Death Penalty Database
(Archived Reports)

Mongolia

Information current as of: March 28, 2012

General

Official Country Name

Mongolia. [1]

Geographical Region

Asia (Eastern Asia). [2]

Death Penalty Law Status

Retentionist. [3] The last known execution in Mongolia took place in 2008. According to the U.N.’s definition, Mongolia is therefore a retentionist state, because it has carried out at least one execution in the previous 10 years.

On March 13, 2012, however, Mongolia ratified the Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, [4] indicating that the country is poised to completely abolish the death penalty. Nevertheless, until the criminal laws providing for the death penalty are repealed, Mongolia continues to be classified as retentionist.

The Protocol will enter into force on June 13, 2012. [5]

Methods of Execution

Shooting.
(bullet to the neck). [6]

References

[1] U.S. Dept. of State, Background Note: Mongolia, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2779.htm, Jan. 6, 2012.
[2] U.N., Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings, http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/m49/m49regin.htm, Sep. 20, 2011.
[3] Tsakhia Elbegdorj, The Path of Democratic Mongolia Must be Clean and Bloodless, http://www.president.mn/eng/newsCenter/viewNews.php?newsId=122, The Office of the President of Mongolia, Public Relations, & Communications Division, Jan. 14, 2010.
[4] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty, 1642 U.N.T.S. 414, Dec. 15, 1989, http://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-12&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Mar. 21, 2012.
[5] U.N. Secretary General, Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, New York, 15 December 1989, Mongolia: Accession, U.N. Reference: C.N.148.2012.TREATIES-IV.12 (Depositary Notification), Mar. 15, 2012.
[6] San Diego Accountants Guide, Capital Punishment in Mongolia Multimedia Information, http://www.sandiegoaccountantsguide.com/library/Capital-punishment-in-Mongolia.php, Jun. 25, 2010.

Country Details

Language(s)

Mongolian. [1]

Population

2,754,000. (2010). [2]

Number of Individuals Currently Under Sentence of Death

0. Although the death penalty still exists de jure, no prisoners are under sentence of death: By Presidential action, all death sentences in effect as of January 15, 2009 were commuted to 30 years imprisonment, and the President announced a policy of commuting death sentences. [3]

Annual Number of Reported Executions

Executions in 2017 to date

0. [4]

Executions in 2016 (last updated on December 20, 2017)

0. [5]

Per capita execution rate in 2016

Executions in 2015

0. [6]

Per capita execution rate in 2015

0 executions.

Executions in 2014

0. [7]

Per capita execution rate in 2014

0 executions

Executions in 2013

0. [8]

Per capita execution rate in 2013

0 executions

Executions in 2012

0. [9]

Per capita execution rate in 2012

0 executions

Executions in 2011

0. [10]

Per capita execution rate in 2011

0 executions

Executions in 2010

0. [11]

Executions in 2009

0. [12]

Executions in 2008

One or more individuals were executed in Mongolia in 2008. Amnesty International reports conflict: Amnesty’s annual report indicates only that one or more execution was reported, while other Amnesty publications indicate that 5 or more executions occurred. [13]

Executions in 2007

Although Amnesty International believes executions took place in Mongolia in 2007, Amnesty did not obtain verifiable reports, [14] and as of July 1, 2010, neither had we.

Year of Last Known Execution

2008. At least one execution took place in 2008. [15]

References

[1] U.S. Dept. of State, Background Note: Mongolia, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2779.htm, Jan. 6, 2012.
[2] U.S. Dept. of State, Background Note: Mongolia, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2779.htm, Jan. 6, 2012.
[3] Tsakhia Elbegdorj, The Path of Democratic Mongolia Must be Clean and Bloodless, http://www.president.mn/eng/newsCenter/viewNews.php?newsId=122, The Office of the President of Mongolia, Public Relations, & Communications Division, Jan. 14, 2010; Times Online, Mongolia to Abolish Death Penalty, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article6989156.ece, Jan. 15, 2010.
[4] DPW Executions and Death Sentences Monitor.
[5] Amnesty International, Death sentences and executions in 2016, ACT 50/5740/2017, Apr. 11, 2017.
[6] DPW Executions and Death Sentences Monitor.
[7] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2014, ACT 50/001/2015, Mar. 31, 2015.
[8] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2013, ACT 50/001/2014, Mar. 26, 2014.
[9] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2012, ACT 50/001/2012, Apr. 9, 2013.
[10] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2011, ACT 50/001/2012, http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ACT50/001/2012/en, Mar. 27, 2012
[11] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2010, p. 5, ACT 50/001/2011, Mar. 28, 2011.
[12] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, p. 2, Doc. MDE 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010.
[13] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, p. 8, Doc. 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009; Amnesty Intl., Mongolian Death Row Inmate Receives Pardon, http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/good-news/mongolian-death-row-inmate-receives-pardon-20091015, Oct. 15, 2009.
[14] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2007, p. 6, ACT 50/001/2008, Apr. 15, 2008.
[15] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2008, p. 8, Doc. 50/003/2009, Mar. 24, 2009; Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2009, p. 2, Doc. MDE 50/001/2010, Mar. 30, 2010. .

