Base de données

Cuba

Recherche mise à jour le: 23 août 2010

Générales

Nom officiel du pays

Région géographique

Amérique latine (Caraïbes). [2]

Statut

Abolitionniste de fait. The last execution in Cuba took place in 2003. [3]

Méthode(s) d’exécution

Fusillade.
(Firing Squad). [4]

Références

[1] U.S. Department of State, Background Note: Cuba, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2886.htm, Mar. 25, 2010.
[2] World Macro Regions and Components, U.N., 2000, http://www.un.org/depts/dhl/maplib/worldregions.htm.
[3] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions 2009, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 2010.
[4] Law No. 62, Penal Code, art. 29(3), 1988.

Détails du pays

Langue(s)

Spanish. [1]

Population

11 200 000. 11,200,000 [2]

Nombre d’individus actuellement condamnés à mort

0.

No one was known to be under sentence of death at the end of 2017. [3]

On December 28, 2010, Cuba’s Supreme Court commuted the death sentence of Cuba’s last remaining death row inmate, a Cuban-American convicted of a murder carried out during a 1994 terrorist invasion of the island. [4] No new death sentences have been recorded since. [5]

(This question was last updated on April 26, 2018.)

Nombre d’exécutions recensées par an

2018: Exécutions recensées à date (mis à jour le 14 novembre 2018)

0. [6]

2017: Executions

0. [7]

Exécutions in 2016

0. [8]

Exécutions en 2015

0. [9]

Exécutions en 2014

0. [10]

Exécutions en 2013

0. [11]

Exécutions en 2012

0. [12]

Exécutions en 2011

0. [13]

Exécutions en 2010

0. [14]

Exécutions en 2009

0. [15]

Exécutions en 2008

0. [16]

Exécutions en 2007

0. [17]

Année de la dernière exécution connue

2003. [18]

Références

[1] U.S. Department of State, Background Note: Cuba, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2886.htm, Mar. 25, 2010.
[2] U.S. Department of State, Background Note: Cuba, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2886.htm, Mar. 25, 2010.
[3] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2017, p. 12, ACT 50/7955/2018, Apr. 12, 2018.
[4] Andrea Rodriguez, Cuba Commutes Death Sentence Against U.S. Man, Associated Press, http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20101229/ap_on_re_la_am_ca/cb_cuba_death_sentence, Dec. 28, 2010.
[5] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions Annual Reports, 2010–2017.
[6] DPW Executions and Death Sentences Monitor.
[7] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions 2017, p. 12, ACT 50/7955/2018, Apr. 12, 2018.
[8] Amnesty International, Death sentences and executions in 2016, ACT 50/5740/2017, Apr. 11, 2017.
[9] DPW Executions and Death Sentences Monitor.
[10] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2014, ACT 50/001/2015, Mar. 31, 2015.
[11] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2013, ACT 50/001/2014, Mar. 26, 2014.
[12] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2012, ACT 50/001/2012, Apr. 9, 2013.
[13] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2011, ACT 50/001/2012, http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ACT50/001/2012/en, Mar. 27, 2012.
[14] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2010, p. 5, ACT 50/001/2011, Mar. 28, 2011.
[15] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions 2009, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 2010.
[16] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, p. 8, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 2009.
[17] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2007, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2008, Apr. 2008.
[18] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions 2009, p. 15, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 2010.

Crimes et personnes passibles de la peine de mort

Crimes passibles de la peine de mort

Meurtre avec circonstances aggravantes.
Premeditated murder, murder for pecuniary gain, involving cruelty or a helpless victim, aggravated by abduction, in the course or furtherance of rape, molestation or another offense, of an official performing state duties, of a relative or spouse, endangering multiple lives, or planned at length is punishable by death. [1]

Acte terroriste ayant entraîné la mort.
Acts to sabotage or impair social, economic or military resources, resulting in death, are punishable by death. [2]

Acte terroriste n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Acts to sabotage or impair social, economic or military resources, when using dangerous methods or agents, causing serious injury to health or property or threatening public security are punishable by death. [3] Aiding such acts or possessing the means of aiding such acts, when aimed at threatening the security of the state, is punishable by death.

