Death Penalty Database

Antigua and Barbuda

Information current as of: September 11, 2013

General

Official Country Name

Antigua and Barbuda. [1]

Geographical Region

Latin America (Caribbean). [2]

Death Penalty Law Status

Abolitionist de facto. Antigua and Barbuda’s last execution was in 1991 according to most sources, including government sources. [3] A few sources state that 1989 was the year of the last execution, but we believe that this is a mistake. [4] Either way, no executions have been carried out in over 10 years.

Methods of Execution

Hanging.
We did not find any legal provision indicating the method of execution used, but several sources confirmed that the method of execution used in the past has been hanging. [5]

Comments.
The Criminal Procedure Act grants the Governor General broad discretion in regulating executions, and it is possible that this authority extends to deciding on the method of execution. The Governor General has the authority to “make such rules and regulations, to be observed on the execution of judgment of death in every prison, as he may deem expedient for the purpose, as well of guarding against any abuse in such execution, as also of giving greater solemnity to the same.” [6] Executions are also carried out in whichever place is ordered by the Governor General. [7]

Death sentences issued by court martials may be carried out in a manner and place to be regulated by the Defence Board. [8] We found no information on how, if any, court martial-ordered executions have been carried out in the past.

References

[1] BBC, Country Profiles: Antigua and Barbuda Profile, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/country_profiles/1191111.stm#facts, June 20, 2012.
[2] U.N., Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings, http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/m49/m49regin.htm, Feb. 11, 2013.
[3] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Antigua and Barbuda, para. 17, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/19/5, Dec. 14, 2011. Amnesty Intl., Death Penalty in the English-Speaking Caribbean: A Human Rights Issue, p. 7, Index AMR/05/001/2012, Nov. 30, 2012. Richard Clark, Capital Punishment in the Commonwealth, Capital Punishment U.K., http://www.capitalpunishmentuk.org/common.html, last accessed Aug. 9, 2013. Amnesty Intl., Document - Antigua and Barbuda: Death Penalty, Index: AMR 58/01/00, Jan. 24, 2000.
[4] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Compilation prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in accordance with paragraph 15 (b) of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 5/1: Antigua and Barbuda, para. 41, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/12/A TG/2, Jul. 25, 2011.
[5] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Antigua and Barbuda, para. 17, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/19/5, Dec. 14, 2011. Richard Clark, Capital Punishment in the Commonwealth, Capital Punishment U.K., http://www.capitalpunishmentuk.org/common.html, last accessed Aug. 9, 2013.
[6] Antigua and Barbuda Criminal Procedure Act, art. 70(8), Mar. 24, 1873, last amended 1981.
[7] Antigua and Barbuda Criminal Procedure Act, art. 69, Mar. 24, 1873, last amended 1981.
[8] Antigua and Barbuda Defence Act, art. 114, Act No. 10 of 2006, Oct. 6, 2006.

Country Details

Language(s)

English. [1]

Population

88,710 (World Bank, 2010). [2]

Number of Individuals Currently Under Sentence of Death

There were 5 people on death row at the end of 2014, after the government pardoned two prisoners. [3] There were no reports of new death sentences in 2013 or 2014. [4]

(This question was last updated on July 22, 2015.)

Annual Number of Reported Executions

Executions in 2017 to date (last updated on October 18, 2017)

0. [5]

Executions in 2016

0. [6]

Per capita execution rate in 2016

Executions in 2015

0. [7]

Per capita execution rate in 2015

0 executions.

Executions in 2014

0. [8]

Per capita execution rate in 2014

0 executions

Executions in 2013

0. [9]

Per capita execution rate in 2013

0 executions

Executions in 2012

0. [10]

Per capita execution rate in 2012

0 executions

Executions in 2011

0. [11]

Per capita execution rate in 2011

0 executions

Executions in 2010

0. [12]

Executions in 2009

0. [13]

Executions in 2008

0. [14]

Executions in 2007

0. [15]

Year of Last Known Execution

1991. Most sources state that the last execution was carried out in 1991, including government sources. [16] A few sources indicate that the year of the last execution was 1989; [17] however we believe this to be a mistake.

References

[1] BBC, Country Profiles: Antigua and Barbuda Profile, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/country_profiles/1191111.stm#facts, June 20, 2012.
[2] BBC, Country Profiles: Antigua and Barbuda Profile, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/country_profiles/1191111.stm#facts, June 20, 2012.
[3] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2014, ACT 50/001/2015, Mar. 31, 2015.
[4] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2013, ACT 50/001/2014, Mar. 26, 2014. Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2014, ACT 50/001/2015, Mar. 31, 2015.
[5] DPW Executions and Death Sentences Monitor.
[6] Amnesty International, Death sentences and executions in 2016, ACT 50/5740/2017, Apr. 11, 2017.
[7] DPW Executions and Death Sentences Monitor.
[8] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2014, ACT 50/001/2015, Mar. 31, 2015.
[9] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2013, ACT 50/001/2014, Mar. 26, 2014.
[10] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2012, ACT 50/001/2012, Apr. 9, 2013.
[11] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2011, ACT 50/001/2012, Mar. 27, 2012.
[12] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2010, p. 5, ACT 50/001/2011, Mar. 28, 2011.
[13] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010.
[14] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, p. 8, ACT 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009.
[15] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2007, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2008, Apr. 15, 2008.
[16] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Antigua and Barbuda, para. 17, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/19/5, Dec. 14, 2011. Amnesty Intl., Death Penalty in the English-Speaking Caribbean: A Human Rights Issue, p. 7, Index AMR/05/001/2012, Nov. 30, 2012. Richard Clark, Capital Punishment in the Commonwealth, Capital Punishment U.K., http://www.capitalpunishmentuk.org/common.html, last accessed Aug. 9, 2013. Amnesty Intl., Document - Antigua and Barbuda: Death Penalty, Index: AMR 58/01/00, Jan. 24, 2000.
[17] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Compilation prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in accordance with paragraph 15 (b) of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 5/1: Antigua and Barbuda, para. 41, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/12/A TG/2, Jul. 25, 2011.