Crimes and Offenders Punishable By Death

Crimes Punishable by Death

Aggravated Murder. [1]

Terrorism-Related Offenses Resulting in Death. [2]
Assassination of a state or public figure with intent to cause disorder, coerce the government or interfere with the process of democracy is punishable by death. Banditry—arson, bombing, poisoning and other destructive activities aimed at creating an armed group to disrupt public security—is punishable by death. These could sometimes be considered treasonable offenses, but are enumerated at terrorism and banditry

Terrorism-Related Offenses Not Resulting in Death. [3]
Banditry—membership in an organized group that organizes, attempts or commits arson, bombing, poisoning or other destructive activities aimed at creating an armed group to disrupt public security—may be punishable by death. Recidivism in organizing, attempts or committing such activities is punishable by death.

Rape Not Resulting in Death. [4]
Recidivist rapists or rapists causing grave injury may be punished by death. Rape of a child under the age of 14 may be punished by death.

Other Offenses Not Resulting in Death.
Genocide. [5]

Does the country have a mandatory death penalty?

No. [6] The U.N. Secretary-General’s quinquennial report on the death penalty published in 2010 indicates that Mongolia, in response to a questionnaire, indicated that for the crimes of banditry (terrorism), assassination of officials or public figures (to disrupt the state), certain aggravated murder and genocide, the mandatory death penalty can be imposed. [7] It is unclear whether this indicates a fundamental misunderstanding of the question or else that Mongolia’s laws have changed. In the penal law that we have accessed as of March 21, 2012, courts have discretion in sentencing and specific alternatives to the death penalty are noted in the law.

For Which Offenses, If Any, Is a Mandatory Death Sentence Imposed?

None. Courts may exercise discretion in sentencing.

On January 5, 2012, the State Great Khural (parliament) passed a bill to ratify the Second Optional Protocol (ICCPR), [8] and on March 13, 2012, Mongolia ratified the Protocol, which aims at the abolition of the death penalty. Although Mongolia has not repealed the criminal provisions above providing for capital punishment, in practice it appears unlikely that Mongolia will carry out any executions in the near future. The Protocol will enter into force on June 13, 2012. [9]

Crimes For Which Individuals Have Been Executed Since January 2008:

The last known execution in Mongolia took place in 2008. [10] However, we did not find any reports as of March 21, 2012 indicating for which offense(s) those offenders had been executed.

Categories of Offenders Excluded From the Death Penalty:

Individuals Below Age 18 At Time of Crime. [11]
The Criminal Code of 2002 indicates that individuals under the age of 16 at the time of the offense cannot be sentenced to death; we were unable to find the Code of Criminal Procedure. However, under Mongolia’s Constitution, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Covenant on the Rights of the Child, executions of individuals for crimes committed while under the age of 18 are prohibited. [12] The 2010 concluding observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child did not indicate that Mongolia sentences persons to death for crimes committed while under the age of 18. [13]

Women.
Women cannot be executed in Mongolia. [14]

Pregnant Women.
Women cannot be executed in Mongolia. [15]

Women With Small Children.
Women cannot be executed in Mongolia. [16]

Intellectually Disabled. [17]
"Mental deficiency" is a grounds for non-imputability or for delaying a trial; we do not know whether this is interpreted to exclude some intellectually disabled persons from capital punishment or facing capital sentencing.

Mentally Ill. [18]
Non-imputability because an individual was "unable to realize the socially dangerous nature of his/her act or omission or to control it" may result in compulsory medical measures instead of conviction. The same can be true in cases of intoxication. Individuals who, after an offense, become unable to realize the nature of their actions, may be committed for medical treatment until they are able to stand trial or face sentencing.

Elderly.
Individuals over the age of 60 cannot be executed. [19]

References

[1] Criminal Code of Mongolia, arts. 91, 2002, translation: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
[2] Criminal Code of Mongolia, arts. 81, 177, 2002, translation: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
[3] Criminal Code of Mongolia, art. 177, 2002, translation: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
[4] Criminal Code of Mongolia, art. 126.2.3, 2002, translation: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
[5] Criminal Code of Mongolia, art. 302, 2002, translation: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
[6] Criminal Code of Mongolia, arts. 54-56, 2002, translation: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
[7] U.N. ESC, Report of the Secretary-General, Capital Punishment and Implementation of the Safeguards Guaranteeing Protection of the Rights of Those Facing the Death Penalty, p. 34, UN Doc. E/2010/10, Dec. 18, 2009.
[8] Amnesty Intl., Asia-Pacific, Mongolia Should Realize Abolition of the Death Penalty in 2011, http://asiapacific.amnesty.org/apro/APROweb.nsf/pages/adpan_14012011, Jan. 14, 2011.RTTNews, Mongolia: Parliament Passes Bill to Abolish the Death Penalty, www.handsoffcain.info/news/index.php?iddocumento=16300188, Jan. 5, 2012.
[9] U.N. Secretary General, Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, New York, 15 December 1989, Mongolia: Accession, U.N. Reference: C.N.148.2012.TREATIES-IV.12 (Depositary Notification), Mar. 15, 2012.
[10] Tsakhia Elbegdorj, The Path of Democratic Mongolia Must be Clean and Bloodless, http://www.president.mn/eng/newsCenter/viewNews.php?newsId=122, The Office of the President of Mongolia, Public Relations, & Communications Division, Jan. 14, 2010.
[11] U.N., Press Release, http://www.unhchr.ch/huricane/huricane.nsf/0/8E61783D9ED31093802568AC0037D5DB?opendocument, Mar. 22, 2000.
[12] The Constitution of Mongolia, ch. 1, art. 10(3), Jan. 13, 1992, translation: International Constitutional Law, Feb. 12, 1992; ICCPR, art. 6(5), 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966 (prohibiting the execution of individuals under the age of 18 at the time of the crime); Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Jun. 10, 2010 (indicating no relevant exceptions); CRC, art. 37(a), 1577 U.N.T.S. 3, Nov. 20, 1989 (prohibiting the execution of individuals under the age of 18 at the time of the crime); Status, Declarations, and Reservations, CRC, 1577 U.N.T.S. 3, Nov. 20, 1989, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-11&chapter=4&lang=en, accessed Jul. 1, 2010 (indicating no relevant exceptions).
[13] U.N. CRC, Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding Observations: Mongolia, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/MNG/CO/3-4, Jan. 29, 2010.
[14] Criminal Code of Mongolia, art. 53.4, 2002, translation: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
[15] Criminal Code of Mongolia, art. 53.4, 2002, translation: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
[16] Criminal Code of Mongolia, art. 53.4, 2002, translation: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
[17] Criminal Code of Mongolia, art. 22.1-22.2, 2002, translation: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
[18] Criminal Code of Mongolia, arts. 22.1-22.2, 23, 2002, translation: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
[19] Criminal Code of Mongolia, art. 53.4, 2002, translation: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.

