Death Penalty Database

Botswana

Information current as of: April 1, 2011

General

Official Country Name

Republic of Botswana (Botswana). [1]

Geographical Region

Africa (Southern Africa). [2]

Death Penalty Law Status

Retentionist. [3]

Methods of Execution

Hanging. [4]
The Penal Code specifies that a person who is sentenced to death will be hanged by the neck until dead. [5]

Other.
For executions carried out under the Botswana Defence Force Act, the President may make regulations as to the manner of execution. [6]

(This question was last updated on January 7, 2019.)

References

[1] BBC, Country Profile: Botswana, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13040376, Apr. 3, 2018.
[2] U.N., Methodology: Standard country or area codes for statistical use (M49), https://unstats.un.org/unsd/methodology/m49/overview/, last accessed Mar. 18, 2019.
[3] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2018, p. 9, ACT 50/9870/2019, Apr. 10, 2019.
[4] The Penal Code of Botswana, sec. 26(1), Jun. 10, 1964, as updated through to 2005.
[5] The Penal Code of Botswana, sec. 26(1), Jun. 10, 1964, as updated through to 2005.
[6] Botswana Defence Force Act, sec. 128(a), Apr. 15, 1977, as updated through to 2014.

Country Details

Language(s)

English; Setswana (major language). [1]

Population

2,000,000. [2]

Number of Individuals Currently Under Sentence of Death

51.

As of March 2018, there were 51 people on death row in Botswana, a notable increase from previous years. [3] Four individuals were sentenced to death in 2017 and one person was executed. [4] There was one person on death row at the end of 2016. [5] No new death sentences were imposed in 2016 and one execution was carried out. [6] There were four men on death row at the end of 2015. [7] One new death sentence was imposed in 2015. [8]

(This question was last updated on April 26, 2018.)

Annual Number of Reported Executions

Executions in 2019 to date (last updated on June 19, 2019)

0. [9]

Executions in 2018

2. [10]

Executions in 2017

0. [11]

Executions in 2016

1. [12]

Executions in 2015

0. [13]

Executions in 2014

0. [14]

Executions in 2013

1. [15]

Executions in 2012

2. [16]

Executions in 2011

0. [17]

Executions in 2010

1. [18]

Executions in 2009

1. [19]

Executions in 2008

1. [20]

Executions in 2007

1. [21]

Year of Last Known Execution

2018. [22]

References

[1] BBC, Country Profile: Botswana, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13040376, Apr. 3, 2018.
[2] BBC, Country Profile: Botswana, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13040376, Apr. 3, 2018.
[3] Letsweletse Mogakolodi Martin Dingake, affiliated with Dingake Law Partners, email to DPW, DPW Botswana Doc. E-1, Mar. 21, 2018.
[4] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2017, p. 34, ACT 50/7955/2018, Apr. 12, 2018.
[5] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2016, ACT 50/5740/2017, Apr. 11, 2017.
[6] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2016, ACT 50/5740/2017, Apr. 11, 2017.
[7] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2015, ACT 50/3487/2016, Apr. 6, 2016.
[8] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2015, ACT 50/3487/2016, Apr. 6, 2016.
[9] DPW Executions and Death Sentences Monitor.
[10] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions 2018, p. 39, 50/9870/2019, Apr. 10, 2019.
[11] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions 2017, p. 34, ACT 50/7955/2018, Apr. 12, 2018.
[12] Amnesty International, Death sentences and executions in 2016, p. 5, ACT 50/5740/2017, Apr. 11, 2017. See European Union External Action, Statement by the Spokesperson on the execution of Patrick Gabaakanye in Botwana, http://eeas.europa.eu/statements-eeas/2016/160525_08_en.htm, May 25, 2016.
[13] DPW Executions and Death Sentences Monitor.
[14] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2014, p. 5, ACT 50/001/2015, Mar. 31, 2015.
[15] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2013, p. 7, ACT 50/001/2014, Mar. 27, 2014. Mtokozisi Dube, Botswana man on 6 death sentences executed, Africa Review, http://www.africareview.com/News/Botswana-man-on-six-death-sentences-executed-/-/979180/1864808/-/yppj9z/-/index.html, May 28, 2013.
[16] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2012, p. 9, ACT 50/001/2013, Apr. 10, 2013.
[17] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2011, p. 7, ACT 50/001/2012, Mar. 27, 2012.
[18] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2010, p. 5, ACT 50/001/2011, Mar. 28, 2011.
[19] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010.
[20] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010.
[21] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2007, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2008, Apr. 15, 2008.
[22] Africanews, Botswana hangs man who murdered girlfriend and son in 2010, http://www.africanews.com/2018/02/19/botswana-hangs-man-who-murdered-girlfriend-and-son-in-2010/, Feb. 19, 2018. Abdur Rahman Alfa Shaban, Botswana hangs man convicted of murder and robbery in 2015, Africanews, http://www.africanews.com/2018/05/25/botswana-hangs-man-convicted-of-murder-and-robbery-in-2015//, May 25, 2018.