Viol n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
Rape resulting in serious injury, by an offender previously convicted of the same crime or by an offender who knows that s/he suffers from a sexually transmitted disease is punishable by death. [4] Rape (including statutory rape) of a child under the age of 12 is punishable by death. [5]

Vol n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
If the robbery is at gunpoint or under the threat of injury by a fire arm, if a person is deprived of his or her liberty during the course of the robbery, if the robbery results in serious injury, or if the robber is a person in a position of authority or is a person responsible for security and protection, robbery is punishable by death. [6]

Trafic de drogue n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
If those trafficking, producing or transporting the drugs are public agents or utilize state resources to traffic drugs, if they utilize individuals under the age of 16, or if they are part of an international drug trafficking ring, drug trafficking is punishable by death. [7]

Trahison.
Insurrection or usurpation, bringing about hostile relations between Cuba and another country, [8] aiding the enemy, inciting war against Cuba, taking up arms against Cuba, attempting by force of arms to change the constitution or the form of government, entering the country illegally with the intent of committing any act of treason or any other act aimed at harming the independence of the Cuban state ( including threatening the life, liberty, or personal integrity of a state, government, or communist party official) [9] is punishable by death. Treason may be a more expansive offense in Cuba than is common among nations: acts of “sedition” such as disrupting the socialist order, interfering with elections and refusing to obey civil or military authorities are punishable by death. [10]

Espionnage. [11]

Crimes de guerre, crimes contre l’humanité et génocide.
Genocide: Taking measures to reduce the birthrate of a targeted ethnic group, acts of ethnic cleansing, the forced removal of children, or bombing defenseless civil populations in violation of international norms is punishable by death.

Autre(s) crime(s) n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.
-Working as a Mercenary. [12]
-Piracy. [13]
-Apartheid.
Taking steps to maintain the dominance of one racial group over another through acts such as forced labor, torture, cruel, inhuman or degrading acts, segregation, or creating obstacles to full political, civil and cultural participation. [14]
-Pedophilia.
If the victim is less than 14 years of age, if the offender has been previously convicted of the same crime, or if the offense results in serious injury or illness. [15]
-Corruption of Minors.
Introducing a minor into prostitution, homosexuality, or criminal behavior, where the corruption of the minor is brought about by violence or intimidation, where the minor is physically harmed or contracts an illness, where more than one minor is endangered, where the offender has care or guardianship of the minor, where more than one person is involved or where the minor is under 12, mentally ill or incapacitated or incapable of resisting is punishable by death. [16]

Est-ce que la législation du pays permet l’imposition obligatoire de la peine de mort?

Non. Law No. 87 of 1999 states that a person may be sentenced to life imprisonment instead of death for any of the death-eligible crimes in the penal code. [17]

Pour quels crimes, le cas échéant, y a-t-il imposition obligatoire de la peine de mort?

There is no mandatory death penalty in Cuba.

Crimes pour lesquels des individus ont été exécutés depuis janvier 2008

None. [18]

Catégories de la population exclues de la peine de mort

Individus de moins de 18 ans au moment du crime.
Individuals in Cuba cannot be executed for offenses committed while under the age of 20. [19]

Femmes enceintes.
Women who are pregnant at the time of sentencing cannot be sentenced to death. [20]

Personnes ayant une déficience intellectuelle. [21]
Individuals are exempt from criminal liability or face diminished liability at sentencing if intellectual disability substantially or completely impairs their ability to appreciate the consequences of their actions or to control their actions.

Personnes ayant un trouble mental. [22]
Individuals are exempt from criminal liability or face diminished liability at sentencing if mental disorder or insanity substantially or completely impairs their ability to appreciate the consequences of their actions or to control their actions.