Crimes and Offenders Punishable By Death

Crimes Punishable by Death

Aggravated Murder.
The Offenses Against the Person Act provides: “Whosoever is convicted of murder shall suffer death as a felon.” [1] Since the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (sitting as a Court of Appeal) struck down the mandatory death penalty for murder in 2001 and implied a “exceptionally depraved and heinous” standard, [2] Antigua and Barbuda’s High Court of Justice (a division of the ECSC) has applied a discretionary death penalty and will only issue death sentences for aggravated murder. [3]

Treason.
The Treason Act provides: “Everyone who commits high treason is guilty of an offence triable on indictment and on conviction shall be sentenced to death.” [4] An individual commits high treason by killing, attempting to kill, or doing bodily harm tending to death or destruction of the Queen, the Governor-General, or an acting Governor-General; by levying or preparing to levy war against Antigua and Barbuda; or by assisting an enemy at war with Antigua and Barbuda or engaged in hostilities with forced from Antigua and Barbuda who are operating for the Commonwealth. [5] Following a decision by the Eastern Caribbean Court of Justice in 2001, Antigua and Barbuda’s courts now apply an “exceptionally depraved and heinous” standard to capital sentencing for murder, [6] which might also apply to treason.

Military Offenses Not Resulting in Death.
The Defence Act of 2006 provides for the possibility of the death penalty for assisting the enemy, military espionage, imperiling operations, mutiny and insubordination when done to assist the enemy. [7] It is unclear whether this law complies with the constitutional limitation of the death penalty to murder and treason. [8]

Does the country have a mandatory death penalty?

No. Although the penal law mandates the death penalty for murder [9] and treason, [10] there is no mandatory death penalty. Since the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (sitting as a Court of Appeal) struck down the mandatory death penalty for murder in 2001 and implied a “exceptionally depraved and heinous” standard, [11] Antigua and Barbuda’s High Court of Justice (a division of the ECSC) has applied a discretionary death penalty for aggravated murder. [12] Presumably, the violations of protections against arbitrariness that prohibit the mandatory death penalty [13] would hold true in the case of treason.

For Which Offenses, If Any, Is a Mandatory Death Sentence Imposed?

Under the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court’s jurisprudence, the mandatory death penalty is unconstitutional in Antigua and Barbuda. [14]

Crimes For Which Individuals Have Been Executed Since January 2008:

None. Antigua and Barbuda’s last execution was in 1991. [15]

Categories of Offenders Excluded From the Death Penalty:

Individuals Below Age 18 At Time of Crime.
The Offenses Against the Person Act [16] and Antigua and Barbuda’s commitments under the Convention on the Rights of the Child [17] prohibit the execution of individuals for murder committed while under the age of 18. A juvenile convicted of a death-eligible offense is sentenced instead to a term of imprisonment “during Her Majesty’s pleasure.” [18] In 2011, the Child Rights Information Network submitted a report to the U.N. Human Rights Council expressing concern about the vagueness of this standard, and stating that it had no information on the number of minors held under this provision. [19]

The government has stated that a similar exclusion applies to the offense of treason, although not explicitly mandated in the law. [20]

Pregnant Women.
Expectant mothers cannot be sentenced to death; a sentence of life imprisonment is substituted. [21] The finding of pregnancy is made by a jury [22] and appealable to the Court of Appeal. [23] The burden of proof is on the woman claiming to be pregnant. [24]

Mentally Ill.
A jury may find a defendant “insane” and therefore unfit to stand trial (until he regains sanity). The jury may return a verdict of insanity or a verdict of guilty but insane if it finds an offender was insane “so as not to be responsible according to the law for his actions at the time when the act was done or omission made.” Such defendants may be detained in a facility for those of “unsound mind.” [25]

The Offences Against the Person Act provides an exception to the punishment for murder for a woman who commits infanticide before their child is one year old if at the time of the offense, the “balance of her mind was disturbed by reason of her not having fully recovered from the effect of giving birth to the child.” [26]