Crimes and Offenders Punishable By Death

Crimes Punishable by Death

Murder.
Premeditated murder, or murder committed with malice aforethought, is punishable by death. [1] The Penal Code of Botswana defines malice aforethought as: “an intention to cause the death of or to do grievous harm to any person” whether a person is killed or not; or “knowing that the act or omission causing death is likely to cause the death of some person” whether a person is killed or not; or “an intention by the act or omission to facilitate the flight or escape from custody of any person who has committed or attempted to commit such an offence.” [2]

Treason.
Treasonous offenses are punishable by death. [3] These offences are: preparing or endeavoring to overthrow the government by unlawful means; preparing or endeavoring to forcibly change the law or government policies; preparing or endeavoring to carry out by force any enterprise which usurps the state’s executive power in any manner; assisting any act likely to assist the enemy in wartime, with intent to give assistance to the enemy; or assisting anyone who threatens the sovereignty or security of Botswana. [4] Instigating invasion, or instigating any foreigner to invade Botswana with an armed force, is also punishable by death. [5] Non-citizens may be punished under treason laws for acts they commit in Botswana. [6]

Espionage.
Providing intelligence to the enemy with intention to assist the enemy is punishable by death. [7]

Military Offenses Not Resulting in Death.
Aiding the enemy, [8] cowardly behavior, [9] mutiny involving violence or the threat of violence, or incitement to mutiny, [10] and failure to suppress mutiny with the intent to assist the enemy [11] are all crimes punishable by death.

Other Offenses Not Resulting in Death.
Aggravated piracy, [12] or assault with intent to murder in the course of piracy, is punishable by death. [13] Furthermore, terrorism may carry the death penalty. [14]

Does the country have a mandatory death penalty?

Yes. Botswana retains the mandatory death penalty. [15] Courts usually impose the mandatory death penalty for murder, as opposed to treason or aggravated piracy. [16] In cases in which there are extenuating circumstances, murder is usually reduced to manslaughter, which is not death-eligible. [17] The Penal Code and Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act state that courts can exercise discretion when extenuating circumstances exist in cases of murder and treason, [18] and in delivering a non-capital sentence for murder, courts need not specify any extenuating circumstances. [19] Domestic court rulings and rulings by the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights indicate that in Botswana, courts must consider all mitigating and aggravating circumstances relevant to an offender’s moral and legal culpability in committing the specific offense. [20]

The mandatory death penalty has been judicially affirmed in Botswana in State v. Rodney Masoko. [21] In this 2015 case, the Court of Appeal overturned a High Court Ruling finding the mandatory death penalty unconstitutional as a circumscription of judicial discretion. [22]

(This question was last updated on May 6, 2019.)

For Which Offenses, If Any, Is a Mandatory Death Sentence Imposed?

Murder.
Botswana retains the mandatory death penalty for murder [23] and for other offenses such as aggravated piracy and treason instigating invasion (which do not seem to be prosecuted in practice). [24] For murder, the death penalty is mandatory except in cases of extenuating circumstances. [25] Extenuating circumstances usually reduce murder to manslaughter, which results in a term of years rather than capital punishment. [26]

Other Offenses Not Resulting in Death.
Aggravated Piracy. [27] When the offender assaults with intent to kill directly before or directly after the act of piracy, the death sentence is imposed. [28]

Comments.
Although there are provisions in the Penal Code that might undermine the mandatory death sentence for aggravated piracy, the statute neither provides alternatives to the death penalty nor describes extenuating circumstances. [29] By contrast, other statutes for death-eligible crimes, namely simple murder and treason, refer directly to other statutes either to describe extenuating circumstances or to offer an explicit alternative sentence to the death penalty. [30]

(This question was last updated on May 6, 2019.)

Crimes For Which Individuals Have Been Executed Since January 2008:

Murder.
In May 2018, Uyapo Poloko was executed for murder. [31]

In February 2018, Joseph Poni Tselayarona was executed for the murder of his girlfriend’s child. [32]

In May 2016, Patrick Gabaakanye was executed by hanging for murder. [33]

In May 2013, Orelesitse Modise Thokamolemo was executed by hanging for murder. [34]

In January 2012, Zibani Thamo was executed by hanging for murder. [35]

In March 2010, Modise Fly was executed for killing his son with an axe. He had argued that the killing was accidental. [36]

In December 2009, Zimbabwean national Gerald Dube was executed for the murders of four people. [37]

In September 2008, Kedisaletse Tsobane was executed for murder. [38]

(This question was last updated on January 7, 2019.)

Categories of Offenders Excluded From the Death Penalty:

Individuals Below Age 18 At Time of Crime. [39]
If the offender was under the age of 18 at the time the crime was committed, the sentence of death will be reduced to detainment at the President’s pleasure, “in such place and under such conditions as the President may direct, and whilst so detained shall be deemed to be in legal custody.” [40] Further, implicit prohibition of the death penalty is contained in section 13, which excludes criminal liability for those under the age of eight, [41] and those under 14 unless capacity can be shown. [42]

Pregnant Women. [43]
When a woman has been deemed pregnant in accordance with the Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act, [44] she will be liable for life imprisonment as opposed to a death sentence. [45]

Mentally Ill. [46]
If a mental illness causes the offender to be incapable of understanding his actions or of knowing that he ought not commit the act or make the omission, the offender is not criminally responsible for the act. [47]