Références

[1] Law No. 62, Penal Code, art. 263, 1988; Law No. 62, Penal Code, article 264, 1988; Law No. 62, Penal Code, art. 263(f),(j), 1988.
[2] Law No. 62, Penal Code, arts. 104, 105, 1988.
[3] Cuba Penal Code, arts. 104, 105, 106, 108, Law No. 62, 1988.
[4] Law No. 87, art. 298(3), 1999.
[5] Law No. 87, art. 298(4), 1999.
[6] Law No. 87, art. 327, 1999.
[7] Law No. 87, art. 190, 1999.
[8] Law No. 62, Penal Code, art. 102, 110(2), 1988.
[9] Law No. 62, Penal Code, arts. 91-94; 98(1); 107(1); 124 (1988).
[10] Law No. 62, Penal Code, art. 100(a), 1988.
[11] Law No. 62, Penal Code, art. 97 (1, 2), 1988.
[12] Law No. 62, Penal Code, art. 118(1), 1988.
[13] Law No. 62, Penal Code, arts. 117, 118, 1988.
[14] Law No. 62, Penal Code, art. 120, 1988.
[15] Law No. 87, art. 299, 1999.
[16] Law No. 62, Penal Code, art. 310, amended by Law No. 87, art. 310, 1999.
[17] Law No. 87, art. 30, 1999.
[18] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions 2009, p. 15, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 2010.
[19] Law No. 62, Penal Code, art. 29(2), 1988.
[20] Law No. 62, Penal Code, art. 29(2), 1988.
[21] Law No. 62, Penal Code, art. 20, 1988.
[22] Law No. 62, Penal Code, art. 20(1), 1988.

Engagements internationaux

PIDCP

Partie?

Non. [1]

Date d’adhésion

Not Applicable.

Signataire?

Oui. [2]

Date de signature

February 28, 2008. [3]

Premier Protocole facultatif se rapportant au PIDCP

Partie?

Non. [4]

Date d’adhésion

Not Applicable.

Signataire?

Non. [5]

Date de signature

Not Applicable.

Deuxième Protocole facultatif se rapportant au PIDCP

Partie?

Non. [6]

Date d’adhésion

Not Applicable.

Signataire?

Non. [7]

Date de signature

Not Applicable.

Convention américaine des droits de l'homme

Partie?

Non. [8] However, in 2009 the Organization of American States lifted a 47-year suspension of Cuba from the OA, [9] which may encourage Cuba to become a party.

Date d’adhésion

Not Applicable.

Signataire?

Non. [10]

Date de signature

Not Applicable.

Protocole à la Convention américaine des droits de l'homme sur la peine de mort

Partie?

Non. [11]

Date d’adhésion

Not Applicable.

Signataire?

Non. [12]

Date de signature

Not Applicable.

Charte africaine des droits de l'homme et des peuples

Partie?

Date d’adhésion

Signataire?

Date de signature

Protocole à la Charte africaine des droits de l'homme et des peuples relatif aux droits des femmes

Partie?

Date d’adhésion

Signataire?

Date de signature

Charte africaine des droits et du bien-être de l'enfant

Partie?

Date d’adhésion

Signataire?

Date de signature

Arab Charter on Human Rights

Partie?

Date d’adhésion

Signataire?