References

[1] Antigua and Barbuda Offences Against the Person Act, secs. 2, 3, Apr. 10, 1873, last amended 1986.
[2] Hughes and Spence v. Queen, para. 33, Appeals No. 14 of 1997 and 20 of 1998, ECSC Court of Appeals, Apr. 2, 2001, affirmed by Queen v. Hughes, Appeal No. 91 of 2001, JCPC, Mar. 11, 2002.
[3] Queen v. Monelle, Criminal Case No. 0015/2007, ECSC High Court of Justice, Sep. 18, 2008.
[4] Antigua and Barbuda Treason Act, sec. 7, Act. No. 17 of 1984, Dec. 27, 1984.
[5] Antigua and Barbuda Treason Act, sec. 2, Act. No. 17 of 1984, Dec. 27, 1984.
[6] Hughes and Spence v. Queen, para. 33, Appeals No. 14 of 1997 and 20 of 1998, ECSC Court of Appeals, Apr. 2, 2001, affirmed by Queen v. Hughes, Appeal No. 91 of 2001, JCPC, Mar. 11, 2002; Queen v. Monelle, Criminal Case No. 0015/2007, ECSC High Court of Justice, Sep. 18, 2008.
[7] Antigua and Barbuda Defence Act, arts. 37, 38, 44-46, Act No. 10 of 2006, Oct. 6, 2006.
[8] Antigua and Barbuda Constitution, art. 4(1), Oct. 31, 1981.
[9] Antigua and Barbuda Offences Against the Person Act, secs. 2, 3, Apr. 10, 1873, last amended 1986.
[10] Antigua and Barbuda Treason Act, sec. 7, Act No. 17 of 1984, Dec. 27, 1984.
[11] Hughes and Spence v. Queen, para. 33, Appeals No. 14 of 1997 and 20 of 1998, ECSC Court of Appeals, Apr. 2, 2001, affirmed by Queen v. Hughes, Appeal No. 91 of 2001, JCPC, Mar. 11, 2002.
[12] Queen v. Monelle, Criminal Case No. 0015/2007, ECSC High Court of Justice, Sep. 18, 2008.
[13] Antigua and Barbuda Constitution, art. 4(1), Oct. 31, 1981; Hughes and Spence v. Queen, paras. 51-52, Appeals No. 14 of 1997 and 20 of 1998, ECSC Court of Appeals, Apr. 2, 2001, affirmed by Queen v. Hughes, Appeal No. 91 of 2001, JCPC, Mar. 11, 2002. The ECSC interprets Article 4(1) of Antigua’s Constitution as a protection against arbitrariness. Hughes and Spence also relied on the prohibition against inhuman treatment, but Article 7(2) of Antigua’s Constitution contains a savings clause that might affect that consideration.
[14] Hughes and Spence v. Queen, para. 33, Appeals No. 14 of 1997 and 20 of 1998, ECSC Court of Appeals, Apr. 2, 2001, affirmed by Queen v. Hughes, Appeal No. 91 of 2001, JCPC, Mar. 11, 2002; Queen v. Monelle, Criminal Case No. 0015/2007, ECSC High Court of Justice, Sep. 18, 2008.
[15] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Antigua and Barbuda, para. 17, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/19/5, Dec. 14, 2011. Amnesty Intl., Death Penalty in the English-Speaking Caribbean: A Human Rights Issue, p. 7, Index AMR/05/001/2012, Nov. 30, 2012. Richard Clark, Capital Punishment in the Commonwealth, Capital Punishment U.K., http://www.capitalpunishmentuk.org/common.html, last accessed Aug. 9, 2013. Amnesty Intl., Document - Antigua and Barbuda: Death Penalty, Index: AMR 58/01/00, Jan. 24, 2000.
[16] Antigua and Barbuda Offences Against the Person Act, sec. 3(1), Apr. 10, 1873, last amended 1986.
[17] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, CRC, 1577 U.N.T.S. 3, Aug. 20, 1989, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-11&chapter=4&lang=en, Aug. 9, 2013.
[18] Antigua and Barbuda Offences Against the Person Act, sec. 3(1), Apr. 10, 1873, last amended 1986.
[19] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Summary prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in accordance with paragraph 15 (c) of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 5/1: Antigua and Barbuda, para. 19, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/12/A TG/3, Jul. 22, 2011.
[20] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Summary prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in accordance with paragraph 15 (c) of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 5/1: Antigua and Barbuda, para. 11, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/WG.6/12/A TG/3, Jul. 22, 2011.
[21] Antigua and Barbuda Sentence of Death (Expectant Mothers) Act, art. 2, Mar. 20, 1953, last amended 1961.
[22] Antigua and Barbuda Sentence of Death (Expectant Mothers) Act art. 3(1), Mar. 20, 1953, last amended 1961.
[23] Antigua and Barbuda Sentence of Death (Expectant Mothers) Act, art. 3(4), Mar. 20, 1953, last amended 1961.
[24] Antigua and Barbuda Sentence of Death (Expectant Mothers) Act, art. 3(3), Mar. 20, 1953, last amended 1961.
[25] Antigua and Barbuda Criminal Procedure Act, arts. 51-55, Mar. 24, 1873, last amended 1981.
[26] Antigua and Barbuda Offences Against the Person Act, sec. 6, Apr. 10, 1873, last amended 1986.

International Commitments

ICCPR

Party?

No. [1]

Date of Accession

Not Applicable.

Signed?

No. [2]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

First Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, Recognizing Jurisdiction of the Human Rights Committee

Party?

No. [3]

Date of Accession

Not Applicable.

Signed?

No. [4]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, Toward the Abolition of the Death Penalty

Party?

No. [5]

Date of Accession

Not Applicable.

Signed?

No. [6]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

American Convention on Human Rights

Party?

No. [7]

Date of Accession

Not Applicable.

Signed?

No. [8]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

Death Penalty Protocol to the ACHR

Party?

No. [9]

Date of Accession

Not Applicable.

Signed?