References

[1] The Penal Code of Botswana, secs. 202, 203, 204, Jun. 10, 1964, as updated through to 2005.
[2] The Penal Code of Botswana, sec. 204, Jun. 10, 1964, as updated through to 2005.
[3] The Penal Code of Botswana, secs. 34, 35, 40, Jun. 10, 1964, as updated through to 2005. Botswana Defence Force Act, sec. 66(3)(a), Apr. 15, 1977, as updated through to 2014.
[4] The Penal Code of Botswana, sec. 34(1), Jun. 10, 1964, as updated through to 2005.
[5] The Penal Code of Botswana, secs. 34, 35, 40, Jun. 10, 1964, as updated through to 2005.
[6] The Penal Code of Botswana, secs. 34, 35, 40, Jun. 10, 1964, as updated through to 2005.
[7] Botswana Defence Force Act, sec. 28(1), Apr. 15, 1977, as updated through to 2014.
[8] Botswana Defence Force Act, sec. 27(1), Apr. 15, 1977, as updated through to 2014.
[9] Botswana Defence Force Act, sec. 29, Apr. 15, 1977, as updated through to 2014.
[10] Botswana Defence Force Act, sec. 34(1), Apr. 15, 1977, as updated through to 2014.
[11] Botswana Defence Force Act, sec. 35, Apr. 15, 1977, as updated through to 2014.
[12] The Penal Code of Botswana, secs. 62, 63(2), Jun. 10, 1964, as updated through to 2005.
[13] The Penal Code of Botswana, secs. 62, 63(2), Jun. 10, 1964, as updated through to 2005.
[14] The Counter-Terrorism Act, sec. 3(2)(a), May 1, 2015.
[15] Ditshwanelo, email to DPW, DPW Botswana Doc. E-2, Feb. 13, 2019. Elizabeth Macharia-Mokobi, The Death Penalty in Botswana: Time for a Re-Think?, p. 69, http://www.southernafricalitigationcentre.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/GOAL-16-Book-Mokobi.pdf, Apr. 11/12, 2016.
[16] Ditshwanelo, email to DPW, DPW Botswana Doc. E-2, Feb. 13, 2019.
[17] Ditshwanelo, email to DPW, DPW Botswana Doc. E-2, Feb. 13, 2019.
[18] Penal Code of Botswana, secs. 34, 35, 40, 202, 203(2), 203(3), Jun. 10, 1964, as updated through to 2005. Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act of Botswana, sec. 290(1)(iv), Jan. 1, 1939.
[19] Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act of Botswana, sec. 290(1)(iv), Jan. 1, 1939, as updated through to 2005.
[20] Intl. Federation for Human Rights & The Botswana Centre for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Botswana Hasty and Secretive Hangings: International Fact-Finding Mission, pp. 22–23, no. 473/2, Jun. 25, 2007.
[21] State v. Rodney Masoko, para. 153, Criminal Appeal No. CLCGB-058-14, Ct. of Appeal of Botswana, Apr. 23, 2015. Elizabeth Macharia-Mokobi, The Death Penalty in Botswana: Time for a Re-Think?, p. 69, http://www.southernafricalitigationcentre.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/GOAL-16-Book-Mokobi.pdf, Apr. 11/12, 2016.
[22] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Annual report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and reports of the Office of the High Commissioner and the Secretary-General, Question of the death penalty, para. 11, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/27/23, Jun. 30, 2014, citing State v. Rodney Masoko, CTHFT-000008-07, High Ct. of Botswana, Oct. 2, 2013. Note: the case name is cited incorrectly as “Mosok” in the report.
[23] Elizabeth Macharia-Mokobi, The Death Penalty in Botswana: Time for a Re-Think?, p. 69, http://www.southernafricalitigationcentre.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/GOAL-16-Book-Mokobi.pdf, Apr. 11/12, 2016. Andrew Nowak, Guilty of Murder with Extenuating Circumstances: Transparency and the Mandatory Death Penalty in Botswana, Boston University International Law Journal, 2009.
[24] The Penal Code of Botswana, secs. 34, 35, 40, 63(2), Jun. 10, 1964, as updated through to 2005. Ditshwanelo, email to DPW, DPW Botswana Doc. E-2, Feb. 13, 2019.
[25] Kwame Frimpong, The Death Penalty in Botswana, British Institute of International and Comparative Law, https://www.biicl.org/files/2193_country_report_botswana_frimpong.pdf, last accessed Feb. 14, 2019.
[26] Ditshwanelo, email to DPW, DPW Botswana Doc. E-2, Feb. 13, 2019.
[27] The Penal Code of Botswana, secs. 62, 63(2), Jun. 10, 1964, as updated through to 2005.
[28] The Penal Code of Botswana, secs. 62, 63(2), Jun. 10, 1964, as updated through to 2005.
[29] The Penal Code of Botswana, secs. 11, 12(2)–(5), 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 62, 63(2), Jun. 10, 1964, as updated through to 2005.
[30] According to sections 34 and 35, treason is punishable by death subject to section 40, which provides an alternate sentence of 15 to 25 years of imprisonment. According to section 203(1), murder is punishable by death, subject to section 203(2), which allows any other sentence than death in the case of extenuating circumstances. Further, section 203(3) broadly explains how extenuating circumstances can be determined in the case of simple murder. The Penal Code of Botswana, secs. 34, 35, 40, 202–204, Jun. 10, 1964.
[31] Abdur Rahman Alfa Shaban, Botswana hangs man convicted of murder and robbery in 2015, http://www.africanews.com/2018/05/25/botswana-hangs-man-convicted-of-murder-and-robbery-in-2015//, May 25, 2018.
[32] Intl. Federation for Human Rights, Botswana continues with cruel and regressive execution, https://www.fidh.org/en/issues/death-penalty/botswana-continues-with-cruel-and-regressive-execution, Feb. 19, 2018.
[33] Mmegi Online, Gabaakanye executed, http://www.mmegi.bw/index.php?aid=60216&dir=2016/may/25, May 25, 2016.
[34] Mtokozisi Dube, Botswana man on six death sentences executed, Africa Review, http://www.africareview.com/news/Botswana-man-on-six-death-sentences-executed-/979180-1864808-uf39rsz/index.html, May 28, 2013.
[35] Mmegi Online, Death Row inmate hanged, http://www.mmegi.bw/index.php?sid=1&aid=270&dir=2012%2FFebruary%2FWednesday1, Feb. 1, 2012.
[36] Maranyane Ngwanaamotho, Fly’s secretive execution wrong – DITSHWANELO, Mmegi Online, http://www.mmegi.bw/index.php?sid=1&aid=1272&dir=2010/March/Friday26, Mar. 26, 2010.
[37] Nehanda Radio, Killer Zimbabwean hanged in Botswana, http://nehandaradio.com/2010/01/05/killer-zimbabwean-hanged-in-botswana/, Jan. 5, 2010.
[38] Daily News, Tsobane executed, http://www.gov.bw/cgi-bin/news.cgi?d=20080925&i=Tsobane_executed, Sep. 25, 2008.
[39] The Penal Code of Botswana, secs. 26(2), 32(1), Jun. 10, 1964, as updated through to 2005. Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act of Botswana, sec. 304, Jan. 1, 1939, as updated through to 2005.
[40] The Penal Code of Botswana, secs. 26(2), 32(1), Jun. 10, 1964, as updated through to 2005. Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act of Botswana, sec. 304, Jan. 1, 1939, as updated through to 2005.
[41] The Penal Code of Botswana, sec. 13(1), Jun. 10, 1964, as updated through to 2005.
[42] The Penal Code of Botswana, sec. 13(2). Jun. 10, 1964, as updated through to 2005.
[43] The Penal Code of Botswana, secs. 26(3), 32, Jun. 10, 1964, as updated through to 2005. Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act of Botswana, sec. 298, Jan. 1, 1939, as updated through to 2005.
[44] Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act of Botswana, sec. 298, Jan. 1, 1939, as updated through to 2005.
[45] The Penal Code of Botswana, secs. 26(3), 32(1), Jun. 10, 1964, as updated through to 2005.
[46] The Penal Code of Botswana, secs. 11, 32(1), Jun. 10, 1964, as updated through to 2005.
[47] The Penal Code of Botswana, secs. 11, 32, Jun. 10, 1964, as updated through to 2005.