International Commitments

ICCPR

Party?

Yes. [1]

Date of Accession

November 18, 1974. [2]

Signed?

Yes. [3]

Date of Signature

June 5, 1968. [4]

First Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, Recognizing Jurisdiction of the Human Rights Committee

Party?

Yes. [5]

Date of Accession

April 16, 1991. [6]

Signed?

No. [7]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, Toward the Abolition of the Death Penalty

Party?

Yes. [8]

Date of Accession

Mar. 13, 2012. [9]

Signed?

No. [10]

Date of Signature

Not Applicable.

American Convention on Human Rights

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

Death Penalty Protocol to the ACHR

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR)

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

Protocol to the ACHPR on the Rights of Women in Africa

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

Arab Charter on Human Rights

Party?

Not Applicable.

Date of Accession

Signed?

Not Applicable.

Date of Signature

2016 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

Vote

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

2014 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

Yes. [11]

Vote

In Favor. [12]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

No. [13]

2012 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

Yes. [14]

Vote

In Favor. [15]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

No. [16]

2010 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [17]

Vote

In Favor. [18]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

No. [19]

2008 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [20]

Vote

Against. [21]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [22]

2007 Record of Votes on the UN General Assembly Moratorium Resolution

Cosponsor

No. [23]

Vote

Against. [24]

Signed the Note Verbale of Dissociation

Yes. [25]

References

[1] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Mar. 21, 2012.
[2] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Mar. 21, 2012.
[3] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Mar. 21, 2012.
[4] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-4&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Mar. 21, 2012.
[5] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-5&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Mar. 21, 2012.
[6] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-5&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Mar. 21, 2012.
[7] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Optional Prot. to the ICCPR, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, Dec. 16, 1966, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-5&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Mar. 21, 2012.
[8] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty, 1642 U.N.T.S. 414, Dec. 15, 1989, http://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-12&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Mar. 21, 2012.
[9] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty, 1642 U.N.T.S. 414, Dec. 15, 1989, http://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-12&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Mar. 21, 2012Feb. 25, 2011.
[10] Status, Declarations, and Reservations, Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty, 1642 U.N.T.S. 414, Dec. 15, 1989, http://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-12&chapter=4&lang=en, last accessed Mar. 21, 2012.
[11] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 141, 144, U.N. Doc. A/69/488/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2014.
[12] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, 73rd Plenary Meeting, pp. 17-18, U.N. Doc. A/69/PV.73, Dec. 18, 2014.
[13] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, Note Verbale dated 28 July 2015, U.N. Doc. A/69/993, Jul. 29, 2015.
[14] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. 95-96, U.N. Doc. A/67/457/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2012.
[15] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, 60th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16-17, U.N. Doc. A/67/PV.60, Dec. 20, 2012.
[16] U.N.G.A., 67th Session, Note Verbale dated 16 April 2013, U.N. Doc. A/67/841, Apr. 23, 2013.
[17] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, p. 5, U.N. Doc. A/65/456/Add.2, Dec. 8, 2010.
[18] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, 71st Plenary Meeting, pp. 18-19, U.N. Doc. A/65/PV.71, Dec. 21, 2010.
[19] U.N.G.A., 65th Session, Note Verbale dated 11 March 2011, U.N. Doc. A/65/779, Mar. 11, 2011.
[20] U.N.G.A., 63rd session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, U.N. Doc. A/63/430/Add.2, Dec. 4, 2008.
[21] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, 70th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16-17, U.N. Doc. A/63/PV.70, Dec. 18, 2008.
[22] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, Note Verbale dated 10 February 2009, U.N. Doc. A/63/716, Feb. 12, 2009.
[23] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, pp. 3-4, U.N. Doc. A/62/439/Add.2, Dec. 5, 2007.
[24] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, 76th Plenary Meeting, pp. 16- 17, U.N. Doc. A/62/PV.76, Dec. 18, 2007.
[25] U.N.G.A., 62nd Session, Note Verbale dated 11 January 2008, U.N. Doc. A/62/658, Feb. 2, 2008.