Date de signature

2016 Votes enregistrés pour la Résolution sur un moratoire à l’AG de l’ONU

Cosponsor

Non. [13]

Vote

Abstention. [14]

Signataire de la Note Verbale de dissociation

Non. [15]

Cosponsor

Non. [16]

Vote

Abstention. [17]

Signataire de la Note Verbale de dissociation

Non. [18]

2012 Votes enregistrés pour la Résolution sur un moratoire à l’AG de l’ONU

Cosponsor

Non. [19]

Vote

Abstention. [20]

Signataire de la Note Verbale de dissociation

Non. [21]

2010 Votes enregistrés pour la Résolution sur un moratoire à l’AG de l’ONU

Cosponsor

Non. [22]

Vote

Abstention. [23]

Signataire de la Note Verbale de dissociation

Non. [24]

2008 Votes enregistrés pour la Résolution sur un moratoire à l’AG de l’ONU

Cosponsor

Non. [25]

Vote

Abstention. [26]

Signataire de la Note Verbale de dissociation

Non. [27]

2007 Votes enregistrés pour la Résolution sur un moratoire à l’AG de l’ONU

Cosponsor

Non. [28]

Vote

Abstention. [29]

Signataire de la Note Verbale de dissociation

Non. [30]

Références

[1] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Jul. 20, 2010.
[2] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Jul. 20, 2010.
[3] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Jul. 20, 2010.
[4] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-5&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Jul. 20, 2010.
[5] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-5&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Jul. 20, 2010.
[6] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Second Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, 1642 U.N.T.S. 414, Dec. 15, 1989, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-12&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Jul. 20, 2010.
[7] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Second Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, 1642 U.N.T.S. 414, Dec. 15, 1989, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-12&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Mar. 24, 2010.
[8] Status, Declarations, Reservations, Denunciations, Withdrawals, B-32: Amer. Conv. on Human Rights, Pact of San Jose, Costa Rica, Nov. 22, 1969, http://cidh.oas.org/basicos/english/basic4.amer.conv.ratif.htm, last accessed Jul. 20, 2010.
[9] Mary Beth Sheridan, Organization of American States Lifts Cuba’s Suspension, With Provisos, Washington Post, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/06/03/AR2009060300359.html, Jun. 4, 2009.
[10] Status, Declarations, Reservations, Denunciations, Withdrawals, B-32: Amer. Conv. on Human Rights, Pact of San Jose, Costa Rica, Nov. 22, 1969, http://cidh.oas.org/basicos/english/basic4.amer.conv.ratif.htm, last accessed Jul. 20, 2010.
[11] Status, Declarations, Reservations, Denunciations, Withdrawals, A-53: Prot. to the Amer. Conv. on Human Rights to Abolish the Death Penalty, Jun. 8, 1990, http://cidh.oas.org/basicos/english/basic8.death%20penalty%20ratif.htm, last accessed Jul. 20, 2010.
[12] Status, Declarations, Reservations, Denunciations, Withdrawals, A-53: Prot. to the Amer. Conv. on Human Rights to Abolish the Death Penalty, Jun. 8, 1990, http://cidh.oas.org/basicos/english/basic8.death%20penalty%20ratif.htm, last accessed Jul. 20, 2010.
[13] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Promotion and protection of human rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 54-71 U.N. Doc. A/71/484/Add.2, Dec. 6, 2016.
[14] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Promotion and protection of human rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 54-71 U.N. Doc. A/71/484/Add.2, Dec. 6, 2016.
[15] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Note Verbale dated 7 September 2017, U.N. Doc. A/71/1047, Sep. 13, 2017.
[16] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 141, 144, U.N. Doc. A/69/488/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2014.
[17] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, 73rd Plenary Meeting, pp. 17-18, U.N. Doc. A/69/PV.73, Dec. 18, 2014.
[18] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, Note Verbale dated 28 July 2015, U.N. Doc. A/69/993, Jul. 29, 2015.
[19] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 95-96, U.N. Doc. A/67/457/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2012.
[20] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, 60th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16-17, U.N. Doc. A/67/PV.60, Dec. 20, 2012.
[21] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, Note Verbale dated 16 April 2013, U.N. Doc. A/67/841, Apr. 23, 2013.
[22] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, includng alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, p. 5, U.N. Doc. A/65/456/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2010.
[23] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, 71st Plenary Meeting, pp. 18-19, U.N. Doc. A/65/PV.71, Dec. 21, 2010.
[24] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, Note Verbale dated 11 March 2011, U.N. Doc. A/65/779, Mar. 11, 2011.
[25] U.N.G.A., 63rd session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, U.N. Doc. A/63/430/Add.2, Dec. 4, 2008.
[26] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, 70th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16- 17, U.N. Doc. A/63/PV.70, Dec. 18, 2008.
[27] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, Note Verbale dated 10 February 2009, U.N. Doc. A/63/716, Feb. 12, 2009.
[28] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, U.N. Doc. A/62/439/Add.2, Dec. 5, 2007.
[29] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, 76th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16- 17, U.N. Doc. A/62/PV.76, Dec. 18, 2007.
[30] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, Note Verbale dated 11 January 2008, U.N. Doc. A/62/658, Feb. 2, 2008.

