex, http://www.nyulawglobal.com/globalex/Mali1.htm#_The_Judicial_Power, Jul., 2008.

Additional notes regarding this country

None.

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