Death Penalty In Law

Does the country’s constitution make reference to capital punishment?

Deprivation of the right to life is “strictly prohibited unless capital punishment as constituted by Mongolian penal law for the most serious crimes is imposed as a final decision by a competent court.” [1]

Does the country’s constitution make reference to international law?

Yes. The constitution grants citizens a right to appeal if a citizen thinks his rights under an international treaty have been violated. [2] Also, “the international treaties to which Mongolia is a Party become effective as domestic legislation upon the entry into force of the laws or on their ratification or accession,” [3] and “Mongolia shall not abide by any international treaty or other instruments incompatible with its Constitution.” [4] These provisions indicate that, while Mongolia cannot restrict its citizens’ rights through treaties, its citizens can assert rights under international law that has been accepted by Mongolia.

Have there been any significant changes in the application of the death penalty over the last several years?

Yes. On January 5, 2012, the State Great Khural (parliament) passed a bill to ratify the Second Optional Protocol (ICCPR), [5] and on March 13, 2012, Mongolia ratified the Protocol, which aims at the abolition of the death penalty. Although Mongolia has not repealed the criminal provisions above providing for capital punishment, in practice it appears unlikely that Mongolia will carry out any executions in the near future. The Protocol will enter into force on June 13, 2012. [6] The ratification of the Second Optional Protocol is the culmination of the steadfast abolitionist policies followed by President Elbegdorj, who began commuting death sentences in June of 2009 and announced an executive moratorium on executions in January of 2010. [7] By January 2011 the State Great Khural (Parliament) was considering a bill to ratify the Second Optional Protocol (ICCPR) aiming at the abolition of the death penalty, [8] while another bill would reportedly reduce the scope of the death penalty to include only aggravated murder and assassination of officials. [9]

In recognition of his abolitionist activity, President Elbegdorj received the “Abolitionist of the Year 2011” Award from abolitionist organization Hands Off Cain in October 2011. [10] On January 5, 2012, the Great State Khural passed the bill in favor of ratifying the Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR by a large majority. [11]

Is there currently an official moratorium on executions within the country?

Yes. [12] In January 2010, President Elbegdorj announced an executive moratorium on executions. [13]

Furthermore, the country is on the brink of complete abolition. On January 5, 2012, the State Great Khural (parliament) passed a bill to ratify the Second Optional Protocol (ICCPR), [14] and on March 13, 2012, Mongolia ratified the Protocol, which aims at the abolition of the death penalty. Although Mongolia has not repealed the criminal provisions above providing for capital punishment, in practice it appears unlikely that Mongolia will carry out any executions in the near future. The Protocol will enter into force on June 13, 2012. [15]

Have there been any significant published cases concerning the death penalty in national courts?

We did not find any published cases as of Mar. 21, 2012.

Where can one locate or access judicial decisions regarding the death penalty?

As of Mar. 21, 2012, we did not find any judicial decisions regarding the death penalty.

What is the clemency process?

A condemned individual has the right to petition the President for pardon, and the President must confirm a death sentence before execution. The legislature may issue a general amnesty. [16] In practice the President may announce moratoria and commute all death sentences. [17]

Are jury trials provided for defendants charged with capital offenses?

The US Department of State indicates that juries are not used. [18] Other sources indicate that citizen representatives give opinions of the evidence, but the final decision is made a majority of the professional judges. [19]

Brief Description of Appellate Process

Capital cases are tried in Provincial Court (Called the Aimag Court) before three judges and three citizen representatives and appealed to the Supreme Court. When a judge of the Provincial Court dissents from a judgment, the Supreme Court must review the lower court’s judgment. The Constitutional Court hears appeals based on constitutional issues. [20]