La peine de mort en droit

Est-ce que la Constitution du pays fait référence à la peine de mort?

The Constitution does not explicitly address capital punishment or the right to life. However, the Constitution does require that the state guarantee the “full dignity of man” and the “inviolability of persons,” including prisoners. These guarantees could be interpreted to limit the constitutionality of any death penalty. [1]

Est-ce que la Constitution du pays fait référence au droit international?

Cuba’s constitution makes reference to an international relations policy grounded in respect and the principles of the United Nations Charter and other international treaties, so international law could plausibly impact human rights protections in Cuba. [2]

Quels ont été les changements significatifs dans l’application de la peine de mort ces dernières années?

Cuba has refrained from carrying out executions since 2003. [3] Furthermore, in 2008 President Raul Castro commuted most of the outstanding death sentences to sentences ranging from 30 years imprisonment to life in prison. [4] Three prisoners remained on death row—two for killing an Italian tourist in a hotel bombing and one for committing murder while attempting an terrorist infiltration of Cuba. [5] By December 28, 2010, those death sentences had also been commuted. [6]

Y a-t-il actuellement un moratoire officiel sur les exécutions dans le pays?

No. While there has been a de facto moratorium since 2003, President Raul Castro cites Cuba’s tumultuous relationship with the United States and the constant threat of terrorist acts as the primary obstacles to an official moratorium or abolition. [7] The U.N. Human Rights Council has urged Cuba to maintain this and move toward abolition. [8]

Y a-t-il eu des affaires importantes sur la peine de mort décidées au niveau des cours nationales?

As of July 29, 2010 we did not locate any significant published decisions of national courts concerning the death penalty in Cuba. [9] However, by December 28, 2010 Cuba’s Supreme Court commuted the final remaining death sentence. [10]

Où peut-on se renseigner et accéder aux décisions juridiques concernant la peine de mort?

Bulletins of the People’s Supreme Court of Cuba—including its major sentences and decisions—can be found on its website at http://www.tsp.cu/Archivos/Boletines_del_Tribunal_Supremo.asp. However, the website currently hosts bulletins only from 1997 through 2002.

Quelle est la procédure de recours en grâce ?

In death penalty cases, once a death sentence has been appealed to the People’s Supreme Court, the decisions of the People’s Supreme Court may then be brought before the Council of State for a final review and decision. [11]

Les accusés ont-ils un procès devant jury lorsqu’ils encourent la peine de mort?

Unclear. [12] Civilian courts use a panel of certified and lay judges. Lay judges need not possess extensive educational qualifications, and although they receive official training and serve 5-year terms, lay judges serve for only about one month per year. Lay judges are elected by legislative assemblies, and most belong to the Communist Party. Under such circumstances, lay judges may add a popular element to adjudication, but may also diminish the political independence of the criminal justice system. [13] Defendants may also be tried before military tribunals. [14]

Brève description de la procédure d’appel

Decisions of the People’s Provincial Courts and Territorial Military Tribunals are appealed to the People’s Supreme Court. [15]