No. [10]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR)

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

Protocol to the ACHPR on the Rights of Women in Africa

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

Arab Charter on Human Rights

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

2016 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [11]

Vote

Against. [12]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [13]

2014 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [14]

Vote

Against. [15]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [16]

2012 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [17]

Vote

Not Present. [18]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [19]

2010 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [20]

Vote

Against. [21]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [22]

2008 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [23]

Vote

Against. [24]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

No. [25]

2007 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [26]

Vote

Against. [27]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [28]

References

[1] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, Aug. 9, 2013.
[2] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, Aug. 9, 2013.
[3] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-5&chapter=4&lang=en, Aug. 9, 2013.
[4] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-5&chapter=4&lang=en, Aug. 9, 2013.
[5] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Second Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, 1642 U.N.T.S. 414, Dec. 15, 1989, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-12&chapter=4&lang=en, Aug. 9, 2013.
[6] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Second Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, 1642 U.N.T.S. 414, Dec. 15, 1989, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-12&chapter=4&lang=en, Aug. 9, 2013.
[7] Status, Declarations, Reservations, Denunciations, Withdrawals, B-32: Amer. Conv. on Human Rights, Pact of San Jose, Costa Rica, Nov. 22, 1969, http://cidh.oas.org/basicos/english/basic4.amer.conv.ratif.htm, last accessed Aug. 9, 2013.
[8] Status, Declarations, Reservations, Denunciations, Withdrawals, B-32: Amer. Conv. on Human Rights, Pact of San Jose, Costa Rica, Nov. 22, 1969, http://cidh.oas.org/basicos/english/basic4.amer.conv.ratif.htm, Aug. 9, 2013.
[9] Status, Declarations, Reservations, Denunciations, Withdrawals, A-53: Prot. to the Amer. Conv. on Human Rights to Abolish the Death Penalty, Jun. 8, 1990, http://cidh.oas.org/basicos/english/basic8.death%20penalty%20ratif.htm, Aug. 9, 2013.
[10] Status, Declarations, Reservations, Denunciations, Withdrawals, A-53: Prot. to the Amer. Conv. on Human Rights to Abolish the Death Penalty, Jun. 8, 1990, http://cidh.oas.org/basicos/english/basic8.death%20penalty%20ratif.htm, Aug. 9, 2013.
[11] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Promotion and protection of human rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 54-71 U.N. Doc. A/71/484/Add.2, Dec. 6, 2016.
[12] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Promotion and protection of human rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 54-71 U.N. Doc. A/71/484/Add.2, Dec. 6, 2016.
[13] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Note Verbale dated 7 September 2017, U.N. Doc. A/71/1047, Sep. 13, 2017.
[14] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 141, 144, U.N. Doc. A/69/488/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2014.
[15] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, 73rd Plenary Meeting, pp. 17-18, U.N. Doc. A/69/PV.73, Dec. 18, 2014.
[16] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, Note Verbale dated 28 July 2015, U.N. Doc. A/69/993, Jul. 29, 2015.
[17] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 95-96, U.N. Doc. A/67/457/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2012.
[18] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, 60th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16-17, U.N. Doc. A/67/PV.60, Dec. 20, 2012.
[19] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, Note Verbale dated 16 April 2013, U.N. Doc. A/67/841, Apr. 23, 2013.
[20] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, includng alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, p. 5, U.N. Doc. A/65/456/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2010.
[21] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, 71st Plenary Meeting, pp. 18-19, U.N. Doc. A/65/PV.71, Dec. 21, 2010.
[22] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, Note Verbale dated 11 March 2011, U.N. Doc. A/65/779, Mar. 11, 2011.
[23] U.N.G.A., 63rd session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, U.N. Doc. A/63/430/Add.2, Dec. 4, 2008.
[24] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, 70th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16- 17, U.N. Doc. A/63/PV.70, Dec. 18, 2008.
[25] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, Note Verbale dated 10 February 2009, U.N. Doc. A/63/716, Feb. 12, 2009.
[26] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, U.N. Doc. A/62/439/Add.2, Dec. 5, 2007.
[27] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, 76th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16- 17, U.N. Doc. A/62/PV.76, Dec. 18, 2007.
[28] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, Note Verbale dated 11 January 2008, U.N. Doc. A/62/658, Feb. 2, 2008.

Death Penalty In Law

Does the country’s constitution make reference to capital punishment?

The Constitution guarantees the right to life, liberty, and security of the person. [1] However, the right to life is restricted by the death penalty for murder or treason if applied by a court: “No person shall be deprived of his life intentionally save in execution of the sentence of a court in respect of a crime of treason or murder of which he has been convicted.” [2] The Constitution also provides for automatic review of death sentences by the Advisory Committee on the Prerogative of Mercy. [3] Finally, the Constitution prohibits persons under sentence of death from holding public office as senators [4] or members of the house of representatives. [5]

Does the country’s constitution make reference to international law?

The Attorney General may give the Director of Public Prosecutions general or special directions concerning the prosecution for an offense “under any law relating to any right or obligation of Antigua and Barbuda under international law.” [6]

Have there been any significant changes in the application of the death penalty over the last several years?