International Commitments

ICCPR

Party?

Yes. [1]

Date of Accession

Sep. 8, 2000. [2]

Signed?

Yes. [3]

Date of Signature

Sep. 8, 2000. [4]

First Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, Recognizing Jurisdiction of the Human Rights Committee

Party?

No. [5]

Date of Accession

Not Applicable.

Signed?

No. [6]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, Toward the Abolition of the Death Penalty

Party?

No. [7]

Date of Accession

Not Applicable.

Signed?

No. [8]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

American Convention on Human Rights

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

Death Penalty Protocol to the ACHR

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR)

Party?

Yes. [9]

Date of Accession

July 17, 1986. [10]

Signed?

No. [11]

Date of Signature

N/A. [12]

Protocol to the ACHPR on the Rights of Women in Africa

Party?

No. [13]

Date of Accession

N/A [14]

Signed?

No. [15]

Date of Signature

N/A [16]

African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child

Party?

Yes. [17]

Date of Accession

July 10, 2001. [18]

Signed?

Yes. [19]

Date of Signature

July 10, 2001. [20]

Arab Charter on Human Rights

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

2016 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [21]

Vote

Against. [22]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [23]

2018 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

Vote

2014 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Cosponsor

No. [24]

Vote

Against. [25]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [26]

2012 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [27]

Vote

Against. [28]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [29]

2010 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [30]

Vote

Against. [31]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [32]

2008 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [33]

Vote

Against. [34]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [35]

2007 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [36]

Vote

Against. [37]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [38]