Références

[1] The Constitution of the Republic of Cuba, arts. 9(a), 58, 1992.
[2] For example, The Constitution of the Republic of Cuba, art 12, 1992.
[3] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions 2009, p. 15, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 2010.
[4] Marc Frank, Most Cuba Prisoners on Death Row have Sentences Commuted, Havana Journal, http://havanajournal.com/politics/entry/most-cuba-prisoners-on-death-row-have-sentences-commuted/, Apr. 29, 2008.
[5] Marc Frank, Most Cuba Prisoners on Death Row have Sentences Commuted, Havana Journal, http://havanajournal.com/politics/entry/most-cuba-prisoners-on-death-row-have-sentences-commuted/, Apr. 29, 2008.
[6] Andrea Rodriguez, Cuba Commutes Death Sentence Against U.S. Man, Associated Press, http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20101229/ap_on_re_la_am_ca/cb_cuba_death_sentence, Dec. 28, 2010.
[7] Patricia Grogg, Death Penalty—Cuba: Dissidents, Preachers Welcome Decision, Inter Press Service News Agency, http://www.fadp.org/news/2008050701/, Apr. 29, 2008.
[8] U.N. Human Rights Council, Situation of Human Rights in Cuba, A/HRC/4/12 para. 35, Jan. 26, 2007, available at http://www.universalhumanrightsindex.org/documents/861/1046/document/en/pdf/text.pdf.
[9] See, e.g., Patricia Grogg, Death Penalty-Cuba: Sentences Commuted But Treatment Still Harsh, Inter Press Service News Agency, http://www.ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=43533, Aug. 12, 2008.
[10] Andrea Rodriguez, Cuba Commutes Death Sentence Against U.S. Man, Associated Press, http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20101229/ap_on_re_la_am_ca/cb_cuba_death_sentence, Dec. 28, 2010.
[11] Agencia Cubana de Noticias, Principles of the Cuban State, Judicial System, http://www.ain.cu/elecciones2007/principios_del_estado_cubano.htm#Sistema%20Judicial, last accessed Jul. 22, 2010; The Constitution of the Republic of Cuba, art 90(n), 1992.
[12] U.S. Department of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Cuba, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/wha/136108.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[13] El sistema Judicial y Legal de la República de Cuba, http://www.cubagob.cu/des_soc/derecho.htm, last accessed Mar. 9, 2011; Cuba MinRex, Derechos Humanos, http://www.cubaminrex.cu/derechos%20humanos/articulos/consejoderechoshumanos/Informe/Espannol/Sist_Juridico.html, last accessed Mar. 9, 2011; James H. Manahan, Improvements in the Cuban Legal, p. 277 System, http://web.gc.cuny.edu/dept/bildn/publications/documents/Manahan18.pdf., last accessed Mar. 9, 2011; Valeria Imhof, Los jueces legos y el sistema de justicia, El Nuevo Diario, http://archivo.elnuevodiario.com.ni/2003/octubre/19-octubre-2003/nacional/nacional13.html, Oct. 19, 2003.
[14] U.S. Department of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Cuba, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/wha/136108.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[15] Tribunal Supremo Popular, People’s Supreme Court of Cuba: Brief historical background, http://www.tsp.cu/Archivos/Reseña_Historica.asp, last accessed Jul. 22, 2010.

La peine de mort en pratique

Où sont emprisonnés les condamnés à mort?

By December 28, 2010, death row was emptied by commutation. [1] Two Salvadorans on death row in Cuba were, shortly beforehand, being held at Guanajay prison. [2] Prior to the 2008 commutations of the majority of death sentences in Cuba, prisoners sentenced to death were generally kept in solitary confinement within maximum security prisons. [3]

Description des conditions de détention

No one is on death row. [4] Cuba does not allow International Red Cross, Human Rights Watch, or U.N. monitors in to observe its prison conditions, nor has it submitted the required reports to the U.N. regarding its prison conditions. [5] Reports indicate that, in general, prisoners reported extended isolation, denial of rights to visit family, denial of health care, insufficient food and water, unhygienic conditions, beatings, and torture. [6] Some death row prisoners may still be in isolation, even if their sentence has been commuted to life. [7]

Y a-t-il actuellement des ressortissants étrangers condamnés à mort?