There has been no execution of a death sentence since 1991, [7] making Antigua and Barbuda a de facto abolitionist country. However, there are many signs that the government has no intention of moving towards legal abolition. At its Universal Periodic Review before the U.N. Human Rights Council in 2011, despite declaring itself ready to educate the public about abolition and implying that it had a de facto moratorium, [8] the government stated that it had “no political mandate” for abolition and formally rejected all recommendations to abolish the death penalty or introduce a formal moratorium. The government delegation explained that changing death penalty legislation was not acceptable in light of public opinion about capital punishment. [9] (Nevertheless, the government accepted recommendations that it ratify the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which imposes restrictions on the implementation of capital punishment.) [10] Furthermore, in February 2013, the Minister of National Security, Errol Cort, announced that the government intended to implement the death penalty following a widely mediatized gun murder. [11] Since 2001, the mandatory death penalty has been replaced with a discretionary death penalty to be limited to aggravated murder. [12] Moreover, the Eastern Caribbean Court of Appeals [13] may commute the death sentence of individuals who have been on death row for more than 5 years. [14]

In May 2013, all seven of the country’s death-sentenced prisoners appeared before the High Court and were informed that their sentences would be reviewed on an individual basis. These resentencing hearings are long overdue. Since all seven of these prisoners were sentenced under the mandatory death penalty provisions that were afterwards struck down as unconstitutional, they have been entitled to discretionary resentencing since 2001. [15] In any event, these death sentences are likely to be struck down on the basis of the Privy Council’s ruling in Pratt prohibiting a delay of more than five years in implementing a death penalty. [16] A media account from May 2013 announced that the sentences were scheduled to be reviewed in June 2013. [17] As of August 2013, however, we were unable to locate information on any developments in these cases.

In 2006, the Defense Act set forth the death penalty for some military offenses committed in support of the enemy, [18] but it is unclear whether this law complies with the constitutional limitation of the death penalty to murder and treason. [19]

Is there currently an official moratorium on executions within the country?

No. Although there have been no executions in Antigua and Barbuda since 1991, [20] there is no official moratorium on death sentences or executions. [21] Antigua has clearly indicated its determination to retain the death penalty by signing all four Notes Verbales of dissociation denouncing the U.N. General Assembly’s Moratorium Resolution, [22] and by rejecting all recommendations to abolish capital punishment at its Universal Periodic Review before the U.N. Human Rights Council in 2011. [23]

Have there been any significant published cases concerning the death penalty in national courts?

In 2001, the Eastern Caribbean Court Supreme Court (ECSC) struck down the mandatory death penalty for murder [24] and implied that an “exceptionally depraved and heinous” standard should apply to the imposition of capital punishment. [25] Capital punishment is now only applied in aggravated murder cases and requires the consideration of mitigating circumstances. [26]

The ECSC also applies the delay rule set forth by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in Pratt & Morgan v. Jamaica, under which there is a rebuttable presumption that 5 years on death row (which may include time served under an erroneous sentence) is inhuman punishment and requires commutation of the death sentence. [27]

Where can one locate or access judicial decisions regarding the death penalty?

Antigua and Barbuda’s High Court of Justice and Court of Appeals are divisions of the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, [28] and the highest Court established by the Constitution is the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. [29]

Convictions and sentencing by the High Court of Justice and judgments of the Court of Appeals can be accessed at the webpage of the ECSC at http://www.eccourts.org/category/judgments.

All of the Privy Council’s judgments issued after July 2009 can be found on its website at http://www.jcpc.gov.uk/decided-cases/index.html. Earlier Privy Council judgments can be found on BAILII at http://www.bailii.org/uk/cases/UKPC. The Privy Council Papers website provides detailed case records for all appeals considered by the JCPC between 1792 and 1998: http://www.privycouncilpapers.org.

What is the clemency process?

Under the Constitution, the power of pardon belongs with the Governor General after consultation with the Advisory Committee. [30] The Advisory Committee is composed of a government minister acting in accordance with the Prime Minister’s advice, the Attorney General, the Chief Medical Officer of the government, and a maximum of four other members appointed by the Governor after consultation with the Prime Minister and the leader of the opposition. [31]

All capital sentences must be reviewed by the Advisory Committee on the Prerogative of Mercy. The special Minister appointed by the Governor General causes a report of the case and other useful information to be submitted to the Committee, which makes recommendations to the special Minister. That Minister is not obliged to act in accordance with that advice. The special Minister advises the Governor General, who must act in accordance with that advice, on whether to exercise the prerogative of mercy. [32] The Code of Criminal Procedure reflects these constitutional provisions. [33]

The Defence Act specifically provides that no death sentence issued by a court martial may be carried out unless it has been approved by the Governor General in accordance with this constitutional process. [34]

Are jury trials provided for defendants charged with capital offenses?

Yes. [35]

Brief Description of Appellate Process

Antigua and Barbuda’s High Court of Justice and Court of Appeals are divisions of the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, [36] and the highest Court established by the Constitution is the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. [37] Capital cases are tried and sentenced by the High Court of Justice [38] and appealed to the Court of Appeals, [39] and the JCPC exercises final appellate review. Appeals are as of right when a constitutional question is argued, or by leave of the JCPC in any criminal case. In practice, the JCPC always considers appeals against death sentences. [40] In cases involving the sentence of death, filing deadlines may be strict. [41]

Appeals from court martial-ordered death sentences are to the Court of Appeal and must be lodged within 10 days of the court-martial’s sentence. [42]