References

[1] The Constitution of Mongolia, art. 16(1), Jan. 13, 1992, translation: International Constitutional Law, Feb. 12, 1992.
[2] The Constitution of Mongolia, ch. 2, art. 16(14), Jan. 13, 1992, translation: International Constitutional Law, Feb. 12, 1992.
[3] The Constitution of Mongolia, ch. 1, art. 10(3), Jan. 13, 1992, translation: International Constitutional Law, Feb. 12, 1992.
[4] The Constitution of Mongolia, ch. 1, art. 10(4), Jan. 13, 1992, translation: International Constitutional Law, Feb. 12, 1992.
[5] Amnesty Intl., Asia-Pacific, Mongolia Should Realize Abolition of the Death Penalty in 2011, http://asiapacific.amnesty.org/apro/APROweb.nsf/pages/adpan_14012011, Jan. 14, 2011.RTTNews, Mongolia: Parliament Passes Bill to Abolish the Death Penalty, www.handsoffcain.info/news/index.php?iddocumento=16300188, Jan. 5, 2012.
[6] U.N. Secretary General, Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, New York, 15 December 1989, Mongolia: Accession, U.N. Reference: C.N.148.2012.TREATIES-IV.12 (Depositary Notification), Mar. 15, 2012.
[7] Tsakhia Elbegdorj, The Path of Democratic Mongolia Must be Clean and Bloodless, The Office of the President of Mongolia, Public Relations, & Communications Division, http://www.president.mn/eng/newsCenter/viewNews.php?newsId=122, Jan. 14, 2010.
[8] Amnesty Intl., Asia-Pacific, Mongolia Should Realize Abolition of the Death Penalty in 2011, http://asiapacific.amnesty.org/apro/APROweb.nsf/pages/adpan_14012011, Jan. 14, 2011.
[9] Mongolia to Abolish Death Penalty, Times Online, Jan. 15, 2010, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article6989156.ece.
[10] Adnkronos, HOC: ‘Abolitionist of the Year 2011’ Awarded to Mongolian President Elbegdorj, http://english.nessunotocchicaino.it/news/index.php?iddocumento=15312549, Oct. 17, 2011.
[11] Amnesty Intl., Mongolia takes ‘vital step forward’ in abolishing the death penalty, http://www.amnesty.org/en/news/mongolia-takes-vital-step-forward-abolishing-death-penalty-2012-01-05, Jan. 5, 2012.
[12] Tsakhia Elbegdorj, The Path of Democratic Mongolia Must be Clean and Bloodless, The Office of the President of Mongolia, Public Relations, & Communications Division, http://www.president.mn/eng/newsCenter/viewNews.php?newsId=122, Jan. 14, 2010.
[13] Tsakhia Elbegdorj, The Path of Democratic Mongolia Must be Clean and Bloodless, The Office of the President of Mongolia, Public Relations, & Communications Division, http://www.president.mn/eng/newsCenter/viewNews.php?newsId=122, Jan. 14, 2010.
[14] Amnesty Intl., Asia-Pacific, Mongolia Should Realize Abolition of the Death Penalty in 2011, http://asiapacific.amnesty.org/apro/APROweb.nsf/pages/adpan_14012011, Jan. 14, 2011.RTTNews, Mongolia: Parliament Passes Bill to Abolish the Death Penalty, www.handsoffcain.info/news/index.php?iddocumento=16300188, Jan. 5, 2012.
[15] U.N. Secretary General, Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, New York, 15 December 1989, Mongolia: Accession, U.N. Reference: C.N.148.2012.TREATIES-IV.12 (Depositary Notification), Mar. 15, 2012.
[16] The Constitution of Mongolia, arts. 14(4), 33(8), Jan. 13, 1992, translation: International Constitutional Law, Feb. 12, 1992; Criminal Code of Mongolia, arts. 53.5, 75, 2002, translation: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees; Tsakhia Elbegdorj, The Path of Democratic Mongolia Must be Clean and Bloodless, The Office of the President of Mongolia, Public Relations, & Communications Division, http://www.president.mn/eng/newsCenter/viewNews.php?newsId=122, Jan. 14, 2010.
[17] Tsakhia Elbegdorj, The Path of Democratic Mongolia Must be Clean and Bloodless, The Office of the President of Mongolia, Public Relations, & Communications Division, http://www.president.mn/eng/newsCenter/viewNews.php?newsId=122, Jan. 14, 2010.
[18] U.S. Dept. of State, 2010 Human Rights Report: Mongolia, http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/eap/154394.htm, Apr. 8, 2011.
[19] Asian Development Bank, Developing Mongolia's Legal Framework: A Needs Analysis: The Judicial System, http://www.asianlii.org/asia/other/ADBLPRes/1995/1.html, last accessed Mar. 28, 2012.
[20] Asian Development Bank, Developing Mongolia's Legal Framework: A Needs Analysis: The Judicial System, http://www.asianlii.org/asia/other/ADBLPRes/1995/1.html, last accessed Mar. 28, 2012. U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Mongolia, Arbitrary Arrest or Detention, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/eap/136001.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.

Death Penalty In Practice

Where Are Death-Sentenced Prisoners incarcerated?

In December of 2005, the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment reported on death row facilities at the Gants Hudag and Zuunmond detention facilities. [1] Only nine prisoners were believed to be on death row by the end of 2009, [2] so inhabited death row facilities at that time might not have been numerous.

As of Mar. 21, 2012, however, there are no persons under sentence of death in Mongolia. [3] Furthermore, the country is on the brink of complete abolition. On January 5, 2012, the State Great Khural (parliament) passed a bill to ratify the Second Optional Protocol (ICCPR), [4] and on March 13, 2012, Mongolia ratified the Protocol, which aims at the abolition of the death penalty. Although Mongolia has not repealed the criminal provisions above providing for capital punishment, in practice it appears unlikely that Mongolia will carry out any executions in the near future. The Protocol will enter into force on June 13, 2012. [5]

Reports indicate that death-sentenced prisoners who are pardoned (which commutes the sentence to 30 years imprisonment) may serve their sentences in solitary confinement in Prison 405—this was the case in 2005. [6] By 2010, some individuals who had served lengthy commuted sentences in a prison of “strictest regime” who were moved to a prison of a “less strict regime.” [7]

Description of Prison Conditions

As of Mar. 21, 2012, there are no persons under sentence of death in Mongolia. [8] Furthermore, the country is on the brink of complete abolition. On January 5, 2012, the State Great Khural (parliament) passed a bill to ratify the Second Optional Protocol (ICCPR), [9] and on March 13, 2012, Mongolia ratified the Protocol, which aims at the abolition of the death penalty. Although Mongolia has not repealed the criminal provisions above providing for capital punishment, in practice it appears unlikely that Mongolia will carry out any executions in the near future. The Protocol will enter into force on June 13, 2012. [10]