All death sentences were commuted by December 28, 2010. [8]

Quelle est la nationalité de ces ressortissants étrangers condamnés à mort?

All death sentences were commuted by December 28, 2010. [9]

Y a-t-il actuellement des femmes condamnées à mort?

All death sentences were commuted by December 28, 2010. [10]

Y a-t-il actuellement des individus condamnés à mort qui avaient moins de 18 ans au moment des faits qui leur sont reprochés?

Commentaires concernant la composition ethnique des couloirs de la mort

All death sentences were commuted by December 28, 2010. [11]

Les accusés indigents encourant la peine de mort ont-ils accès à un avocat?

A defendant has the right to hire an attorney at any time, and is provided with a public defender once formal charges are filed. [12]

Les accusés indigents encourant la peine de mort ont-ils accès à un avocat lors de la procédure d’appel?

It is unclear whether the public defenders available to defendants at the trial level are also available upon appeal. However, the Cuban Constitution provides that “every accused person has the right to a defense.” [13]

Commentaires sur la qualité de la représentation juridique

Human Rights Watch notes that lawyers may lack access to their clients, particularly those who are political detainees, which can affect their ability to provide an adequate legal defense, and that the use of torture during investigatory and pre-trial detention undermines the legitimacy of confessions and convictions based on them. [14] . Additionally, lawyers may be discouraged from representing political detainees or may not attempt to prepare adequate defenses for political detainees. [15] However, we have not determined that, as a practical matter, political detainees face capital punishment in recent years.

Autres commentaires sur le système pénal en général

Prosecutors in Cuba have the right, in exceptional circumstances, to request summary trials. These trials give defense attorneys minimal time to prepare for trial. [16] Summary proceedings are provided for under Cuba’s Law of Criminal Procedure. [17]

Références

[1] Andrea Rodriguez, Cuba Commutes Death Sentence Against U.S. Man, Associated Press, http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20101229/ap_on_re_la_am_ca/cb_cuba_death_sentence, Dec. 28, 2010.
[2] Jim DeFede, Cuban Hotel Bomber Interviewed in Prison, Havana Journal, http://havanajournal.com/politics/entry/cuban_hotel_bomber_interviewed_in_prison/, Aug. 06, 2005.
[3] Social Democratic Party of Cuba, Special Report on the Death Penalty: Cuban Commission for Human Rights and National Reconciliation, http://pscuba.org/derechoshumanos/informespecialpenademuerte.htm, Nov. 02, 2004.
[4] Andrea Rodriguez, Cuba Commutes Death Sentence Against U.S. Man, Associated Press, http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20101229/ap_on_re_la_am_ca/cb_cuba_death_sentence, Dec. 28, 2010.
[5] UN Human Rights Council, Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review, “Compilation Prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights [on Government of Cuba],” A/HRC/WG.6/4/CUB/2, December 18, 2008.
[6] Human Rights Watch, New Castro, Same Cuba, VII (Nov. 2009), available at http://www.hrw.org/en/node/86549/section/8; U.S. Department of State, Human Rights Report 2009: Cuba, (Mar. 2010), http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/wha/136108.htm (last visited June 11, 2010).
[7] Patricia Grogg, Death Penalty-Cuba: Sentences Commuted But Treatment Still Harsh, Inter Press Service, Aug. 12, 2008, http://www.ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=43533
[8] Andrea Rodriguez, Cuba Commutes Death Sentence Against U.S. Man, Associated Press, http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20101229/ap_on_re_la_am_ca/cb_cuba_death_sentence, Dec. 28, 2010.
[9] Andrea Rodriguez, Cuba Commutes Death Sentence Against U.S. Man, Associated Press, http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20101229/ap_on_re_la_am_ca/cb_cuba_death_sentence, Dec. 28, 2010.
[10] Andrea Rodriguez, Cuba Commutes Death Sentence Against U.S. Man, Associated Press, http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20101229/ap_on_re_la_am_ca/cb_cuba_death_sentence, Dec. 28, 2010.
[11] Andrea Rodriguez, Cuba Commutes Death Sentence Against U.S. Man, Associated Press, http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20101229/ap_on_re_la_am_ca/cb_cuba_death_sentence, Dec. 28, 2010.
[12] U.S. Department of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Cuba, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/wha/136108.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[13] The Constitution of the Republic of Cuba, ch. 7, art. 59, 1992.
[14] Human Rights Watch, New Castro, Same Cuba: Political Prisoners in the Post-Fidel Era, p. 58-59, 1-56432-562-8, Nov. 2009.
[15] Human Rights Watch, New Castro, Same Cuba: Political Prisoners in the Post-Fidel Era, p. 58-59, 1-56432-562-8, Nov. 2009.
[16] U.S. Department of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Cuba, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/wha/136108.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[17] Law No. 5, Law of Criminal Procedure, arts. 479, 480, 1977.