References

[1] Antigua and Barbuda Constitution, art. 3(a), Oct. 31, 1981.
[2] Antigua and Barbuda Constitution, art. 4(1), Oct. 31, 1981.
[3] Antigua and Barbuda Constitution, arts. 84-86, Oct. 31, 1981.
[4] Antigua and Barbuda Constitution, arts. 30(1), 31(2), Oct. 31, 1981.
[5] Antigua and Barbuda Constitution, arts. 39(1)(e), 4(1)(a), Oct. 31, 1981.
[6] Antigua and Barbuda Constitution, art. 89(2)(b), Oct. 31, 1981.
[7] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Antigua and Barbuda, para. 17, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/19/5, Dec. 14, 2011. Amnesty Intl., Death Penalty in the English-Speaking Caribbean: A Human Rights Issue, p. 7, Index AMR/05/001/2012, Nov. 30, 2012. Richard Clark, Capital Punishment in the Commonwealth, Capital Punishment U.K., http://www.capitalpunishmentuk.org/common.html, last accessed Aug. 9, 2013. Amnesty Intl., Document - Antigua and Barbuda: Death Penalty, Index: AMR 58/01/00, Jan. 24, 2000.
[8] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Antigua and Barbuda, para. 34, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/19/5, Dec. 14, 2011.
[9] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2012, pp. 12-13, ACT 50/011/2013, http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ACT50/001/2013/en, Apr. 10, 2013.
[10] Amnesty Intl., Document – Antigua and Barbuda : Amnesty International Welcomes the Commitment to Condemn Human Rights Violations Against Persons Becuse of their Sexual Orientation, But Regrets the Rejection of Recommendations to Abolish the Death Penalty, Index: AMR 58/001/2012, Mar. 16, 2012.
[11] Antigua Observer, Antiguan Government vows to enforce death penalty, http://dominicavibes.dm/content/antiguan-government-vows-to-enforce-death-penalty/#utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=antiguan-government-vows-to..., Dominica Vibes, Feb. 27, 2013.
[12] Hughes and Spence v. Queen, para. 33, Appeals No. 14 of 1997 and 20 of 1998, ECSC Court of Appeals, Apr. 2, 2001, affirmed by Queen v. Hughes, Appeal No. 91 of 2001, JCPC, Mar. 11, 2002. Queen v. Monelle, Criminal Case No. 0015/2007, ECSC High Court of Justice, Sep. 18, 2008.
[13] Divisions of the ECSC sit as Antigua and Barbuda’s High Court of Justice and Court of Appeals. Antigua and Barbuda Supreme Court Order No. 223 of 1967, art. 4, as amended in 1985; Antigua and Barbuda Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court Act of Jan. 1, 1970, amended by Act No. 15 of 1985.
[14] Pratt & Morgan v. A.G. of Jamaica, Appeal No. 10 of 1993, JCPC, Nov. 2, 1993; Moise v. Queen, para. 50-54, Criminal Appeal No. 8 of 2003, ECSC Court of Appeal, Jul. 15, 2005.
[15] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Antigua and Barbuda, para. 17, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/19/5, Dec. 14, 2011.
[16] Pratt & Morgan v. A.G. of Jamaica, Appeal No. 10 of 1993, JCPC, Nov. 2, 1993; Moise v. Queen, para. 50-54, Criminal Appeal No. 8 of 2003, ECSC Court of Appeal, Jul. 15, 2005.
[17] Caribarena News, Reaction to Death Row Reprieve, www.caribarena.com/antigua/news/latest/103912-reaction-to-death-row-reprieve.html, May 20, 2013.
[18] Antigua and Barbuda Defence Act, arts. 37, 38, 44-46, Act No. 10 of 2006, Oct. 6, 2006.
[19] Antigua and Barbuda Constitution, art. 4(1), Oct. 31, 1981.
[20] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Antigua and Barbuda, para. 17, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/19/5, Dec. 14, 2011. Amnesty Intl., Death Penalty in the English-Speaking Caribbean: A Human Rights Issue, p. 7, Index AMR/05/001/2012, Nov. 30, 2012. Richard Clark, Capital Punishment in the Commonwealth, Capital Punishment U.K., http://www.capitalpunishmentuk.org/common.html, last accessed Aug. 9, 2013. Amnesty Intl., Document - Antigua and Barbuda: Death Penalty, Index: AMR 58/01/00, Jan. 24, 2000.
[21] Antigua Observer, Antiguan Government vows to enforce death penalty, http://dominicavibes.dm/content/antiguan-government-vows-to-enforce-death-penalty/#utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=antiguan-government-vows-to..., Dominica Vibes, Feb. 27, 2013.
[22] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, Note Verbale dated 16 April 2013, U.N. Doc. A/67/841, Apr. 23, 2013. U.N.G.A., 65th Session, Note Verbale dated 11 March 2011, U.N. Doc. A/65/779, Mar. 11, 2011. U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, Note Verbale dated 10 February 2009, U.N. Doc. A/63/716, Feb. 12, 2009. U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, Note Verbale dated 11 January 2008, U.N. Doc. A/62/658, Feb. 2, 2008.
[23] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2012, pp. 12-13, ACT 50/011/2013, http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ACT50/001/2013/en, Apr. 10, 2013.
[24] Hughes and Spence v. Queen, para. 33, Appeals No. 14 of 1997 and 20 of 1998, ECSC Court of Appeals, Apr. 2, 2001, affirmed by Queen v. Hughes, Appeal No. 91 of 2001, JCPC, Mar. 11, 2002.
[25] Hughes and Spence v. Queen, para. 33, Appeals No. 14 of 1997 and 20 of 1998, ECSC Court of Appeals, Apr. 2, 2001, affirmed by Queen v. Hughes, Appeal No. 91 of 2001, JCPC, Mar. 11, 2002.
[26] Queen v. Monelle, Criminal Case No. 0015/2007, ECSC High Court of Justice, Sep. 18, 2008.
[27] Pratt & Morgan v. A.G. of Jamaica, Appeal No. 10 of 1993, JCPC, Nov. 2, 1993; Moise v. Queen, para. 50-54, Criminal Appeal No. 8 of 2003, ECSC Court of Appeal, Jul. 15, 2005.
[28] Antigua and Barbuda Supreme Court Order, No. 223 of 1967, art. 4, last amended 1985; Antigua and Barbuda Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court Act, Jan. 1, 1970, last amended by Act No. 15 of 1985.
[29] Antigua and Barbuda Constitution, art.122, Oct. 31, 1981.
[30] Antigua and Barbuda Constitution, art. 84, Oct. 31, 1981.
[31] Antigua and Barbuda Constitution, art. 85, Oct. 31, 1981.
[32] Antigua and Barbuda Constitution, arts. 84-86, Oct. 31, 1981.
[33] Antigua and Barbuda Criminal Procedure Act, arts. 66-73, Mar. 24, 1873, last amended 1981.
[34] Antigua and Barbuda Defence Act, art. 118, Act No. 10 of 2006, Oct. 6, 2006.
[35] U.S. Dept. of State, 2012 Human Rights Report: Antigua and Barbuda, http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2012/wha/204420.htm, Apr. 19, 2013.
[36] Antigua and Barbuda Supreme Court Order, Order No. 223 of 1967, art. 4, amended in 1985. Antigua and Barbuda Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court Act, Jan. 1, 1970, amended by Act No. 15 of 1985.
[37] Antigua and Barbuda Constitution, art.122, Oct. 31, 1981.
[38] Queen v. Monelle, Criminal Case No. 0015/2007, ECSC High Court of Justice, Sep. 18, 2008; Antigua and Barbuda Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court Act of Jan. 1, 1970, Part I, amended by Act No. 15 of 1985.
[39] Antigua and Barbuda Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court Act of Jan. 1, 1970, art. 49, amended by Act No. 15 of 1985.
[40] Antigua and Barbuda Constitution, arts.121-122, Oct. 31, 1981. U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Antigua and Barbuda, Denial of Fair Public Trial, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/wha/136097.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[41] Antigua and Barbuda Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court Act of Jan. 1, 1970, art. 48, amended by Act No. 15 of 1985.
[42] Antigua and Barbuda Defence Act, art. 146(2), Act No. 10 of 2006, Oct. 6, 2006