However, according to the President, many prisoners who had their death sentences commuted are still incarcerated under “strict” or “the strongest” regimes, in conditions so severe that no pardoned prisoner has ever survived a 30-year sentence, with sentences ending in death due to illness or suicide. [11] This is consistent with the December 2005 report of the Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, who observed the conditions under which prisoners with commuted death sentences are confined in Prison 405. Reports indicated these prisoners had occasionally been physically abused. While the state claimed to offer medical services, inmates’ medical needs had gone unaddressed. Furthermore, prisoners were essentially confined 24 hours a day in small cells “with no possibility of any leisure, educational or vocational activities,” despite the state’s claim that such activities were offered or permitted. Visitation was extremely limited. As of 2005, prisoners held under commuted death sentences “[had] nothing to do” and were “visibly depressed,” and “some [said] they would have preferred the death penalty to their isolation.” [12] By 2010, this situation may have changed for some offenders with commuted death sentences, although most offenders are reportedly subject to imprisonment of the “strictest regime.” [13]

Prior to the President’s moratorium, the Special Rapporteur expressed concern regarding the secrecy of the application of the death penalty, including the “deplorable conditions on death row and the lack of notifications of families,” as well as the absence of official data. [14] The treatment of prisoners spending 30 years in solitary confinement is inhumane. Some on death row were kept shackled in dark cells for months, and were only allowed a visit by one family member before execution. [15]

US Department of State reports indicate that conditions for prisoners in Mongolia are improving, although “the low quality of medical care available to prisoners remained a concern” and tuberculosis infection remained a serious problem. [16] However, for two years running NGOs have reported that prison conditions improved, [17] “particularly with regard to general cleanliness and ventilation. With the construction of 12 new prison facilities since 2006 and the refurbishing of old ones, overcrowding in prisons subsided. Additionally, university-educated social workers and psychologists increasingly were employed full time for consultations with prisoners. Prisoners were offered a greater range of vocational, educational, outdoor, and religious activities. NGOs provided clothing, food, books, English-language instruction, and vocational training in prisons and detention centers.” [18] It is unclear whether this affects those held under commuted death sentences.

Are there any known foreign nationals currently under sentence of death?

No individuals are currently under sentence of death in Mongolia. [19]

What are the nationalities of the known foreign nationals on death row?

No individuals are currently under sentence of death in Mongolia. [20]

Are there any known women currently under sentence of death?

Women cannot be executed in Mongolia. [21] Furthermore, no individuals are currently under sentence of death in Mongolia. [22]

Are there any reports of individuals currently under sentence of death who may have been under the age of 18 at the time the crime was committed?

Individuals under the age of 18 at the time of their crime are excluded from the death penalty, and no one is currently under sentence of death in Mongolia. [23]

Comments regarding the racial/ethnic composition on death row

No individuals are currently under sentence of death in Mongolia. As of March 21, 2012, we could not determine the racial/ethnic composition on death row prior to the President’s commutation of death sentences, [24] although Amnesty International Mongolia’s chairperson Ravdan Yanjmaa has stated that the death penalty is applied discriminatorily against “the poor, minorities, and members of racial, ethnic, and religious communities.” [25] It is unclear whether he was speaking of Mongolia or making a general but accurate statement about the use of the death penalty around the world.

Are there lawyers available for indigent defendants facing capital trials?

The government must appoint an attorney for indigent defendants, including those facing capital murder trials, but many detainees are unaware of this right and do not assert it. The U.S. State Department reports that many defendants do not have adequate legal representation and that there is a shortage of state-provided defense lawyers, especially outside of Ulaanbaatar. [26] Furthermore, many defense attorneys' law licenses remained suspended for providing services to the victims of police violence from the July 2008 riots. [27]

Are there lawyers available for indigent prisoners on appeal?

Any availability of attorneys on appeal for indigent prisoners may be affected by shortages of state-provided defense lawyers. [28] Furthermore, many defense attorneys' law licenses remained suspended for providing services to the victims of police violence from the July 2008 riots. [29]

Comments on Quality of Legal Representation

The President of Mongolia has expressed dissatisfaction with the current accuracy of the legal system, if not the quality of representation, in Mongolia. [30] To address the shortage of state-appointed attorneys, the government placed an attorney in each provincial capital, including the districts of Ulaanbaatar, to provide free legal advice. But some detainees avoid these state-funded attorneys because they feared they would not be fairly represented. In one instance, the government suspended licenses of defense attorneys who represented citizens who alleged police abuse after riots in 2008, perhaps fueling mistrust of legal aid services. Many of these licenses remain suspended. [31]

Other Comments on Criminal Justice System

Bribery, blackmail, and fraud are sources of corruption within the criminal justice system that may lead to dismissal of a case or reduction of a recommended sentence. The U.S. State Department reports that legal inconsistencies plague trial procedures, and judges rely on coerced confessions to convict defendants. [32]