References

[1] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Dec. 5, 2017.
[2] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Dec. 5, 2017.
[3] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Dec. 5, 2017.
[4] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Dec. 5, 2017.
[5] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-5&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Dec. 5, 2017.
[6] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-5&chapter=4&clang=_en, last accessed Dec. 5, 2017.
[7] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Second Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, 1642 U.N.T.S. 414, Dec. 15, 1989, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-12&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Dec. 5, 2017.
[8] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Second Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, 1642 U.N.T.S. 414, Dec. 15, 1989, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-12&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Dec. 5, 2017.
[9] African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Ratification Table: African Charter on Human and People’s Rights, http://www.achpr.org/instruments/achpr/ratification, last accessed Jul. 18, 2018.
[10] African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Ratification Table: African Charter on Human and People’s Rights, http://www.achpr.org/instruments/achpr/ratification, last accessed Jul. 18, 2018.
[11] African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Ratification Table: African Charter on Human and People’s Rights, http://www.achpr.org/instruments/achpr/ratification, last accessed Jul. 18, 2018.
[12] African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Ratification Table: African Charter on Human and People’s Rights, http://www.achpr.org/instruments/achpr/ratification, last accessed Jul. 18, 2018.
[13] African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Ratification Table: Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, http://www.achpr.org/instruments/women-protocol/ratification, last accessed Jul. 18, 2018.
[14] African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Ratification Table: Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, http://www.achpr.org/instruments/women-protocol/ratification, last accessed Jul. 18, 2018.
[15] African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Ratification Table: Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, http://www.achpr.org/instruments/women-protocol/ratification, last accessed Jul. 18, 2018.
[16] African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Ratification Table: Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, http://www.achpr.org/instruments/women-protocol/ratification, last accessed Jul. 18, 2018.
[17] African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Ratification Table: African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, http://www.achpr.org/instruments/child/ratification/, last accessed on Jul. 18, 2018.
[18] African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Ratification Table: African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, http://www.achpr.org/instruments/child/ratification/, last accessed Jul. 18, 2018.
[19] African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Ratification Table: African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, http://www.achpr.org/instruments/child/ratification, last accessed Jul. 14, 2018.
[20] African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Ratification Table: African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, http://www.achpr.org/instruments/child/ratification, last accessed Jul. 14, 2018.
[21] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 54–71, U.N. Doc. A/71/484/Add.2, Dec. 6, 2016.
[22] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Promotion and protection of human rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 54-71, U.N. Doc. A/71/484/Add.2, Dec. 6, 2016.
[23] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Note Verbale dated 7 September 2017, U.N. Doc A/71/1047, Sep. 13, 2017.
[24] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Promotion and protection of human rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 141, 144, U.N. Doc. A/69/488/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2014.
[25] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, 73rd Plenary Meeting, pp. 17-18, U.N. Doc. A/69/PV.73, Dec. 18, 2014.
[26] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, Note Verbale dated 28 July 2015, U.N. Doc. A/69/993, Jul. 29, 2015.
[27] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 95-96, U.N. Doc. A/67/457/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2012.
[28] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, 60th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16-17, U.N. Doc. A/67/PV.60, Dec. 20, 2012.
[29] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, Note Verbale dated 16 April 2013, U.N. Doc. A/67/841, Apr. 23, 2013.
[30] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, includng alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, p. 5, U.N. Doc. A/65/456/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2010.
[31] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, 71st Plenary Meeting, pp. 18-19, U.N. Doc. A/65/PV.71, Dec. 21, 2010.
[32] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, Note Verbale dated 11 March 2011, U.N. Doc. A/65/779, Mar. 11, 2011.
[33] U.N.G.A., 63rd session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, U.N. Doc. A/63/430/Add.2, Dec. 4, 2008.
[34] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, 70th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16- 17, U.N. Doc. A/63/PV.70, Dec. 18, 2008.
[35] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, Note Verbale dated 10 February 2009, U.N. Doc. A/63/716, Feb. 12, 2009.
[36] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, U.N. Doc. A/62/439/Add.2, Dec. 5, 2007.
[37] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, 76th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16- 17, U.N. Doc. A/62/PV.76, Dec. 18, 2007.
[38] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, Note Verbale dated 11 January 2008, U.N. Doc. A/62/658, Feb. 2, 2008.

Death Penalty In Law

Does the country’s constitution make reference to capital punishment?

According to the Constitution of Botswana, “No person shall be deprived of his or her life intentionally save in execution of the sentence of a court in respect of an offence under the law in force in Botswana of which he or she has been convicted”, [1] thus implicitly stating that the death penalty may be permissible in some circumstances.

(This question was last updated on May 6, 2019.)

Does the country’s constitution make reference to international law?

No. [2]

Have there been any significant changes in the application of the death penalty over the last several years?

As there are no official published figures on the application of the death penalty, we do not know if it has changed significantly. [3] The death penalty continues to be applied in an opaque manner. [4] However, according to the figures published by Amnesty International, the number of executions year by year has fluctuated very little. [5] Additionally, according to media sources, the only crime that has led to executions since 2008 has been murder. [6]

Is there currently an official moratorium on executions within the country?

There is currently no official moratorium on executions. [7] This question was last updated on January 7, 2019.

Have there been any significant published cases concerning the death penalty in national courts?