Death Penalty In Practice

Where Are Death-Sentenced Prisoners incarcerated?

All prisoners are incarcerated at Her Majesty's Prison in St John's, the country’s only prison. [1] Pursuant to the Criminal Procedure Act, any prisoner who is sentenced to death must be confined separately from other prisoners. [2]

Description of Prison Conditions

Death row inmates are only allowed visits by the prison’s guards, medical officers and ministers of religion. Other visits are only allowed with permission from the trial court. [3]

Prison conditions generally are very poor. Her Majesty’s Prison, the country’s only prison, is severely overcrowded. In December 2012, there were 361 prisoners in a facility designed to house 150. [4] There are no toilets, and slop pails are used in all cells. Bribery and corruption are common among prison guards, who allegedly take bribes to smuggle in contraband. Poor ventilation means that cell temperatures are very high. Food and hygiene are poor. Pre-trial detainees and convicted prisoners are held separately only where space permits. Juveniles are held together with adults. Fires in 2010 and 2011 made the prison conditions even worse. However, prisoners have access to potable water. Women are held in a separate section with better conditions. Prisoners are able to make complaints. [5]

Are there any known foreign nationals currently under sentence of death?

We did not find reports of foreigners on death row. [6]

What are the nationalities of the known foreign nationals on death row?

We did not find reports of foreigners on death row. [7]

Are there any known women currently under sentence of death?

We did not find reports regarding women under sentence of death. A list of all seven inmates under a sentence of death, published in May 2013, did not include any clearly female names. [8]

Are there any reports of individuals currently under sentence of death who may have been under the age of 18 at the time the crime was committed?

We found no reports of juveniles under sentence of death.

Comments regarding the racial/ethnic composition on death row

We did not find reports regarding the racial or ethnic composition on death row.

Are there lawyers available for indigent defendants facing capital trials?

Yes. Authorities allow criminal defendants prompt access to lawyers and family members. The police must bring criminal defendants before a court to determine the legality of their detention within 48 hours of their arrest or detention. [9]

Are there lawyers available for indigent prisoners on appeal?

The government funds the representation of indigents facing capital charges, [10] but we did not find any specific law or statement that this extended to the appeals process.

Comments on Quality of Legal Representation

The law provides that lawyers may not refuse to take a capital case “except for good reason.” [11]

The U.S. State Department 2012 Human Rights Report for Antigua and Barbuda found that authorities allow criminal defendants prompt access to lawyers and family members. The report also noted that “[d]efendants enjoy a presumption of innocence, have timely access to counsel, may confront or question witnesses, and have the right to appeal.” [12] We have no information about the quality of legal representation.