References

[1] U.N. ESC, Commission on Human Rights, Civil and Political Rights, Including: The Questions of Torture and Detention, p. 15, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/2006/6/Add.4, Dec. 20, 2005.
[2] BBC News, Mongolia Leader Calls for End to the Death Penalty, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8458717.stm, Jan. 14, 2010. We do not know how accurate this report’s numbers are.
[3] Tsakhia Elbegdorj, The Path of Democratic Mongolia Must be Clean and Bloodless, The Office of the President of Mongolia, Public Relations, & Communications Division, http://www.president.mn/eng/newsCenter/viewNews.php?newsId=122, Jan. 14, 2010.
[4] Amnesty Intl., Asia-Pacific, Mongolia Should Realize Abolition of the Death Penalty in 2011, http://asiapacific.amnesty.org/apro/APROweb.nsf/pages/adpan_14012011, Jan. 14, 2011.RTTNews, Mongolia: Parliament Passes Bill to Abolish the Death Penalty, www.handsoffcain.info/news/index.php?iddocumento=16300188, Jan. 5, 2012.
[5] U.N. Secretary General, Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, New York, 15 December 1989, Mongolia: Accession, U.N. Reference: C.N.148.2012.TREATIES-IV.12 (Depositary Notification), Mar. 15, 2012.
[6] U.N. ESC, Commission on Human Rights, Civil and Political Rights, Including: The Questions of Torture and Detention, para. 30, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/2006/6/Add.4, Dec. 20, 2005.
[7] Tsakhia Elbegdorj, The Path of Democratic Mongolia Must be Clean and Bloodless, The Office of the President of Mongolia, Public Relations, & Communications Division, http://www.president.mn/eng/newsCenter/viewNews.php?newsId=122, Jan. 14, 2010.
[8] Tsakhia Elbegdorj, The Path of Democratic Mongolia Must be Clean and Bloodless, The Office of the President of Mongolia, Public Relations, & Communications Division, http://www.president.mn/eng/newsCenter/viewNews.php?newsId=122, Jan. 14, 2010.
[9] Amnesty Intl., Asia-Pacific, Mongolia Should Realize Abolition of the Death Penalty in 2011, http://asiapacific.amnesty.org/apro/APROweb.nsf/pages/adpan_14012011, Jan. 14, 2011.RTTNews, Mongolia: Parliament Passes Bill to Abolish the Death Penalty, www.handsoffcain.info/news/index.php?iddocumento=16300188, Jan. 5, 2012.
[10] U.N. Secretary General, Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, New York, 15 December 1989, Mongolia: Accession, U.N. Reference: C.N.148.2012.TREATIES-IV.12 (Depositary Notification), Mar. 15, 2012.
[11] Tsakhia Elbegdorj, The Path of Democratic Mongolia Must be Clean and Bloodless, The Office of the President of Mongolia, Public Relations, & Communications Division, http://www.president.mn/eng/newsCenter/viewNews.php?newsId=122, Jan. 14, 2010.
[12] U.N. ESC, Commission on Human Rights, Civil and Political Rights, Including: The Questions of Torture and Detention, p. 14-16, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/2006/6/Add.4, Dec. 20, 2005.
[13] Tsakhia Elbegdorj, The Path of Democratic Mongolia Must be Clean and Bloodless, The Office of the President of Mongolia, Public Relations, & Communications Division, http://www.president.mn/eng/newsCenter/viewNews.php?newsId=122, Jan. 14, 2010.
[14] I-Newswire, Special Rapporteur on Torture Ends Visit to Mongolia, http://www.i-newswire.com/special-rapporteur-on-torture-ends/a25277, Jun. 15, 2005.
[15] I-Newswire, Special Rapporteur on Torture Ends Visit to Mongolia, http://www.i-newswire.com/special-rapporteur-on-torture-ends/a25277, Jun. 15, 2005; U.N., Meetings Coverage, Special Rapporteur Paints Harrowing Picture of Prison Conditions, SOC/CP/351, http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2010/soccp351.doc.htm, Apr. 15, 2010.
[16] U.S. Dept. of State, 2010 Human Rights Report: Mongolia, http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/eap/154394.htm, Apr. 8, 2011.
[17] U.S. Dept. of State, 2010 Human Rights Report: Mongolia, http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/eap/154394.htm, Apr. 8, 2011. U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Mongolia, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/eap/136001.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[18] U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Mongolia, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/eap/136001.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[19] Tsakhia Elbegdorj, The Path of Democratic Mongolia Must be Clean and Bloodless, The Office of the President of Mongolia, Public Relations, & Communications Division, http://www.president.mn/eng/newsCenter/viewNews.php?newsId=122, Jan. 14, 2010
[20] Tsakhia Elbegdorj, The Path of Democratic Mongolia Must be Clean and Bloodless, The Office of the President of Mongolia, Public Relations, & Communications Division, http://www.president.mn/eng/newsCenter/viewNews.php?newsId=122, Jan. 14, 2010
[21] Criminal Code of Mongolia, art. 53.4, 2002, translation: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees; Tsakhia Elbegdorj, The Path of Democratic Mongolia Must be Clean and Bloodless, The Office of the President of Mongolia, Public Relations, & Communications Division, http://www.president.mn/eng/newsCenter/viewNews.php?newsId=122, Jan. 14, 2010.
[22] Tsakhia Elbegdorj, The Path of Democratic Mongolia Must be Clean and Bloodless, The Office of the President of Mongolia, Public Relations, & Communications Division, http://www.president.mn/eng/newsCenter/viewNews.php?newsId=122, Jan. 14, 2010
[23] U.N., Press Release, http://www.unhchr.ch/huricane/huricane.nsf/0/8E61783D9ED31093802568AC0037D5DB?opendocument, Mar. 22, 2000; Tsakhia Elbegdorj, The Path of Democratic Mongolia Must be Clean and Bloodless, The Office of the President of Mongolia, Public Relations, & Communications Division, http://www.president.mn/eng/newsCenter/viewNews.php?newsId=122, Jan. 14, 2010; U.N. CRC, Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding Observations: Mongolia, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/MNG/CO/3-4, Jan. 29, 2010; The Constitution of Mongolia, ch. 1, art. 10(3), Jan. 13, 1992, translation: International Constitutional Law, Feb. 12, 1992.
[24] Tsakhia Elbegdorj, The Path of Democratic Mongolia Must be Clean and Bloodless, The Office of the President of Mongolia, Public Relations, & Communications Division, http://www.president.mn/eng/newsCenter/viewNews.php?newsId=122, Jan. 14, 2010.
[25] U.N. Mongolia, Mongolia on the International Human Rights Stage, http://www.un-mongolia.mn/web/news300610.html, Jun. 30, 2010.
[26] U.S. Dept. of State, 2010 Human Rights Report: Mongolia, http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/eap/154394.htm, Apr. 8, 2011. U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Mongolia, Arbitrary Arrest or Detention, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/eap/136001.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[27] U.S. Dept. of State, 2010 Human Rights Report: Mongolia, http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/eap/154394.htm, Apr. 8, 2011.
[28] U.S. Dept. of State, 2010 Human Rights Report: Mongolia, http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/eap/154394.htm, Apr. 8, 2011. U.S. Dept. of State, 2009 Human Rights Report: Mongolia, Arbitrary Arrest or Detention, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/eap/136001.htm, Mar. 11, 2010.
[29] U.S. Dept. of State, 2010 Human Rights Report: Mongolia, http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/eap/154394.htm, Apr. 8, 2011.
[30] Tsakhia Elbegdorj, The Path of Democratic Mongolia Must be Clean and Bloodless, The Office of the President of Mongolia, Public Relations, & Communications Division, http://www.president.mn/eng/newsCenter/viewNews.php?newsId=122, Jan. 14, 2010.
[31] U.S. Dept. of State, 2010 Human Rights Report: Mongolia, http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/eap/154394.htm, Apr. 8, 2011.
[32] U.S. Dept. of State, 2010 Human Rights Report: Mongolia, http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/eap/154394.htm, Apr. 8, 2011.