Ntesang v. State, in 1995, challenged the constitutionality of the death penalty in the Court of Appeal. [8] The Court acknowledged that the death penalty was increasingly recognized as “torture, inhuman or degrading punishment or treatment”, but ultimately decided that “the Court has no power to re-write the Constitution.” [9]

In 1999, the High Court ruled that it was unconstitutional to deprive death-sentenced defendants access to their lawyers. [10] In Kobedi v. State, in 2003, the Court of Appeal affirmed its response to the constitutionality of the death penalty in Ntesang, and indicated that the death penalty is not mandatory in Botswana. [11] In this case, the Court also requested that the President consider clemency. [12]

Where can one locate or access judicial decisions regarding the death penalty?

The Botswana e-laws site (http://www.elaws.gov.bw/) contains legislation regarding the death penalty, updated since December 31, 2013.

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime also offers a Legal Library that contains legislation that pertains to the death penalty, and WorldLII (http://www.worldlii.org/bw/) is another useful resource.

What is the clemency process?

The Constitution of Botswana and the Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act both state that the President may pardon any offense. [13] The trial judge submits a written report to the Committee whenever someone is sentenced to death. [14] Before anyone is executed, the President must approve the death sentence. [15] The Constitution establishes an Advisory Committee on the Prerogative of Mercy, which advises the President to pardon or commute death sentences. [16] The Committee may only be summoned by the President, but the President is compelled to summon the Committee for every sentence of death. [17] In 2001, Marriette Bosch was executed while her petition for clemency was pending with the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights. [18]

Are jury trials provided for defendants charged with capital offenses?

A jury system is not used in any trials. [19] Botswana’s Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act contains no provisions for jury trials. [20] Instead, the High Court hears the case, issues a judgment, and sentences. [21]

Brief Description of Appellate Process

A Magistrate’s Court holds the committal trial to either discharge or commit the accused for trial to the High Court. [22] If the accused is committed for trial, his case is tried in the High Court, which is competent to try crimes involving capital offenses. [23] Any decision made by the High Court may be appealed to the Court of Appeal. [24]

References

[1] The Constitution of Botswana, sec. 4(1), Sep. 30, 1966, as updated through to 2006.
[2] The Constitution of Botswana, Sep. 30, 1966, as updated through to 2006.
[3] Intl. Federation for Human Rights & The Botswana Centre for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Botswana Hasty and Secretive Hangings: International Fact-Finding Mission, p. 18, no. 473/2, Jun. 25, 2007.
[4] Intl. Federation for Human Rights & The Botswana Centre for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Botswana Hasty and Secretive Hangings: International Fact-Finding Mission, p. 18, no. 473/2, Jun. 25, 2007.
[5] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, p. 8, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2007, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2008, Apr. 15, 2008.
[6] Maranyane Ngwanaamotho, Fly’s secretive execution wrong – DITSHWANELO, Mmegi Online, http://www.mmegi.bw/index.php?sid=1&aid=1272&dir=2010/March/Friday26, Mar. 26, 2010; The Zimdiaspora, Zimbabwean murderer hanged in Botswana, http://www.zimdiaspora.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2489:zimbabwean-murderer-hanged-in-botswana&catid=38:travel-tips&Itemid=18, Dec. 24, 2009; Daily News, Tsobane executed, http://www.gov.bw/cgi-bin/news.cgi?d=20080925&i=Tsobane_executed, Sep. 25, 2008.
[7] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2016, p. 5, ACT 50/5740/2017, Apr. 11, 2017.
[8] Ntesang v. State, p. 16, Criminal Appeal no. 57 of 1994, BWCA 12, Ct. of Appeal of Botswana, Jun. 1, 2010.
[9] Ntesang v. State, p. 17, Criminal Appeal no. 57 of 1994, BWCA 12, Ct. of Appeal of Botswana, Jun. 1, 2010.
[10] Roger Hood & Carolyn Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective, p. 221, Oxford University Press, 4th ed., 2008; Amnesty Intl., The Death Penalty Worldwide: Developments in 1999, p. 18, ACT 50/004/2000, Mar. 31, 2000.
[11] Kobedi v. State, p. 38, Criminal Appeal no. 25 of 201, BWCA 22, Ct. of Appeal of Botswana, Mar. 19, 2003.
[12] Kobedi v. State, p. 64, Criminal Appeal no. 25 of 201, BWCA 22, Ct. of Appeal of Botswana, Mar. 19, 2003.
[13] Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act of Botswana, secs. 299, 327, Jan. 1, 1939; Constitution of Botswana, sec. 53, Sep. 30, 1966.
[14] Constitution of Botswana, sec. 55, Sep. 30, 1966.
[15] Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act of Botswana, sec. 299, Jan. 1, 1939.
[16] Constitution of Botswana, secs. 54, 55, Sep. 30, 1966.
[17] Constitution of Botswana, sec. 54, Sep. 30, 1966.
[18] Roger Hood & Carolyn Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective, p. 265, Oxford University Press, 4th ed., 2008.
[19] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Botswana, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135939.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[20] Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act of Botswana, secs. 182, 291, Jan. 1, 1939.
[21] Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act of Botswana, secs. 182, 291, Jan. 1, 1939.
[22] Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act of Botswana, secs. 78, 82, Jan. 1, 1939.
[23] Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act of Botswana, sec. 97, Jan. 1, 1939; Intl. Federation for Human Rights & The Botswana Centre for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Botswana Hasty and Secretive Hangings: International Fact-Finding Mission, pp. 19-20, no. 473/2, Jun. 25, 2007.
[24] Constitution of Botswana, sec. 106, Sep. 30, 1966.