Other Comments on Criminal Justice System

According to the U.S. Department of State, a defendant’s right to a fair trial by an impartial judiciary is enforced in Antigua and Barbuda. [13]

The police reportedly make excessive use of force when making arrests. [14]

The lengthiness of criminal judicial proceedings is a problem. Criminal trials used to occur three times a year in Antigua. However, recent reforms have attempted to address this problem, in particular by “introducing criminal trials throughout the whole year with one or two judges dedicated towards dealing with criminal trials.” [15] Moreover, Antigua has “introduced legislation that abolished and replaced preliminary investigations in respect of indictable offences with paper committals to ensure speedy trials.” [16]

References

[1] International Center for Prison Studies, World Prison Brief: Antigua and Barbuda, King’s College, London, http://www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/wpb_country.php?country=57, last accessed Aug. 12, 2013.
[2] Antigua and Barbuda Criminal Procedure Act, art. 68, Mar. 24, 1873, last amended 1981.
[3] Antigua and Barbuda Criminal Procedure Act, art. 68, Mar. 24, 1873, last amended 1981.
[4] International Center for Prison Studies, World Prison Brief: Antigua and Barbuda, King’s College, London, http://www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/wpb_country.php?country=57, last accessed Aug. 12, 2013.
[5] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Antigua and Barbuda, Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/wha/136097.htm, Mar. 11, 2010
[6] Mark Warren, Foreigners Under Sentence of Death Worldwide, http://users.xplornet.com/~mwarren/world.html, Jan. 19, 2013.
[7] Mark Warren, Foreigners Under Sentence of Death Worldwide, http://users.xplornet.com/~mwarren/world.html, Jan. 19, 2013.
[8] Caribarena News, Reaction to Death Row Reprieve, www.caribarena.com/antigua/news/latest/103912-reaction-to-death-row-reprieve.html, May 20, 2013.
[9] U.S. Dept. of State, 2012 Human Rights Report: Antigua and Barbuda, http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2012/wha/204420.htm, Apr. 19, 2013.
[10] U.S. Dept. of State, 2012 Human Rights Report: Antigua and Barbuda, http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2012/wha/204420.htm, Apr. 19, 2013.
[11] Antigua and Barbuda Legal Profession Act, art. 17, Act No. 9 of 1997, Jun. 12, 1997.
[12] U.S. Dept. of State, 2012 Human Rights Report: Antigua and Barbuda, http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2012/wha/204420.htm, Apr. 19, 2013.
[13] U.S. Dept. of State, 2012 Human Rights Report: Antigua and Barbuda, http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2012/wha/204420.htm, Apr. 19, 2013.
[14] U.S. Dept. of State, 2012 Human Rights Report: Antigua and Barbuda, http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2012/wha/204420.htm, Apr. 19, 2013.
[15] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Antigua and Barbuda, para. 64, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/19/5, Dec. 14, 2011.
[16] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Antigua and Barbuda, para. 64, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/19/5, Dec. 14, 2011.

Decisions of International Human Rights Bodies

Decisions of Human Rights Committee

Antigua and Barbuda is not a party to the ICCPR, [1] so the Human Rights Committee does not issue observations or decisions on petitions.

Decisions of Other Human Rights Bodies

At its Universal Periodic Review before the U.N. Human Rights Council in 2011, the government stated that it had “no political mandate” for abolition but that it intended to educate the public towards abolition, particularly in the context of regional cooperation on the issue among nations which share the jurisdiction of the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court. The delegation also implied that it might be moving towards abolition since it had a de facto moratorium on executions and had considered commuting existing death sentences into life imprisonment. [2] However, the government formally rejected all recommendations to abolish the death penalty. [3] Authorities stated that changing death penalty legislation was not acceptable in light of public opinion about capital punishment. [4] Nevertheless, the government accepted recommendations that it ratify international human rights conventions such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which imposes restrictions on the implementation of capital punishment. [5] It also accepted a recommendation that it “rigorously apply international standards for fair trial in all death penalty cases and respect national legal procedures and the standards required by the Privy Council and the United Nations for the protection of the rights of prisoners sentenced to death.”

References

[1] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Aug. 12, 2013.
[2] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Antigua and Barbuda, para. 34, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/19/5, Dec. 14, 2011.
[3] U.N.G.A. Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Antigua and Barbuda, paras. 69.1-69.8, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/19/5, Dec. 14, 2011.
[4] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2012, pp. 12-13, ACT 50/011/2013, http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ACT50/001/2013/en, Apr. 10, 2013.
[5] Amnesty Intl., Document – Antigua and Barbuda : Amnesty International Welcomes the Commitment to Condemn Human Rights Violations Against Persons Becuse of their Sexual Orientation, But Regrets the Rejection of Recommendations to Abolish the Death Penalty, Index: AMR 58/001/2012, Mar. 16, 2012.

Additional Sources and Contacts

Direct member(s) of World Coalition Against the Death Penalty

None.

Other non-governmental organizations and individuals engaged in advocacy surrounding the death penalty

The Child Rights International Network (CRIN), based in London, submitted a report to the U.N. Human Rights Council in 2011 dealing with children and the death penalty in Antigua and Barbuda.

CRIN
East Studio
2 Pontypool Place
London, SE1 8QF
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0)207 401 2257
info@crin.org
www.crin.org

Helpful Reports and Publications

Child Rights International Network, Inhuman sentencing of child offenders in Antigua and Barbuda, http://www.crin.org/resources/infoDetail.asp?ID=26481&flag=report, Oct. 28, 2011.

Additional notes regarding this country

None.

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