Decisions of International Human Rights Bodies

Decisions of Human Rights Committee

In its 2011 Concluding Observations regarding Mongolia’s compliance with the ICCPR, the Human Rights Committee noted “with concern that the death penalty has yet to be abolished de jure,” but called the moratorium in place since January 2010 “welcome.” The Committee recommended that the death penalty be abolished as early as possible and that Mongolia consider acceding to the Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR on the abolition of the death penalty. [1] The Mongolian Parliament has since voted to accede to the Second Optional Protocol, and the Protocol is set to enter into force on June 13, 2012. [2]

Decisions of Other Human Rights Bodies

The Human Rights Council conducted its Universal Periodic Review of Mongolia in November 2010. The Report of the Working Group states that Mongolia supported recommendations that it ratify the Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR, amend its legislation accordingly to remove the death penalty, and abolish the death penalty. [3] Mongolia also supported the recommendation that it maintain its moratorium and enact criminal laws restricting capital punishment while it prepared for complete abolition. [4]

Mongolia chose to deliberate over the recommendations that it declassify death penalty information and statistics from its current status as a state secret, and that it provide information to the families of those who were executed in the past. [5] In April 2011, before the 16th Session of the Human Rights Council, Mongolia ultimately accepted these recommendations as well, stating that “the removal of classification of information on death penalty were planned to be implemented after the approval of the Bill and other measures on the Abolition of the Death Penalty.” [6]

References

[1] U.N. Human Rights Committee, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under Article 40 of the Covenant: Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee: Mongolia, Advanced Unedited Version, para. 6, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/MNG/CO/5, Mar. 25, 2011.
[2] U.N. Secretary General, Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, New York, 15 December 1989, Mongolia: Accession, U.N. Reference: C.N.148.2012.TREATIES-IV.12 (Depositary Notification), Mar. 15, 2012.
[3] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the UPR: Mongolia, paras. 84.9-84.13, 84.68, 84.69, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/16/5, Jan. 4, 2011.
[4] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the UPR: Mongolia, paras. 84.65, 84.67, 84.70, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/16/5, Jan. 4, 2011.
[5] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on the UPR: Mongolia, paras. 86.10, 86.11, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/16/5, Jan. 4, 2011.
[6] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Draft Report of the Human Rights Council on its sixteenth session, para. 420, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/16/L.4, Apr. 6, 2011.

Additional Sources and Contacts

Direct member(s) of World Coalition Against the Death Penalty

None.

Other non-governmental organizations and individuals engaged in advocacy surrounding the death penalty

None.

Helpful Reports and Publications

U.N., Press Release, http://www.unhchr.ch/huricane/huricane.nsf/0/8E61783D9ED31093802568AC0037D5DB?opendocument, Mar. 22, 2000.

Tsakhia Elbegdorj, The Path of Democratic Mongolia Must be Clean and Bloodless, The Office of the President of Mongolia, Public Relations, & Communications Division, http://www.president.mn/eng/newsCenter/viewNews.php?newsId=122, Jan. 14, 2010.

Additional notes regarding this country

None.

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