Death Penalty In Practice

Where Are Death-Sentenced Prisoners incarcerated?

Death-sentenced prisoners are incarcerated at the Lobatse and Gabarone maximum security prisons. [1]

Description of Prison Conditions

The Prisons Act, passed in 1980, was a measure intended to protect prisoners from arbitrary treatment. [2] However, human rights organizations and the U.S. State Department report that prisons in Botswana are overcrowded. [3] According to the Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review, severe overcrowding led to increased prevalence of HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. [4] According to the U.S. State Department, pretrial detainees typically wait “several weeks to several months” for their trials. [5]

Are there any known foreign nationals currently under sentence of death?

Yes. [6]

What are the nationalities of the known foreign nationals on death row?

We were unable to find any reports of foreign nationals on death row.

(This question was last updated on January 7, 2019.)

Are there any known women currently under sentence of death?

We were unable to find any reports of women on death row.

(This question was last updated on January 7, 2019.)

Are there any reports of individuals currently under sentence of death who may have been under the age of 18 at the time the crime was committed?

As of May 25, 2010, reports did not indicate that any individual was under sentence of death for a crime committed while under the age of 18. The Penal Code and the Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act exclude juveniles from the sentence of death. [7]

Comments regarding the racial/ethnic composition on death row

Reports from Amnesty International and the U.S. State Department do not comment on this issue. [8] None of those reported to be on death row is reported to be a racial or ethnic minority. [9]

Are there lawyers available for indigent defendants facing capital trials?

According to the U.S. State Department, court-appointed lawyers are available exclusively for cases involving death-eligible crimes. [10] Order 68 of the Rules of the High Court allows the appointment of pro deo counsel to indigent defendants in criminal trials. [11]

Are there lawyers available for indigent prisoners on appeal?

Yes. [12] According to rule 48 of the Court of Appeal Rules, the Registrar of the Court of Appeal is compelled to assign a legal practitioner to appellants facing the sentence of death “after consultation with the President of the Court.” [13]

Comments on Quality of Legal Representation

According to a joint FIDH-DITSHWANELO report, lawyers appointed to defendants facing a death sentence receive minimal payment, meaning that these cases are often handed down to inexperienced and/or incapable lawyers. [14] In the case of Maauwe v. Attorney General, [15] it was reported that “the pro deo counsel assigned did not represent them adequately or properly and that a letter, which was written by Mr Maauwe and Mr Motswetla to the Registrar of the High Court stating their dissatisfaction with their Counsel and asking that their Counsel be replaced, was not acted upon at all.” [16] According to DITSHWANELO, the Botswana Centre for Human Rights, in Kobedi v. State, Kobedi’s pro deo lawyer was unfamiliar with handling death penalty cases. [17]

Other Comments on Criminal Justice System

Prisoners are frequently detained for longer than 31 days, the length of time prescribed by the Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act. [18] For example, defendant Lehlohonolo Kobedi awaited his appeal for 56 months. [19] The Court of Appeal recommended a consideration of clemency due to his mental and physical health and long incarceration. [20]