Observations et décisions des organes internationaux de protection des droits de l’homme concernant l’application de la peine de mort dans ce pays

Décisions du Comité des droits de l’homme

Because Cuba is not a party to the ICCPR [1] or the Optional Protocol, the Human Rights Committee does not issue any observations or decisions about Cuba. [2]

Décisions d’autres organes de protection des droits de l’homme

The Human Rights Council Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review for Cuba issued its report on March 3, 2009. During the UPR process, three different nations issued recommendations to Cuba related to the death penalty. Brazil recommended that Cuba maintain its efforts to promote a moratorium on the death penalty. [3] Switzerland recommended that Cuba abolish the death penalty entirely. [4] Italy recommended that Cuba further reduce the number of death eligible crimes with a view toward eventually abolishing the death penalty. [5] Cuba supported the recommendation of Brazil. [6] Cuba stated that it would respond to the recommendations of Italy and Switzerland in due time. [7]

In its 2004 Annual Report, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights expressed concern over the summary trials, death sentences, and executions of three prisoners in 2003, and suggested that these executions may have violated due process rights. [8]

Références

[1] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Jul. 20, 2010.
[2] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-5&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Jul. 20, 2010.
[3] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review (Cuba), p. 11, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/11/22, Mar. 3, 2009.
[4] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review (Cuba), p. 16, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/11/22, Mar. 3, 2009.
[5] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review (Cuba), p. 21, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/11/22, Mar. 3, 2009.
[6] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review (Cuba), p. 27, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/11/22, Mar. 3, 2009.
[7] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review (Cuba), p. 30, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/11/22, Mar. 3, 2009.
[8] Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, 2004 Annual Report, sec. 92, OEA/Ser.L/V/II.122, Feb. 23, 2005.

Autres sources d’informations et contact

Membre(s) directs de la Coalition mondiale contre la peine de mort

Comisión Cubana de Derechos Humanos y Reconciliación Nacional (CCDHRN)
Mr. Elizardo Sánchez
Presidente del Consejo Ejecutivo
Avenida 21 # 3014 entre 30 y 34, Playa
11300
La Habana 13 Cuba
Tel: +53 7 2038584 /+53 5 245 8060
elizardosanchez4@gmail.com

Autres organisations non gouvernementales ou individus engagés sur le thème de la peine de mort

None.

Rapports et publications utiles

Human Rights Watch’s report “New Castro, Same Cuba: Political Prisoners in the Post-Fidel Era” is helpful for its information on legal processes and prison conditions. The report was published on November 18, 2009, and is available at http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2009/11/18/new-castro-same-cuba-0.

Autres remarques sur ce pays

None.

Search Tips   |    Research Methodology   |    Glossary   |    Search