References

[1] Intl. Federation for Human Rights, Secretive and Hasty Hangings in Botswana: Preliminary conclusions of the joint FIDH & DITSHWANELO report, p. 2, http://www.fidh.org/Secretive-and-hasty-hangings-in-Botswana, Oct. 10, 2006.
[2] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, National Report Submitted in Accordance with Paragraph 15 (A) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1, p. 17, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/3/BWA/1, Sep. 5, 2008.
[3] U.N. ICCPR Human Rights Committee, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 40 of the Covenant, pp. 4-5, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/BWA/CO/1, Apr. 24, 2008; U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Botswana, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135939.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[4] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Universal Periodic Review: Report of the Working Group of the Universal Periodic Review, p. 20, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/10/69, Jan. 13, 2009.
[5] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Botswana, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135939.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[6] Morula Morula, Death penalty sours relations between Botswana and South Africa, Sunday Standard, http://www.zimdiaspora.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2489:zimbabwean-murderer-hanged-in-botswana&catid=38:travel-tips&Itemid=18, Mar. 28, 2010.
[7] The Penal Code of Botswana, secs. 26(2), 32, Jun. 10, 1964; Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act of Botswana, sec. 304, Jan. 1, 1939.
[8] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Botswana, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135939.htm, Mar. 11, 2010; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010.
[9] Bame Piet, Keganne Sentenced to Death, Mmegi Online, http://mmegi.bw/index.php?sid=1&aid=58&dir=2008/August/Monday18, Aug. 18, 2008; The Botswana Gazette, Two to Die for Murder of Alleged Robber and Killer, http://www.gazettebw.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=470:two-to-die-for-murder-of-alleged-robber-and-killer&catid=18:headlines&Itemid=2, Mar. 11, 2008; Arabile Mosikare, Mine duo sentenced to death, The Botswana Gazette, http://www.gazettebw.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4547:mine-duo-sentenced-to-death&catid=19:northcast&Itemid=2, Dec. 1, 2009.
[10] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Botswana, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/af/135939.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[11] African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Ratification Table: African Charter on Human and People’s Rights, http://www.achpr.org/instruments/achpr/ratification, last accessed Jul. 18, 2018.
[12] Rules of the High Court of Botswana, Order 68(4)(1)(c), May 19, 2008.
[13] Court of Appeal Rules of Botswana, rule 48, Apr. 25, 1975.
[14] Court of Appeal Rules of Botswana, rule 48, Apr. 25, 1975.
[15] Intl. Federation for Human Rights, Secretive and Hasty Hangings in Botswana: Preliminary conclusions of the joint FIDH & DITSHWANELO report, p. 2, http://www.fidh.org/Secretive-and-hasty-hangings-in-Botswana, Oct. 10, 2006; Intl. Federation for Human Rights & The Botswana Centre for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Botswana Hasty and Secretive Hangings: International Fact-Finding Mission, p. 15, no. 473/2, Jun. 25, 2007.
[16] This case has not been published on the SAFLII database. However, significant information about the case can be found on DITSHWANELO’s website. DITSHWANELO: Botswana Centre for Human Rights, Maauwe and Motswetla, http://www.DITSHWANELO.org.bw/maauwe.html, last accessed Jun. 1, 2010.
[17] Intl. Federation for Human Rights & The Botswana Centre for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Botswana Hasty and Secretive Hangings: International Fact-Finding Mission, p. 21, no. 473/2, Jun. 25, 2007.
[18] Intl. Federation for Human Rights & The Botswana Centre for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Botswana Hasty and Secretive Hangings: International Fact-Finding Mission, p. 21, no. 473/2, Jun. 25, 2007.
[19] Intl. Federation for Human Rights & The Botswana Centre for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Botswana Hasty and Secretive Hangings: International Fact-Finding Mission, p. 15, no. 473/2, Jun. 25, 2007.
[20] Intl. Federation for Human Rights & The Botswana Centre for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Botswana Hasty and Secretive Hangings: International Fact-Finding Mission, p. 25, no. 473/2, Jun. 25, 2007.
[21] Kobedi v. State, p. 63, Criminal Appeal no. 25 of 201, Ct. of Appeal of Botswana, Mar. 19, 2003.

Decisions of International Human Rights Bodies

Decisions of Human Rights Committee

The Human Rights Committee observed that Botswana should ensure that the death penalty is applied for only the most serious crimes, with an eventual goal of abolition. [1] The Committee recommended that Botswana make available complete information on the application of the death penalty, such as “the number of convictions for murder, the number of and reasons for the courts’ findings of mitigating circumstances, the number of death sentences imposed by the courts, and on the number of the persons executed year by year.” [2]

Decisions of Other Human Rights Bodies

The Human Rights Council, through the Universal Periodic Review Process, recommended that Botswana explore the possibility of a moratorium on the death penalty and to take concrete steps toward abolition of the death penalty. [3] The Council also recommended ratification of the second optional protocol of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. [4]

References

[1] U.N. ICCPR Human Rights Committee, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 40 of the Covenant of the Human Rights Committee, pp. 3-4, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/BWA/CO/1, Apr. 24, 2008.
[2] U.N. ICCPR Human Rights Committee, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 40 of the Covenant of the Human Rights Committee, pp. 3-4, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/BWA/CO/1, Apr. 24, 2008.
[3] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Universal Periodic Review: Report of the Working Group of the Universal Periodic Review, p. 19, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/10/69, Jan. 13, 2009.
[4] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Universal Periodic Review: Report of the Working Group of the Universal Periodic Review, p. 17, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/10/69, Jan. 13, 2009.

Additional Sources and Contacts

Direct member(s) of World Coalition Against the Death Penalty

None.

Other non-governmental organizations and individuals engaged in advocacy surrounding the death penalty

DITSHWANELO - The Botswana Centre for Human Rights
admin.ditshwanelo@info.bw
http://www.ditshwanelo.org.bw

Helpful Reports and Publications

DITSHWANELO - The Botswana Centre for Human Rights, Botswana Stakeholder Report to the Universal Periodic Review (Second Cycle), http://lib.ohchr.org/HRBodies/UPR/Documents/Session15/BW/JS1_UPR_BWA_S15_2012_JointSubmission1_E.pdf, Jul. 9, 2012.

Intl. Federation for Human Rights & The Botswana Centre for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Botswana Hasty and Secretive Hangings: International Fact-Finding Mission, No. 473/2, Jun. 25, 2007.

Intl. Federation for Human Rights, The Death Penalty in Botswana - Hasty and Secretive Hangings, N° 473/2, http://tcadp.org/TexasDeathPenaltyDevelopments2010.pdf, Jun. 2007.

Elizabeth Maxwell and Alice Mogwe, In the Shadow of the Noose, DITSHWANELO, 2006.

Additional notes regarding this country

None. [1]

References

[1] African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Ratification Table: African Charter on Human and People’s Rights, http://www.achpr.org/instruments/achpr/ratification, last accessed Jul. 18, 2018.

Search Tips   |    Research Methodology   |    Glossary   |    Search